Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

From Middle Powers to Entrepreneurial Powers in World Politics: Brazil’s Successes and Failures in International Crises

  • Feliciano de Sá Guimarães (a1) and Maria Hermínia Tavares de Almeida (a2)

Abstract

This article uses the concept of entrepreneurial powers to discuss how and under what circumstances Brazil successfully accomplishes its goals in international crises. The concept of entrepreneurial power focuses on systematic evidence of middle-power behavior and its relation to foreign policy tools. Brazil resorts to three agency-based foreign policy tools that are the substance of its entrepreneurial power. These instruments are always mediated by a structural condition, the dominant power pivotal position in the crisis. This study applies qualitative comparative analysis methodology to 32 international crises since the early 1990s in which Brazil played a role. It finds that for regional crises, the use of only one agency-based tool is sufficient for success, regardless of the dominant power position; and for global crises, the use of only one agency-based tool is a necessary and sufficient condition for Brazil to accomplish its goals, despite the dominant power position on the issue.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      From Middle Powers to Entrepreneurial Powers in World Politics: Brazil’s Successes and Failures in International Crises
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      From Middle Powers to Entrepreneurial Powers in World Politics: Brazil’s Successes and Failures in International Crises
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      From Middle Powers to Entrepreneurial Powers in World Politics: Brazil’s Successes and Failures in International Crises
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Amorim Neto, Octavio. 2011. De Dutra a Lula: a condução e os determinantes da política externa brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier.
Amorim Neto, Octavio, and Malamud, Andrés. 2015. What Determines Foreign Policy in Latin America? Systemic versus Domestic Factors in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico, 1946–2008. Latin American Politics and Society 57, 4 (Winter): 127.
Baldwin, David. 2000. Success and Failure in Foreign Policy. Annual Review of Political Science 3: 16782.
Kaplan, Oliver. 2013. Power and International Relations. In Handbook of International Relations, 2nd ed., ed. Carlsnaes, Walter et al. Los Angeles: Sage. 27397.
Barnett, Michael, and Duvall, Raymond. 2005. Power in Global Governance. In Power in Global Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 132.
Barreto, Fernando de Mello. 2012a. A política externa após a redemocratização, tomo 1. Brasília: Fundação Alexandre de Gusmão.
Barreto, Fernando de Mello. 2012b. A política externa após a redemocratização, tomo 2. Brasília: Fundação Alexandre de Gusmão.
Behringer, Ronald. 2012. The Human Security Agenda: How Middle Power Leadership Defined U.S. Hegemony. London: Continuum.
Black, David. 1997. Addressing Apartheid: Lessons from Australian, Canadian, and Swedish Policies in Southern Africa. In Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers After the Cold War, ed. Cooper, Andrew. London: Macmillan. 100128.
Blatter, Joachim, Matthias Kreutzer, Michaela Rentl, and Thiele, Jan. 2009. Preconditions for Foreign Activities of European Regions: Tracing Causal Configurations of Economic, Cultural, and Political Strategies. Publius: The Journal of Federalism 40, 1: 17199.
Brecher, Michael, and Wilkenfeld, Jonathan. 2000. A Study of Crisis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Burges, Sean. 2008. Consensual Hegemony: Theorizing Brazilian Foreign Policy After the Cold War. International Relations 22, 1: 6584.
Burges, Sean. 2013. Mistaking Brazil for a Middle Power. Journal of Iberian and Latin American Research 19, 2: 286302.
Burges, Sean. 2015. Revisiting Consensual Hegemony: Brazilian Regional Leadership in Question. International Politics 52, 2: 193207.
Carr, Andrew. 2014. Is Australia a Middle Power? A Systematic Impact Approach. Australian Journal of International Affairs 68, 1: 7084.
Chapnik, Adam. 1999. The Middle Power. Canadian Foreign Policy 7: 7382.
Chayes, Abram, and Handler Chayes, Antonia. 1994. Regime Architecture: Elements and Principles. In Global Engagement: Cooperation and Security in the 21st Century, ed. Nolan, Janne E.. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. 65130.
Cooper, Andrew. 1997. Niche Diplomacy: A Conceptual Overview. In Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers After the Cold War, ed. Cooper, . London: Macmillan. 124.
Cooper, Andrew, and Flemes, Daniel. 2013. Foreign Policy Strategies of Emerging Powers in a Multipolar World: An Introductory Review. Third World Quarterly 34, 6: 94362.
Cooper, Andrew, and Flemes, Daniel. 2015. Beyond the Middle Power Model: Canada in Reshaping a Global Order. South African Journal of International Affairs 22, 1: 117.
Cooper, Andrew F., Higgott, Richard A. and Nossal, Kim. 1993. Relocating Middle Powers: Australia and Canada in a Changing World Order. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
Cotton, James, and Ravenhill, John. 2011. Middle Power Dreaming: Australian Foreign Policy During the Rudd-Gillard Governments. In Middle Power Dreaming: Australia in World Affairs, ed. Cotton, and Ravenhill, . Melbourne: Oxford University Press. 112.
Cox, Robert W. (1989) 1996. Middlepowermanship, Japan, and Future World Order. In Approaches to World Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 24175.
Elster, Jon. 1983 (2016). Sour Grapes: Studies in the Subversion of Rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Flemes, Daniel. 2007. Emerging Middle Powers' Soft Balancing Strategy: State and Perspectives of the IBSA-Dialogue Forum. GIGA Working Paper 57. Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies.
Gallarotti, Giulio. 2015. Smart Power: Definition, Importance and Effectiveness. Journal of Strategic Studies 38, 3: 24581.
Gardini, Gian Luca. 2016. Brazil: What Rise of What Power? Bulletin of Latin American Research 35, 1: 519.
Garud, Raghu, Hardy, Cynthia and Maguire, Steve. 2004. Institutional Entrepreneurship as Embedded Agency: An Introduction to the Special Issue. Organization Studies 28, 7: 95769.
Guisinger, Alexandra, and Smith, Alastair. 2002. Honest Threat: The Interaction of Reputation and Political Institutions in International Crises. Journal of Conflict Resolution 46, 2: 175200.
Hage, Frank. 2007. Constructivism, Fuzzy Sets and (Very) Small-N: Revisiting the Conditions for Communicative Action. Journal of Business Research 60: 51221.
Higgott, Richard, and Cooper, Andrew. 1990. Middle Power Leadership and Coalition Building: Australia, the Cairns Group, and the Uruguay Round of Trade Negotiations. International Organization 44, 4: 598632.
Holbraad, Carsten. 1984. Middle Powers in International Politics. London: Macmillan.
Hudson, Valerie M. 2005. Foreign Policy Analysis: Actor-Specific Theory and the Ground of IR. Foreign Policy Analysis 1, 1: 130.
Hurrell, Andrew, and Narlikar, Amrita. 2006. A New Politics of Confrontation? Global Society 20, 4: 41533.
Hurrell, Andrew, Andrew Cooper, Guadalupe González, Sennes, Ricardo and Sitaraman, Srini. 2000. Paths to Power: Foreign Policy Strategies of Intermediate States. Working Paper 244. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center Latin American Program.
Jordaan, Eduard. 2003. The Concept of a Middle Power in International Relations: Distinguishing Between Traditional and Emerging Middle Powers. Politikon 30, 2: 16581.
Keohane, Robert. 1969. Lilliputians' Dilemmas: Small States in International Politics. International Organization 23, 2: 291310.
Koening-Archibugi, Mathias. 2004. Explaining Government Preferences for Institutional Change in EU Foreign and Security Policy. International Organization 58, 1: 13774.
Lasswell, Harold Dwight, and Kaplan, Abraham. 1950. Power and Society: A Framework for Political Inquiry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lima, Maria Regina, and Hirst, MÔnica. 2006. Brazil as an Intermediate State and a Regional Power: Action Choices and Responsibilities. International Affairs 82, 1: 2140.
Lustig, Carola. 2016. Soft or Hard Power? Discourse Patterns in Brazil's Foreign Policy Toward South America. Latin American Politics and Society 58, 4 (Winter): 10325.
Macdonald, Laura, and Paltiel, Jeremy. 2016. Middle Power or Muddling Power? Canada's Relations with Emerging Markets. Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 22, 1: 111.
Malamud, Andrés. 2011. A Leader Without Followers? The Growing Divergence Between Regional and Global Performance of Brazilian Foreign Policy. Latin American Politics and Society 53, 3: 124.
Mares, David. 1988. Middle Powers Under Regional Hegemony: To Challenge or Acquiesce in Hegemonic Enforcement. International Studies Quarterly 32, 4: 45371.
Nagel, Jack. 1975. The Descriptive Analysis of Power. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Narlikar, Amrita. 2003. International Trade and Developing Countries: Bargaining Coalitions in the GATT and WTO. London: Routledge.
Nolte, Detlef. 2006. Potencias regionales en la política internacional: conceptos y enfoques de análisis. GIGA Working Paper 30. Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies.
Nolte, Detlef. 2010. How to Compare Regional Powers: Analytical Concepts and Research Topics. Review of International Studies 36, 4: 881901.
Nye, Joseph Jr. 1990. Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. New York: Basic Books.
Patience, Allan. 2014. Imagining Middle Powers. Australian Journal of International Affairs 68, 2: 21024.
Ping, Jonathan. 2005. Middle Power Statecraft: Indonesia, Malaysia and the Asia-Pacific. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Pratt, Cranford. 1990. Middle Power Internationalism and Global Poverty. In Middle Power Internationalism: The North-South Dimension, ed. Pratt, . Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press. 324.
Ragin, Charles. 2006. Set Relations in Social Research: Evaluating Their Consistency and Coverage. Political Analysis 14, 3: 291310.
Ragin, Charles. 2008. Redesigning Social Inquiry: Fuzzy Sets and Beyond. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ravenhill, John. 1998. Cycles of Middle Powers Activism: Constraint and Choice in Australian and Canadian Foreign Policy. Australian Journal of International Affairs 54, 3: 30927.
Ragin, Charles. 2014. Entrepreneurial Powers: A Draft Framework. Mimeograph.
Rihoux, Benoît, Rezsohazy, Ilona and Bol, Damien. 2011. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) in Public Policy Analysis: An Extensive Review. German Policy Studies 7, 3: 992.
Rubenzer, Trevor. 2008. Ethnic Minority Interest Group Attributes and U.S. Foreign Policy Influence: A QCA Analysis. Foreign Policy Analysis 4: 16985.
Schelling, Thomas. 1966 (2008). Arms and Influence. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Schneider, Carstein, and Wagemann, Claudius. 2012. Set-Theoretic Methods for the Social Sciences: A Guide to Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sennes, Ricardo. 2003. As mudanças na política externa brasileira nos anos 80: uma potěncia media recém-industrializada. Porto Alegre: Editora UFRGS.
Spektor, Matias. 2006. The Middle Powers: Intermediate-State Strategies in World Politics. Unpublished mss.
Stokke, Olav. 2007. Qualitative Comparative Analysis, Shaming, and International Regime Effectiveness. Journal of Business Research 60: 50111.
Stuenkel, Oliver. 2014. India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA): The Rise of the Global South? New York: Routledge.
Stuenkel, Oliver, and Taylor, Matthew M.. 2015. Brazil on the Global Stage: Power, Ideas, and the Liberal International Order. London: Palgrave Macmillian.
Thies, Cameron, and Breuning, Marijke. 2012. Integrating Foreign Policy Analysis and IR Through Role Theory. Foreign Policy Analysis 8: 14.
Ungerer, Carl. 2007. The “Middle Power” Concept in Australian Foreign Policy. Australian Journal of Politics and History 53, 4: 53851.
Van der Westhuizen, Janis. 1998. South Africa's Emergence as a Middle Power. Third World Quarterly 19, 3: 43556.
Van der Westhuizen, Janis. 2013. Class Compromise as Middle Powers Activism? Comparing Brazil and South Africa. Government and Opposition 48, 1: 80100.
Wood, Bernard. 1990. Towards North-South Middle Power Coalitions. In Middle Power Internationalism: The North-South Dimension, ed. Pratt, Cranford. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press. 69107.
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

de Sá Guimarães and de Almeida supplementary material
Appendix 1

 Word (124 KB)
124 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

de Sá Guimarães and de Almeida supplementary material
Appendix 2

 Word (59 KB)
59 KB

From Middle Powers to Entrepreneurial Powers in World Politics: Brazil’s Successes and Failures in International Crises

  • Feliciano de Sá Guimarães (a1) and Maria Hermínia Tavares de Almeida (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed