Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Ancient Maya Drought Cult: Late Classic Cave Use in Belize

  • Holley Moyes (a1), Jaime J. Awe (a2), George A. Brook (a3) and James W. Webster (a4)

Abstract

Caves were used as ritual venues by the ancient Maya from the Early Preclassic to the Postclassic period. These sites have been intensively investigated, but little research has been devoted to changes in cave use over time. Work at Chechem Ha Cave in western Belize investigates transformations in ritual practice occurring between the Early and Late Classic periods using an explanatory framework that incorporates high-definition archaeological research with a paleoclimate reconstruction derived from speleothems. This is one of the first projects to directly link these data to the archaeological record. We also introduce new methodology to evaluate changes in ritual practice using use-intensity proxies and artifact patterning. These data demonstrate that Late Classic transformations were coeval with climatic drying. The phenomenon was identified in this case study, and the pattern is prevalent throughout the eastern lowlands suggesting that an ancient Maya drought cult was initiated at this time. We provide the first evidence that there was a failed ritual response to environmental stress, implying that a loss of faith in Maya rulership contributed to the downfall of political systems. This is an important finding for collapse theories that include ideological causations.

Las cuevas fueron utilizadas por los antiguos mayas como lugares rituales desde el Preclásico Temprano Medio hasta Postclásico. Si bien han sido intensamente investigadas, poco se ha hecho para entender los cambios temporales en el uso de las cuevas. Las investigaciones en Chechem Ha, una cueva ubicada Belice occidental, aportan al conocimiento sobre las transformaciones en la práctica ritual entre los períodos Clásicos Temprano y Final a través de la investigación arqueológica de alta definición conjuntamente con la reconstrucción paleoclimàtica derivada de estalagmitas; siendo este uno de los primeros proyectos que realiza este intento. También introducimos una nueva metodología para evaluar los cambios en la práctica ritual empleando proxies de uso intensivo y patrones en los artefactos. Estos datos demuestran que las transformaciones del Clásico Final covarían con el proceso de desertización climático. Esto fue identificado en este caso y el patrón es frecuente a través de las tierras bajas orientales sugiriendo que el antiguo culto maya de la sequía comenzó durante esos momentos. Proporcionamos la primera evidencia de una respuesta ritual fallida al estrés ambiental, dando lugar a una pérdida de fe en las reglas y liderazgos mayas contribuyendo así a la caída de los sistemas políticos. Este es un dato importante dentro de las teorías del colapso maya ya que tienen en cuenta las causalidades ideológicas de la población.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Aimers, J. James 2004 Cultural Change on a Temporal and Spatial Frontier: Ceramics of the Terminal Classic to Postclassic Transition in the Upper Belize River Valley. Archaeopress, Oxford.
Aimers, J. James 2007 What Maya Collapse? Terminal Classic Variation in the Maya Lowlands. Journal of Archaeological Research 15:329377.
Aldenderfer, Mark S., and Craig, Nathan 2002 A GIS-Based In-Field Data Recording System for Archaeological Excavation. Paper presented at the 13th Annual Workshops in Archaeometry, University at Buffalo.
Andrews, E. Wyllys IV 1965 Explorations in the Grata de Chac Yucatan, Mexico. Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans.
Andrews, E. Wyllys IV 1970 Balankanche, Throne of the Tiger Priest. Middle American Research Institute, Publication 32. Tulane University, New Orleans.
Ashmore, Wendy, Connell, Sam V., Ehret, Jennifer J., Gifford, Clarence H., Theodore Neff, L., and Vandenbosch, Jon C. 1994 The Xunantunich Settlement Survey. In Xunantunich Archaeological Project: 1994 Field Season. On file at the Belize Institute of Archaeology, Belmopan.
Awe, Jaime J. 1985 Archaeology Investigations at Caledonia, Cayo District, Belize. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Department of Anthropology, Trent University.
Awe, Jaime J. 1992 Dawn in the Land Between the Rivers: Formative Occupation at Cahal Pech, Belize and Its Implications for Preclassic Development in the Maya Lowlands. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Archaeology, University of London.
Awe, Jaime J., Gibbs, Sherry, and Griffith, Cameron 2005 Stelae and Megalithic Monuments in the Caves of Western Belize. In In the Maw of the Earth Monster: Mesoamerican Ritual Cave Use, edited by James E. Brady and Keith M. Prufer, pp. 223248. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Balme, Jane, and Beck, Wendy E. 2002 Starch and Charcoal: Useful Measures of Activity Areas in Archaeological Rockshelters. Journal of Archaeological Science 29:157166.
Bell, Catherine 1997 Ritual: Perspectives and Dimensions. Oxford University Press, New York.
Binford, Lewis R. 1968 Methodological Considerations of the Archaeological Use of Ethnographic Data. In Man the Hunter, edited by R. Lee and I. Devore, pp. 268273. Aldine, Chicago.
Brady, James E. 1989 Investigation of Maya Ritual Cave Use with Special Reference to Naj Tunich, Peten, Guatemala. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles.
Brady, James E., and Ashmore, Wendy 1999 Mountains, Caves, Water: Ideational Landscapes of the Ancient Maya. In Archaeologies of Landscapes: Contemporary Perspectives, edited by Wendy Ashmore and A. Bernard Knapp, pp. 124145. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.
Brady, James E., and Colas, Pierre R. 2005 Nikte Mo’ Scattered Fire in the Cave of K’ab Chante: Epigraphic and Archaeological Evidence for Cave Desecration in Ancient Maya Warfare. In Stone Houses and Earth Lords: Maya Religion in the Cave Context, edited by Keith M. Prufer and James E. Brady, pp. 149166. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Brady, James E., and Prufer, Keith 2005 Maya Cave Archaeology: A New Look at Religion and Cosmology. In Stone Houses and Earth Lords: Maya Religion in the Cave Context, edited by Keith M. Prufer and James E. Brady, pp. 365380. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Brenner, Mark, Rosenmeier, Michael F, Hodell, David A., and Curtis, Jason H. 2002 Paieolimnology of the Maya Lowlands: Long-Term Perspectives on Interactions Among Climate, Environment, and Humans. Ancient Mesoamerica 13:141157.
Brook, George A. 1999 Arid Zone Paleoenvironmental Records from Cave Speleothems. In Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction in Arid Lands, edited by A. K. Singhvi and E. Derbyshire, pp. 217262. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
Coe, Michael 1978 Lords of the Underworld. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Colas, Pierre Robert 1998 Ritual and Politics in the Underworld. Mexican 20(5):99104.
Craig, Nathan 2000 Real-Time GIS Construction and Digital Data Recording of the Jiskairumoko Excavation, Peru. Society for American Archaeology Bulletin 18(1):2428.
Craig, Nathan, Aldenderfer, Mark, and Moyes, Holley 2006 Multivariate Visualization and Analysis of Pho-tomapped Artifact Scatters. Journal of Archaeological Science 20:110.
Curtis, Jason H., Brenner, Mark, Hodell, David A., Balser, Richard A., Islebe, Gerald A., and Hooghiemstra, Henry 1998 A Multi-Proxy Study of Holocene Environmental Change in the Maya Lowlands of Peten, Guatemala. Journal of Paieolimnology 19:139159.
Curtis, Jason H., Hodell, David A., and Brenner, Mark. 1996 Climate Variability on the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) During the Past 3500 Years, and Implications for Maya Cultural Evolution. Quaternary Research 46:3747.
Demarest, Arthur A., Rice, Prudence M., and Rice, Don S. 2004 The Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Assessing Collapse, Transition, and Transformation. In The Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Collapse, Transition, and Transformation, edited by Arthur A. Demarest, Prudence M. Rice, and Don S. Rice, pp. 545572. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Dunning, Nicholas P., Rue, David, Beach, Timothy, Covich, Alan, and Traverse, Alfred 1997 Human-Environmental Interactions in a Tropical Watershed: The Paleoecology of Laguna Tamarindito, El Petén, Guatemala. Journal of Field Archaeology 25:139151.
Durán, Fray Diego 1971 [1588] Book of the Gods and Rites and the Ancient Calendar. Translated by Doris Heyden and Miguel Leon-Portilla. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Ford, Derek C, and Williams, P. W. 1989 Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology. Unwin Hyman, Boston.
Freidel, David 1981 Civilization as a State of Mind: The Cultural Evolution of the Lowland Maya. In The Transition to Statehood in the New World, edited by Grant D. Jones and Robert R. Kautz, pp. 188227. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Freidel, David, and Shaw, Justine 2000 The Lowland Maya Civilization: Historical Consciousness and Environment. In The Way the Wind Blows: Climate, History, and Human Action, edited by Roderick J. Mcintosh, Joseph A. Tainter, and Susan Keech McIntosh, pp. 271300. Columbia University Press, New York.
Gann, Thomas 1925 Mystery Cities: Exploration and Adventure in Lubaantun. Duckworth, London.
Garber, James F, Kathryn Brown, M., Awe, Jaime J., and Hartman, Christopher J. 2004 Middle Formative Prehistory of the Central Belize Valley: An Examination of Architecture, Material Culture, and Sociopolitical Change at Blackman Eddy. In The Ancient Maya of the Belize Valley: Half a Century of Archaeological Research, edited by James F Garber, pp. 2548. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Gilford, James C. 1976 Prehistoric Pottery Analysis and the Ceramics of Barton Ramie in the Belize Valley. Compiled by Carol A. Gifford. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 18. Harvard University, Cambridge.
Gill, Richardson B. 2000 The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Girard, Raphael 1995 People of the Chan. Translated by Bennett Preble. Continuum Foundation, Chino Valley, Arizona. Originally published 1966.
Gossen, Gary H. 1999 Telling Maya Tales: Tzotzil Identities in Modern Mexico. Routledge, New York.
Graham, Elizabeth, McNatt, Logan, and Gutchen, Mark A. 1980 Excavations in Footprint Cave, Belize. Journal of Field Archaeology 7:153172.
Graham, Ian 1997 Discovery of a Maya Ritual Cave in Peten, Guatemala. Symbols, Spring: 2831.
Grove, David C, and Gillespie, Susan 1984 Chalcatzingo’s Portrait Figurines and the Cult of the Ruler. Archaeology 37(4):2733.
Haug, Gerald H., Gunther, Detlef, and Peterson, Larry C. 2003 Climate and the Collapse of the Maya Civilization. Science 299:17311735.
Haviland, William A., Prins, Harald E. L., Walrath, Dana, and McBride, Bunny 2005 Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge. 11th ed. Wadsworth, USA.
Helmke, Christophe G. B. 1999 Exploration and Investigations of the Sinkhole Tunnels, Actun Tunichil Muknal, Belize. In The Western Belize Regional Cave Project: A Report of the 1998 Field Season, edited by Jaime J. Awe, pp. 146165, Department of Anthropology Occasional Paper No. 2. University of New Hampshire, Durham.
Helmke, Christophe G. B. 2005 The Terminal Classic: Molded-Carved Ceramic Tradition of the Eastern Maya Lowlands. Paper presented at the 70th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Salt Lake City.
Helmke, Christophe G. B., Griffith, Cameron S., and Mirro, Michael J. 1999 The 1996 and 1998 Investigations at Laberinto de las Tarantuals, Cayo District, Belize. In The Western Belize Regional Cave Project: A Report of the 1998 Field Season, edited by Jaime J. Awe, pp. 205221. Department of Anthropology, Occasional Paper No. 2. University of New Hampshire, Durham.
Hendy, Chris H. 1971 The Isotopic Geochemistry of Speleothems I. The Calculation of Different Modes of Formation on the Isotope Composition of Speleothems and Their Applicability as Palaeoclimate Indicators. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 35:801824.
Hill, Carol A., and Ford, Paolo 1997 Cave Minerals of the World. 2nd ed. National Speleological Society, Huntsville, Alabama. Originally published 1986.
Hodell, David A., Curtis, Jason H., and Brenner, Mark 1995 Possible Role of Climate in the Collapse of the Classic Maya Civilization. Nature 375:391394.
Hodell, David A., Curtis, Jason H., Brenner, Mark, and Guilderson, Thomas P. 2001 Solar Forcing of Drought Frequency in the Maya Lowlands. Science 292:13671370.
Hosier, D., Sabloff, Jeremy, and Runge, D. 1977 Simulation Model Development: A Case Study of the Classic Maya Collapse. In Social Processes in Maya Prehistory, edited by Norman Hammond, pp. 553590. Academic Press, London.
Iannone, Gyles 2001 Fall of the House of Minanhá: A Case of Late Classic Political Disruption in West Central Belize. In Archaeological Investigations in the North Vaca Plateau, Belize: Progress Report of the Third (2001) Field Season, edited by Gyles Iannone, Ryan Primrose, Adam Menzies, and Lisa McParland, pp. 127133. Department of Anthropology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario.
Iannone, Gyles 2005 The Rise and Fall of the House of an Ancient Maya Petty Royal Court. Latin American Antiquity 16(1):2644.
Ishihara, Reiko, Taube, Karl A., and Awe, Jaime J. 2006 The Water Lily Serpent Stucco Masks at Caracol, Belize. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 3:213224.
Krickeberg, W. 1975 Las antiguas culturas mexicanas. Fondo de Cultura Económica, Mexico City.
Lopiparo, Jane 2001 “Fractious Statelets” and “Galactic Polities”: Ideology, Ritual Practices and the Rise and Fall of Classic Maya States. In Past Ritual and the Everyday, edited by Christine A. Hastorf, pp. 4966. Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers, No. 85. University of California, Department of Anthropology, Berkeley.
Lowe, John W G. 1985 The Dynamics of Apocalypse: A Systems Simulation of the Classic Maya Collapse. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Lucero, Lisa J. 2002 The Collapse of the Classic Maya: A Case for the Role of Water Control. American Anthropologist 104(3):814826.
Lucero, Lisa J. 2006 Water and Ritual: The Rise and Fall of Classic Maya Rulers. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Luján, Leonardo López 1998 Re-Creating the Cosmos: Seventeen Aztec Dedication Caches. In The Sowing and the Dawning: Termination, Dedication, and Transformation in the Archaeological Record of Mesoamerica, edited by Shirley B. Mock, pp. 177188. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Malinowski, Bronislaw K. 1954 Magic, Science, and Religion. Doubleday, Garden City, N.Y.
Marcus, Joyce A. 2006 The Roles of Ritual and Technology in Mesoamerican Water Management. In Water Management and Agricultural Strategies, edited by Joyce A. Marcus and Charles Stanish, pp. 221254. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles.
Marcus, Joyce A., and Flannery, Kent V. 1994 Ancient Zapotec Ritual and Religion: An Application of the Direct Historical Approach. In The Ancient Mind, edited by A. Colin Renfrew and Ezra B. W. Zubrow, pp. 5574. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
McAnany, Patricia A., Berry, Kimberly A., and Thomas, Ben S. 2003 Wetlands, Rivers, and Caves: Agricultural and Ritual Practice in Two Lowland Maya Landscapes. In Perspectives on Ancient Maya Rural Complexity, edited by Gyles Iannone and Samuel V. Connell, pp. 7182. Monograph 49. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles.
Miller, Mary Ellen 1993 On the Eve of the Collapse: Maya Art of the Eighth Century. In Lowland Maya Civilization in the 8th Century A.D., edited by Jeremy A. Sabloff and John S. Henderson, pp. 355414. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Miller, Thomas 1989 Tumchil Muknal. Caves and Caving 46:27.
Miller, Thomas 1990 National Speleological Society News 48(2):3235.
Mirro, Michael, and Mirro, Vanessa 2001 A Report of the 2000 Field Season at the Barton Creek Cave, Cayo District, Belize. In The Western Belize Regional Cave Project: A Report of the 2000 Field Season, edited by Reiko Ishihara, Cameron Griffith, and Jaime J. Awe, pp. 97126. Department of Anthropology, Occasional Paper No. 4. University of New Hampshire, Durham.
Morehart, Christopher T. 2002 Ancient Maya Ritual Cave Utilization: A Paleoethnobotanical Perspective. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Department of Anthropology, Florida State University.
Morehart, Christopher T. 2005 Plants and Caves in Ancient Maya Society. In Stone Houses and Earth Lords: Maya Religion in the Cave Context, edited by Keith M. Prufer and James E. Brady, pp. 167186. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Morehart, Christopher T., Awe, Jaime J., Mirro, Michael, Owen, Vanessa, and Helmke, Christophe G. B. 2004 Ancient Textile Remains from Barton Creek Cave, Cayo District, Belize. Mexicon 26(3):5056.
Morehart, Christopher T., Lentz, David L., and Prufer, Keith M. 2005 Wood of the Gods: The Ritual Use of Pine (Pinus spp.) by the Ancient Lowland Maya. Latin American Antiquity 16:255274.
Moyes, Holley 2001 The Cave as a Cosmogram: The Use of GIS in an Intrasite Spatial Analysis of the Main Chamber of Actun Tunichil Muknal, a Maya Ceremonial Cave in Western Belize. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton.
Moyes, Holley 2002 The Use of GIS in the Spatial Analysis of an Archaeological Cave Site. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 64(1):916.
Moyes, Holley 2004 Changes and Continuities in Ritual Practice at Chechem Ha Cave, Belize: Report on Excavations Conducted in the 2003 Field Season. Report submitted to the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc., http://www.famsi.org/reports.
Moyes, Holley 2005a Cluster Concentrations, Boundary Markers, and Ritual Pathways: A GIS Analysis of Artifact Cluster Patterns at Actun Tunichil Muknal, Belize. In In the Maw of the Earth Monster: Studies of Mesoamerican Ritual Cave Use, edited by James Brady and Keith Prufer, pp. 269300. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Moyes, Holley 2005b The Sweatbath in the Cave: A Modified Passage in Chechem Ha Cave, Belize. In Stone Houses and Earth Lords: Maya Religion in the Cave Context, edited by Keith M. Prufer and James E. Brady, pp. 187212. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Moyes, Holley 2006a The Sacred Landscape as a Political Resource: A Case Study of Ancient Maya Cave Use at Chechem Ha Cave, Belize, Central America. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, State University of New York at Buffalo.
Moyes, Holley 2006b The Archaeology of Chechem Ha Cave, Belize: A Late Classic Hiatus in Usage. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 3:225234.
Moyes, Holley 2007 The Late Classic Drought Cult: Ritual Activity as a Response to Environmental Stress Among the Ancient Maya. In Cult in Context: Reconsidering Ritual in Archaeology, edited by David Barrowclough and Caroline Malone, pp. 217228. Oxbow Books, Oxford.
Moyes, Holley 2008 Charcoal as a Proxy for Use-Intensity in Ancient Maya Cave Ritual. In Religion in the Material World, edited by Lars Fogelin, pp. 139158. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Carbondale, Illinois.
Moyes, Holley, and Awe, Jaime J. 1998 Spatial Analysis of Artifacts in the Main Chamber of Actun Tunichil Muknal, Belize: Preliminary Results. In The Western Belize Regional Cave Project: A Report of the 1997 Field Season, edited by Jaime J. Awe, pp. 2336. Department of Anthropology, Occasional Paper No. 1. University of New Hampshire, Durham.
Moyes, Holley, and Awe, Jaime J. 2000 Spatial Analysis of an Ancient Cave Site. ArcUser 3(4):6468.
Moyes, Holley, Awe, Jaime J., and Schwarcz, Henry 2006 Tracing the Origin of Speleothems at Ancient Maya Archaeological Sites in Belize, Central America. Report on file with the Institute of Archaeology, National Institute of Culture and History, Belmopan.
Moyes, Holley, and Brady, James E. 2005 The Heart of Heaven, the Heart of Darknes's: Ritual Cave Use in Mesoamerica. Expedition 47(3):3036.
Nash, June 1970 In the Eyes of the Ancestors: Belief and Behavior in a Maya Community. Yale University Press, New Haven.
Ortner, Sherry B. 1989 High Religion: A Cultural and Political History of Sherpa Buddhism. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Owen, Vanessa A., and Gibbs, Sherry 1999 Report of Investigations on Ledge 2 at Actun Yaxteel Ahau, Roaring Creek Valley, Belize. In The Western Belize Regional Cave Project: A Report of the 1998 Field Season, edited by Jaime J. Awe, pp. 186204. Department of Anthropology, Occasional Paper No. 2. University of New Hampshire, Durham.
Palacio, Joseph 1977 Excavations at Hokeb Ha, Belize. Belize Institute for Social Research and Action Occasional Publication 3. Belize City.
Pendergast, David M. 1969 The Prehistory of Actun Balam, British Honduras. Art and Archaeology Occasional Papers 16. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Pendergast, David M. 1970 A. H. Anderson’s Excavations at Rio Frio Cave E, British Honduras. Art and Archaeology Occasional Papers 20. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Pendergast, David M. 1971 Excavations at Eduardo Quiroz Cave, British Honduras (Belize). Royal Ontario Museum Art and Archaeology Occasional Paper 21. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Pendergast, David M. 1974 Excavations at Actun Polbiche, Belize. Archaeology Monograph 1. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Peterson, Larry, and Haug, Gerald H. 2005 Climate and the Collapse of Maya Civilization. American Scientist 93:322329.
Phillips, Henry 1844 Notes Upon the Codex Ramirez, with a Translation of the Same. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Sociery 21(116):616651.
Prufer, Keith M. 2002 Communities, Caves, and Ritual Specialists: A Study of Sacred Space in the MayaMountains of Southern Belize. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.
Puleston, Dennis E. 1979 An Epistemological Pathology and the Collapse, or Why the Maya Kept the Short Count. In Maya Archaeology and Ethnohistory, edited by Norman Hammond and Gordon R. Willey, pp. 6374. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Rands, Robert L. 1955 Some Manifestations of Water in Mesoamerican Art. Anthropological Papers No. 48. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 157. Washington, D.C.
Rappaport, Roy A. 1979 Ecology, Meaning, and Religion. North Atlantic Books, Richmond, California.
Reents-Budet, Dorie Jane, and MacLeod, Barbara 1997 The Archaeology of Petroglyph Cave, Cayo District, Belize. MS on file at the Belize Institute of Archaeology, Belmopan.
Reid, Jefferson J., Schiffer, Michael B., and Rathje, William J. 1975 Behavioral Archaeology: Four Strategies. American Anthropologist 77:864869.
Kent, Reilly. F. III 1994 Visions to Another World: Art, Shamanism, and Political Power in Middle Formative Mesoamerica. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Art History, University of Texas, Austin.
Reina, Ruben E., and Hill, Robert M. 1978 The Traditional Pottery of Guatemala. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Renfrew, A. Colin 1978 Trajectory Discontinuity and Morphogenesis: The Implications of Catastrophe Theory of Archaeology. American Antiquity 43:203244.
Reents-Budet, Dorie Jane 1980 The Prehistoric Pottery from Petroglyph Cave, Caves Branch Valley, El Cayo District, Belize, Central America. Master’s Thesis, University of Texas.
Rice, Prudence M. 2004 Maya Political Science: Time, Astronomy, and the Cosmos. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Rissolo, Dominique A. 2001 Ancient Maya Cave Use in the Yalahau Region, North ern Quintana Roo, Mexico. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Riverside.
Rissolo, Dominique A. 2005 Beneath the Yalahau: Emerging Patterns of Ancient May Ritual Cave Use from Northern Quintana Roo, Mexico. In In the Maw of the Earth Monster: Mesoamerican Ritual Cave Use, edited by James E. Brady and Keith M. Prufer, pp. 342372. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Robin, Cynthia, Middleton, William D., Juarez, Santiago, and Morrison, Mary K. 2004 Surveying an Agrarian Community: The 2002 Field Season at the Chan Site, Belize. Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology 1:3848.
Rosen, Arlene M. 1993 Microartifacts as a Reflection of Cultural Factors in Site Formation. In Formation Processes in Archaeological Context, edited by Paul Goldberg, David T. Nash, and Michael Petraglia, pp. 141148. Monographs in World Archaeology No. 17. Prehistory Press, Madison, Wisconsin.
Rosenmeier, Michael R, Hodell, David A., Brenner, Mark, Curtis, Jason H., and Guilderson, Thomas P. 2002 A 4,000-Year Lacustrine Record of Environmental Change in the Southern Maya Lowlands, Petén, Guatemala. Quaternary Research 57:183190.
Sahagun, Bernardino de 1981 General History of the Things of New Spain, Book 2. Translated by A. J. O. Anderson and C. Dibble. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Salamini, Leonardo 1981 The Sociology of Political Praxis: An Introduction to Gramsci’s Theory. Routledge and Keegan Paul, Boston.
Sandstrom, Alan R. 2005 The Cave-Pyramid Complex Among the Contemporary Nahau of Northern Veracruz. In In the Maw of the Earth Monster: Mesoamerican Ritual Cave Use, edited by James E. Brady and Keith M. Prufer, pp. 3568. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Saturno, William A., Taube, Karl A., Stuart, David, and Hurst, Heather 2005 The Murals of San Bartolo, El Petén, Guatemala, Part 1: The North Wall. Ancient America 7:156.
Scarborough, Vernon L. 1998 Ecology and Ritual: Water Management and the Maya. Latin American Antiquity 9:135159.
Scarborough, Vernon L. 2003 The Flow of Power: Ancient Water Systems and Landscapes. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.
Schiffer, Michael B. 1987 Formation Processes of the Archaeological Record. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Schiffer, Michael B. 1995 Behavioral Archaeology: First Principles. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Schiffer, Michael B. 1996 Some Relationships Between Behavioral and Evolutionary Archaeologies. American Antiquity 61:643662.
Schiffer, Michael B. 1999 Behavioral Archaeology: Some Clarifications. American Antiquity 64:166168.
Schwarcz, Henry P., and Rink, W. J. 2001 Dating Methods for Sediments of Caves and Rock-shelters with Examples from the Mediterranean Region. Geoarchaeology 16(4):355371.
Seler, Eduard 1991 [1902–1923] CollectedWorks in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology. Labyrinthos, Culver City.
Smith, Pierre 1982 Aspects of the Organization of Rites. In Between Belief and Transgression: Structuralist Essays in Religion, History, and Myth, edited by Michel Izard and Pierre Smith, pp. 103128. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Smyth, Michael P. 1998 A New Study of the Gruta de Chac, Yucatán, México. Submitted to the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerica Studies, Inc., http://www.famsi.org/reports/97011.
Stone, Andrea J. 1995 Images from the Underworld: Naj Tunich and the Tradition of Maya Cave Painting. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Stone, Andrea J. 2005 Scribes and Caves in the Maya Lowlands. In Stone Houses and Earth Lords: Maya Religion in the Cave Context, edited by Keith M. Prufer and James E. Brady, pp. 135147. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Tarn, Nathaniel, and Prechtel, Martin 1986 Constant Inconstancy: The Feminine Principle in Atiteco Mythology. In Symbol and Meaning Beyond the Closed Community: Essays in Mesoamerican Ideas, edited by Gary Gossen, pp. 173184. Institute for Mesoamerican Studies, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany.
Taschek, Jennifer T, and Ball, Joseph W. 1999 Las Ruinas de Arenal: Preliminary Report on a Subregional Major Center in the Western Belize Valley (1991–1992 Excavations). Ancient Mesoamerica 10:215235.
Taube, Karl A. 1992 The Major Gods of Ancient Yucatan. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
Taube, Karl A. 1995 The Legendary Past: Aztec and Maya Myths. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Theunissen, Robert, Balme, Jane, and Beck, Wendy E. 1998 Headroom and Human Trampling: Cave Ceiling-Height Determines the Spatial Patterning of Stone Artefacts at Petzkes Cave, Northern New South Wales. Antiquity 72(275):8089.
Thompson, J. Eric 1954 The Rise and Fall of the Maya Civilization. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Thompson, Raymond H. 1958 Modern Yucatecan Maya Pottery Making. Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, Vol. 23(4), Part 2. Salt Lake City.
U.N. Land and Water Development Division 2007 February 2. Electronic document, http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/aglw/aquastat/countries/belize/index.stm.
Van Gennep, Arnold 1960 The Rites of Passage. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Villacorta, J. Antonio 1992 The Dresden Codex: Drawings of the Pages. Mayan Studies No. 3. Aegean Park Press, Walnut Creek, California.
Vogt, Evon Z. 1965 Structural and Conceptual Replication in Zinacantan Culture. In Reader in Comparative Religion: An Anthropological Approach, 2nd ed., edited by William Lessa and Evon Vogt, pp. 602609. Harper and Row, New York.
Walker, William H. 1995 Ceremonial Trash? In Expanding Archaeology, edited by James M. Skibo, William H. Walker, and Axel E. Nielsen, pp. 6779. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Webb, Malcolm C. 1973 The Peten Maya Decline Viewed in the Perspective of State Formation. In The Classic Maya Collapse, edited by T. Patrick Culbert, pp. 367391. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Webster, David L. 2002 The Fall of the Ancient Maya: Solving the Mystery of the Maya Collapse. Thames and Hudson, London.
Webster, James W. 2000 Speleothem Evidence of Late Holocene Climate Variation in the Maya Lowlands of Belize Central America and Archaeological Implications. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens.
Webster, James W., Brook, George A., Bruce Railsback, L., Cheng, Hai, Lawrence Edwards, R., Alexander, Clark, and Reeder, Philip P. 2007 Stalagmite Evidence from Belize Indicating Significant Droughts at the Time of Preclassic Abandonment, the Maya Hiatus, and the Classic Maya Collapse. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 250:117.
Whitehouse, Harvey 2004 Modes of Religiosity: A Cognitive Theory of Religious Transmission. AltaMira Press, New York.
Willey, Gordon R., and Shimkin, Demitri B. 1971 Why Did the Pre-Columbian Maya Civilization Collapse? Science 173:656658.
Willey, Gordon R., and Shimkin, Demitri B. 1973 The Maya Collapse: A Summary View. In The Classic Maya Collapse, edited by Patrick T. Culbert, pp. 457501. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Woodfill, Brent Kerry Skoy 2007 Shrines of the Pasion-Verapaz Region, Guatemala: Ritual and Exchange along an Ancient Trade Route. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville.
Zantwijk, R. van 1981 The Great Temple of Tenochtitlán: Model of Aztec Cosmovision. In Mesoamerican Sites and World-Views, edited by Elizabeth P. Benson, pp. 7186. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The Ancient Maya Drought Cult: Late Classic Cave Use in Belize

  • Holley Moyes (a1), Jaime J. Awe (a2), George A. Brook (a3) and James W. Webster (a4)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.