Brimonidine, an anti-glaucoma medicine, acts as an adrenergic agonist which decreases the synthesis of aqueous humour and increases the amount of drainage through Schlemm's canal and trabecular meshwork, but shows dose-dependent (0.2% solution thrice daily) toxicity. To reduce the side effects and improve the efficacy, brimonidine was nanoencapsulated on ultra-small-sized chitosan nanoparticles (nanobrimonidine) (28 ± 4 nm) with 39% encapsulation efficiency, monodispersity, freeze–thawing capability, storage stability, and 2% drug loading capacity. This nanocomplex showed burst, half, and complete release at 0.5, 45, and 100 h, respectively. Nanobrimonidine did not show any in vitro toxicity and was taken up by caveolae-mediated endocytosis. The nanobrimonidine-treated trabeculectomy tissue of glaucoma patients showed better dilation of the trabecular meshwork under the electron microscope. This is direct evidence for better bioavailability of nanobrimonidine after topical administration. Thus, the developed nanobrimonidine has the potential to improve the efficacy, reduce dosage and frequency, and improve delivery to the anterior chamber of the eye.