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Domestic Life and Vertical Integration in the Tiwanaku Heartland

  • Marc Bermann (a1)

Abstract

Recent research on the Tiwanaku state has documented the evolution of regional settlement patterns and agricultural systems, but little is known of changes at the subregional level outside the capital. Analysis of a sequence of domestic occupations excavated at Lukurmata, Bolivia, provides information on how individual households within the Tiwanaku core area were consolidated into the Tiwanaku polity. Changes in residential patterns and artifact assemblages suggest that Lukurmata households were initially connected to the Tiwanaku polity through exchange and religious ties. A new level of assimilation developed in the eighth and ninth centuries A.D. These changes, including agricultural intensification, illustrate the increasing integration of individual households into the Tiwanaku political economy and social order as the landscape developed. The nature and timing of these changes are consistent with current hypotheses of a transformation in Tiwanaku political and economic organization near the end of the Tiwanaku IV period (A.D. 400-800).

Recientes investigaciones referidas al estado Tiwanaku han documentado la evolución tanto de los patrones de asentamiento a nivel regional como de los sistemas agrícolas, aunque poco se sabe de los cambios a nivel local y sub-regional fuera de la capital. El análisis de una secuencia de ocupaciones domésticas excavadas en Lukurmata, Bolivia, provee información de cómo las unidades domésticas dentro del área nuclear de Tiwanaku fueron consolidadas dentro de la entidad política Tiwanaku. Cambios en los patrones residenciales y conjuntos de artefactos sugieren que los vínculos iniciales de las unidades domésticas con Tiwanaku fueron de carácter limitado e indirecto. Esto se manifiesta principalmente en la adopción del estilo Tiwanaku en vasijas de servicio y usadas en rituales domésticos. Un nuevo nivel de asimilación se desarrolla en los siglos octavo y noveno d.C. Estos cambios, incluyendo la intensificación de la producción agrícola, ilustran la creciente integración de las unidades domésticas individuales a la economía política y orden social de Tiwanaku, mientras la región se desarrollaba como un área especializada de sostentación urbana. El tiempo y naturaleza de estos cambios son congruentes con las actuales hipótesis de transformación de la organización política y económica del estado Tiwanaku acaecidas a fines del período Tiwanaku IV (500-900 d.C.).

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