A new species of Trypanosyllis was found in a collection of polychaetes living on algae, sponges, ascidians and sabelariid reefs at the intertidal zone of a rocky shore, at Praia do Guaraú, south-eastern Brazil. Trypanosyllis aurantiacus sp. nov., is characterized by having an orange body in life, with dark red antennae and cirri throughout, falcigers with short, sub-bidentate blades, and parapodia with thick, distally sharp, protruding aciculae, two to three aciculae on each anterior parapodium, two aciculae on midbody segments, single acicula per parapodium on posteriormost chaetigers. Trypanosyllis aurantiacus sp. nov., is compared with the most similar congeners and a redescription of Trypanosyllis zebra, based on Brazilian specimens collected from similar environments at nearby beaches, is given.