Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Theory of Mind and Parental Nurturance as Predictors of Peer Relationships After Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: A Test of Moderated Mediation

  • Stephanie Deighton (a1), Christianne Laliberté Durish (a1), H. Gerry Taylor (a2), Kenneth Rubin (a3), Maureen Dennis (a4), Erin D. Bigler (a5), Kathryn Vannatta (a2), Cynthia A. Gerhardt (a2), Terry Stancin (a6) and Keith Owen Yeates (a1) (a7)...

Abstract

Objective:

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained in childhood is associated with poor social outcomes. This study investigated the role of theory of mind (ToM) as a mediator of the relation between TBI and peer rejection/victimization and reciprocated friendships, as well as the moderating effect of parental nurturance on those relationships.

Method:

Participants were children of 8–13 years old (M = 10.45, SD = 1.47), including 13 with severe TBI, 39 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 32 children with orthopedic injuries. Data on peer rejection/victimization and friendship were collected in school classrooms using the Extended Class Play and friendship nominations. Parents rated parental nurturance using the Child-Rearing Practices Report. Finally, ToM was measured based on children’s average performance across three tasks measuring different aspects of ToM.

Results:

Severe TBI was associated with poorer ToM, greater peer rejection/victimization, and fewer reciprocated friendships. ToM mediated the relation between severe TBI and peer rejection/victimization (i.e., severe TBI predicted poorer ToM, which in turn predicted greater rejection/victimization). Parental nurturance significantly moderated this relation, such that the mediating effect of ToM was significant only at low and average levels of parental nurturance, for both severe and complicated mild/moderate TBI groups. Neither the mediating effect of ToM nor the moderating effect of parental nurturance was significant for reciprocated friendships.

Conclusion:

High parental nurturance may mitigate the negative effects of ToM deficits on risk of peer rejection/victimization among children with TBI. Interventions designed to increase parental nurturance or ToM may promote better social outcomes among children with TBI.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Correspondence and reprint requests to: Stephanie Deighton, Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada. E-mail: smdeight@ucalgary.ca

References

Hide All
Anderson, V. & Beauchamp, M.H. (2012). Developmental social neuroscience and childhood brain insult: Theory and practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca
Booth-Laforce, C., Oh, W., Kim, A.H., Rubin, K.H., Rose-Krasnor, L., & Burgess, K. (2006). Attachment, self-worth, and peer-group functioning in middle childhood. Attachment & Human Development, 8(4), 309325. doi: 10.1080/14616730601048209
Brand, A.E. & Klimes-Dougan, B. (2010). Emotion socialization in adolescence: The roles of mothers and fathers. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2010(128), 85100. doi: 10.1002/cd.270
Brophy-Herb, H.E., Schiffman, R.F., Bocknek, E.L., Dupuis, S.B., Fitzgerald, H.E., Horodynski, M., Onaga, E., Van Egeren, L.A., & Hillaker, B. (2011). Toddlers’ social-emotional competence in the contexts of maternal emotion socialization and contingent responsiveness in a low-income sample. Social Development, 20(1), 7392. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00570.x
Bukowski, W.M., Hoza, B., & Boivin, M. (1994). Measuring friendship quality during pre-and early adolescence: The development and psychometric properties of the Friendship Qualities Scale. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11(3), 471484. doi: 10.1177/0265407594113011
Dennis, M., Simic, N., Bigler, E.D., Abildskov, T., Agostino, A., Taylor, H.G., Rubin, K., Vannatta, K., Gerhardt, C.A., Stancin, T., & Yeates, K.O. (2013). Cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind (ToM) in children with traumatic brain injury. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 5, 2539. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2012.11.006
Dennis, M., Francis, D.J., Cirino, P.T., Schachar, R., Barnes, M.A., & Fletcher, J.M. (2009). Why IQ is not a covariate in cognitive studies of neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(3), 331343.
Dennis, M., Barnes, M.A., Wilkinson, M., & Humphreys, R.P. (1998). How children with head injury represent real and deceptive emotion in short narratives. Brain and Language, 61(3), 450483. doi: 10.1006/brln.1997.1886
Dennis, M., Purvis, K., Barnes, M.A., Wilkinson, M., & Winner, E. (2001). Understanding of literal truth, ironic criticism, and deceptive praise following childhood head injury. Brain and Language, 78(1), 116. doi: 10.1006/brln.2000.2431
Farrant, B.M., Devine, T.A., Maybery, M.T., & Fletcher, J. (2012). Empathy, perspective taking and prosocial behaviour: The importance of parenting practices. Infant and Child Development, 21(2), 175188. doi: 10.1002/icd.740
Ganesalingam, K., Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., Walz, N.C., Stancin, T., and Wade, S. (2011). Executive functions and social competence in young children 6 months following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 25, 466476. doi: 10.1037/a0022768
Haskett, M.E. & Willoughby, M. (2007). Paths to child social adjustment: Parenting quality and children’s processing of social information. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(1), 6777. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00627.x
Hayes, A.F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper]. Retrieved from http://www.afhayes.com/public/process2012.pdf
Hayes, A.F. (2015). An index and test of linear moderated mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50, 122. doi: 10.1080/00273171.2014.962683
Hayes, A.F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York. NY: Guilford Publications.
Heverly-Fitt, S., Wimsatt, M.A., Menzer, M.M., Rubin, K.H., Dennis, M., Taylor, H.G., Stancin, T., Gerhardt, C.A., Vannatta, K., Bigler, E.D., & Yeates, K.O. (2014). Friendship quality and psychosocial outcomes among children with traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 20, 684693. doi: 10.1017/S1355617714000393
Hung, A.H., Cassedy, A., Schultz, H.M., Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., Stancin, T., Walz, N.C., & Wade, S.L. (2017). Predictors of long-term victimization after early pediatric traumatic brain injury. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 38(1), 4957. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000366
Kashluba, S., Hanks, R.A., Casey, J.E., & Mills, S.R. (2008). Neuropsychologic and functional outcome after complicated mild traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89(5), 904911.
Kingery, J.N., & Erdley, C.A., & Marshall, K.C. (2011) Peer acceptance and friendship as predictors of early adolescents’ adjustment across the middle school transition. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 57(3), 215243.
Klimes-Dougan, B., Brand, A.E., Zahn-Waxler, C., Usher, B., Hastings, P.D., Kendziora, K., & Garside, R.B. (2007). Parental emotion socialization in adolescence: Differences in sex, age and problem status. Social Development, 16(2), 326342.
Ladd, G.W., & Burgess, K.B. (2001). Do relational risks and protective factors moderate the linkages between childhood aggression and early psychological and school adjustment? Child Development, 72(5), 15791601. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00366
Ladd, G.W., & Ladd, B.K. (1998). Parenting behaviors and parent–child relationships: Correlates of peer victimization in kindergarten? Developmental Psychology, 34(6), 1450.
Langlois, J.A., Rutland-Brown, W., & Thomas, K.E. (2005). The incidence of traumatic brain injury among children in the United States: differences by race. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20(3), 229238.
Malcolm, K.T., Jensen-Campbell, L.A., Rex-Lear, M., & Waldrip, A.M. (2006) Divided we fall: Children’s friendships and peer victimization. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 23, 721740. doi: 10.1177/0265407506068260
Masten, A.S., Morison, P., & Pellegrini, D.S. (1985). A revised class play method of peer assessment. Developmental Psychology, 21(3), 523. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2601_7
Mezulis, A.H., Hyde, J.S., & Clark, R. (2004). Father involvement moderates the effect of maternal depression during a child’s infancy on child behavior problems in kindergarten. Journal of Family Psychology, 18(4), 575.
Nangle, D.W., Erdley, C.A., Newman, J.E., Mason, C.A., & Carpenter, E.M. (2003). Popularity, friendship quantity, and friendship quality: Interactive influences on children’s loneliness and depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32(4), 546555. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3204_7
Newcomb, A.F., & Bagwell, C.L. (1995) Children’s friendship relations: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 306347. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.117.2.306
Park, J.H., Essex, M.J., Zahn-Waxler, C., Armstrong, J.M., Klein, M.H., & Goldsmith, H.H. (2005). Relational and overt aggression in middle childhood: Early child and family risk factors. Early Education & Development, 16(2), 233258. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2005.10472869
Potter, J.L., Wade, S.L., Walz, N.C., Cassedy, A., Stevens, M.H., Yeates, K.O., & Taylor, H.G. (2011). Parenting style is related to executive dysfunction after brain injury in children. Rehabilitation Psychology, 56(4), 351. doi: 10.1037/a0025445
Rickel, A.U., & Biasatti, L.L. (1982). Modification of the block child rearing practices report. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38(1), 129134.
Robinson, K.E., Fountain-Zaragoza, S., Dennis, M., Taylor, H.G., Bigler, E.D., Rubin, K., Vannatta, K., Gerhardt, C.A., Stancin, T., & Yeates, K.O. (2014). Executive functions and theory of mind as predictors of social adjustment in childhood traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 31(22), 18351842. doi: 10.1089/neu.2014.3422
Root, A.E., Wimsatt, M., Rubin, K.H., Bigler, E.D., Dennis, M., Gerhardt, C.A., Stancin, T., Taylor, H.G., Vannatta, K., & Yeates, K.O. (2016). Children with traumatic brain injury: Associations between parenting and social adjustment. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 42, 17. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2015.10.002
Rosema, S., Crowe, L., & Anderson, V. (2012). Social function in children and adolescents after traumatic brain injury: A systematic review 1989–2011. Journal of Neurotrauma, 29(7), 12771291. doi: 10.1089/neu.2011.2144
Ross, K.A., McMillan, T., Kelly, T., Sumpter, R., & Dorris, L. (2011). Friendship, loneliness and psychosocial functioning in children with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 25(12), 12061211. doi: 10.3109/02699052.2011.609519
Rubin, K.H., Bukowski, W.M., & Bowker, J.C. (2015). Children in peer groups. In Lerner, R.M., Bornstein, M.H., and Leventhal, T. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (pp. 175222). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Rubin, K.H., Wojslawowicz, J.C., Rose-Krasnor, L., Booth-LaForce, C., & Burgess, K.B. (2006). The best friendships of shy/withdrawn children: Prevalence, stability, and relationship quality. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34(2), 139153. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-9017-4
Ryan, N.P., Catroppa, C., Beare, R., Silk, T.J., Crossley, L., Beauchamp, M.H., Yeates, K.O., & Anderson, V.A. (2016). Theory of mind mediates the prospective relationship between abnormal social brain network morphology and chronic behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(4), 683692. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsw007
Schneier, A.J., Shields, B.J., Hostetler, S.G., Xiang, H., & Smith, G.A. (2006). Incidence of pediatric traumatic brain injury and associated hospital resource utilization in the United States. Pediatrics, 118(2), 483492. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-2588
Schwartz, L., Taylor, H.G., Drotar, D., Yeates, K.O., Wade, S.L., & Stancin, T. (2003). Long-term behavior problems following pediatric traumatic brain injury: prevalence, predictors, and correlates. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 28(4), 251263. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsg013
Sodian, B. (2011). Theory of mind in infancy. Child Development Perspectives, 5(1), 3943. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2010.00152.x
Teasdale, G., & Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet, 2(7872), 8184. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(74)91639-0
Wade, S.L., Cassedy, A., Walz, N.C., Taylor, H.G., Stancin, T., & Yeates, K.O. (2011). The relationship of parental warm responsiveness and negativity to emerging behavior problems following traumatic brain injury in young children. Developmental Psychology, 47(1), 119. doi: 10.1037/a0021028
Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). USA: Psychological Corporation.
Wellman, H.M., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). Meta analysis of theory of mind development: the truth about false belief. Child Development, 72(3), 655684. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00304
Wolfe, K.R., Bigler, E.D., Dennis, M., Gerhardt, C.A., Rubin, K., Taylor, H.G., Vannatta, K., & Yeates, K O. (2014). Self-awareness of peer-rated social attributes in children with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 40(3), 272284.
Wojslawowicz Bowker, J.C., Rubin, K.H., Booth-LaForce, C., & Rose-Krasnor, L. (2006) Behavioral characteristics associated with stable and fluid best friendship patterns in middle childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 52, 671693. doi: 10.1353/mpq.2006.0000
Yan-Yan, L., & Biao, S. (2006). Mothers’ parenting style and the development of children’s theory of mind. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 20(1), 59.
Yeates, K.O., Bigler, E.D., Dennis, M., Gerhardt, C.A., Rubin, K.H., Stancin, T., Taylor, H.G., & Vannatta, K. (2007). Social outcomes in childhood brain disorder: a heuristic integration of social neuroscience and developmental psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 133(3), 535. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.3.535
Yeates, K.O., Bigler, E.D., Abildskov, T., Dennis, M., Gerhardt, C.A., Vannatta, K., Rubin, K.H., Stancin, T., & Taylor, H.G. (2014). Social competence in pediatric traumatic brain injury: From brain to behavior. Clinical Psychological Science, 2(1), 97107. doi: 10.1177/2167702613499734
Yeates, K.O., Gerhardt, C.A., Bigler, E.D., Abildskov, T., Dennis, M., Rubin, K.H., Stancin, T., Taylor, H.G., & Vannatta, K. (2013). Peer relationships of children with traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 19(5), 518527. doi: 10.1017/S1355617712001531
Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., Walz, N.C., Stancin, T., & Wade, S.L. (2010). The family environment as a moderator of psychosocial outcomes following traumatic brain injury in young children. Neuropsychology, 24(3), 345. doi: 10.1037/a0018387

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed