A taxonomic revision of the lichen genus Gymnoderma Nyl. sensu Yoshimura & Sharp (Cladoniaceae) based on an integrative analysis of polyphasic characters supports the segregation of a new genus Cetradonia J.-C.Wei & Ahti in a new family Cetradoniaceae J.-C.Wei & Ahti. The monotypic genus and family are based on Cladonia linearis Evans. In addition, two species are recognized in genus Neophyllis F. Wilson and two species are retained in the genus Gymnoderma Nyl. of the Cladoniaceae.