Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Plan-a-Day Approach to Measuring Planning Ability in Patients with Schizophrenia

  • Daniel V. Holt (a1), Katlehn Rodewald (a2), Mirjam Rentrop (a2), Joachim Funke (a1), Matthias Weisbrod (a2) (a3) and Stefan Kaiser (a2) (a4)...

Abstract

Deficits in executive functioning are closely related to the level of everyday functioning in patients with schizophrenia. However, many existing neuropsychological measures are limited in their ability to predict functional outcome. To contribute towards closing this gap, we developed a computer-based test of planning ability (“Plan-a-Day”) that requires participants to create daily activity schedules in a simulated work setting. Eighty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were tested with Plan-a-Day and a battery of cognitive ability tests. Plan-a-Day showed satisfactory psychometric properties in terms of consistency, reliability, and construct validity. Compared to other neuropsychological tests used in this study, it also demonstrated incremental validity with regard to the Global Assessment of Functioning. The Plan-a-Day approach, therefore, seems to represent a valid alternative for measuring planning ability in patients with executive function deficits, occupying a middle ground between traditional neuropsychological tests and real-life assessments. (JINS, 2011, 17, 327–335)

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Daniel V. Holt, Department of Psychology, University of Heidelberg, Haupstr. 47-51, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany. E-mail: daniel.holt@psychologie.uni-heidelberg.de

References

Hide All
Ackenheil, M., Dietz-Bauer, R., Vossen, A. (1998). Mini international neuropsychiatric interview, German version 5.0.0, DSM IV. München, Germany: Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik München.
Blessing, S.B., Ross, B.H. (1996). Content effects in problem categorization and problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 792810.
Bolton, B., Roessler, R. (1986). The work personality profile: Factor scales, reliability, validity, and norms. Vocational Evaluation & Work Adjustment Bulletin, 19, 143149.
Burgess, P.W. (2000). Strategy application disorder: The role of the frontal lobes in human multitasking. Psychological Research, 63, 279288.
Burgess, P.W., Alderman, N., Forbes, C., Costello, A., Coates, L.M.-A., Dawson, D.R., Channon, S. (2006). The case for the development and use of ‘ecologically valid’ measures of executive function in experimental and clinical neuropsychology. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 194209.
Burgess, P.W., Alderman, N., Volle, E., Benoit, R.G., Gilbert, S.J. (2009). Mesulam's frontal lobe mystery re-examined. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 27, 493506.
Burgess, P.W., Dumontheil, I., Gilbert, S.J. (2007). The gateway hypothesis of rostral prefrontal cortex (area 10) function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 290298.
Chaytor, N., Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2003). The ecological validity of neuropsychological tests: A review of the literature on everyday cognitive skills. Neuropsychology Review, 13, 181197.
Chaytor, N., Schmitter-Edgecombe, M., Burr, R. (2006). Improving the ecological validity of executive functioning assessment. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 21, 217227.
Craik, F.I.M., Bialystok, E. (2006). Planning and task management in older adults: Cooking breakfast. Memory & Cognition, 34, 12361249.
Frith, C.D. (1987). The positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia reflect impairments in the perception and initiation of action. Psychological Medicine, 17, 631648.
Funke, J., Krüger, T. (1995). “Plan-A-Day”: Konzeption eines modifizierbaren Instruments zur Führungskräfte-Auswahl sowie erste empirische Befunde [“Plan-A-Day”: Design of a modifiable instrument for selecting managerial personnel and first empricial results]. In J. Funke, T. Krüger, & A. Fritz (Eds.), Neue Konzepte und Instrumente zur Planungsdiagnostik (pp. 97120). Bonn, Germany: Deutscher Psychologen Verlag.
Goel, V., Grafman, J., Tajik, J., Gana, S., Danto, D. (1997). A study of the performance of patients with frontal lobe lesions in a financial planning task. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 120, 18051822.
Green, M.F. (1996). What are the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia? The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 321330.
Green, M.F., Kern, R.S., Braff, D.L., Mintz, J. (2000). Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: Are we measuring the “right stuff”? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 119136.
Hilsenroth, M.J., Ackerman, S.J., Blagys, M.D., Baumann, B.D., Baity, M.R., Smith, S.R., Daniel, J.J. (2000). Reliability and validity of DSM-IV axis V. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 18581863.
Jaeger, J., Douglas, E. (1992). Neuropsychiatric rehabilitation for persistent mental illness. Psychiatric Quarterly, 63, 7194.
Kalbe, E., Brand, M., Kessler, J. (2002). Zahlenverarbeitungs- und Rechentest (ZRT) [Number processing and arithmetic test (ZRT)] Weinheim, Germany: Beltz Verlag.
Kay, S.R., Fiszbein, A., Opfer, L.A. (1987). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 261276.
Knight, C., Alderman, N., Burgess, P.W. (2002). Development of a simplified version of the multiple errands test for use in hospital settings. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 12, 231255.
Kohler, J., Beck, U. (2004). Planungstest. Konstanz, Germany: Kohler & Beck GbR.
Kurtz, M.M., Baker, E., Pearlson, G.D., Astur, R.S. (2007). A virtual reality apartment as a measure of medication management skills in patients with schizophrenia: A pilot study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 11621170.
Larøi, F., Canlaire, J., Mourad, H., Van Der Linden, M. (2010). Relations between a computerized shopping task and cognitive tests in a group of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16, 180189.
Lehrl, S., Triebig, G., Fischer, B. (1995). Multiple choice vocabulary test MWT as a valid and short test to estimate premorbid intelligence. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 91, 335345.
Manchester, D., Priestley, N., Jackson, H. (2004). The assessment of executive functions: Coming out of the office. Brain Injury, 18, 10671081.
Markela-Lerenc, J., Kaiser, S., Fiedler, P., Weisbrod, M., Mundt, C. (2006). Stroop performance in depressive patients: A preliminary report. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 261267.
McGeorge, P., Phillips, L.H., Crawford, J.R., Garden, S.E., Della Sala, S., Milne, A.B., Callender, J.S. (2001). Using virtual environments in the assessment of executive dysfunction. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 10, 375383.
Morris, R.G., Rushe, T., Woodruffe, P.W.R., Murray, R.M. (1995). Problem solving in schizophrenia: A specific deficit in planning ability. Schizophrenia Research, 14, 235246.
Pantelis, C., Barnes, T.R., Nelson, H.E., Tanner, S., Weatherley, L., Owen, A.M., Robbins, T.W. (1997). Frontal-striatal cognitive deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Brain, 120, 18231843.
Rand, D., Rukan, S.B.A., Weiss, P.L., Katz, N. (2009). Validation of the Virtual MET as an assessment tool for executive functions. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 19, 583602.
Reitan, R.M. (1992). Trail Making Test: Manual for administration and scoring. Tuscon, AZ: Reitan Neuropsychology Laboratory.
Rempfer, M.V., Hamera, E.K., Brown, C.E., Cromwell, R.L. (2003). The relations between cognition and the independent living skill of shopping in people with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 117, 103112.
Robbins, T.W. (1990). The case for frontostriatal dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 391402.
Schelling, D. (1993). Corsi-Block-Tapping-Test. Mödling, Austria: Schuhfried.
Semkovska, M., Bédard, M.-A., Godbout, L., Limoge, F., Stip, E. (2004). Assessment of executive dysfunction during activities of daily living in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 69, 289300.
Shallice, T., Burgess, P.W. (1991). Deficits in strategy application following frontal lobe damage in man. Brain, 114, 727741.
Startup, M., Jackson, M.C., Bendix, S. (2002). The concurrent validity of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 417422.
Ufer, K. (2000). BADS: Behavioural Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrom (German Version). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.
Velligan, D.I., Bow-Thomas, C.C., Mahurin, R.K., Miller, A.L., Halgunseth, L.C. (2000). Do specific neurocognitive deficits predict specific domains of community function in schizophrenia? Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 188, 518524.
von Aster, M., Neubauer, A., Horn, R. (2006). Wechsler-Intelligenztest für Erwachsene WIE [Wechsler Test of Intelligence for Adults WIE]. Frankfurt, Germany: Harcourt Test Services.
Wiedl, K.H., Uhlhorn, S. (2006). OAF-P: Osnabrücker Arbeitsfähigkeiten-Profil [OAF-P: Osnabrueck Work Ability Profile]. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.
Wilson, B.A., Alderman, N., Burgess, P.W., Emslie, H., Evans, J.J. (1996). BADS: Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome. Bury St Edmunds, UK: Thames Valley Test Company.
Wilson, B.A., Evans, J.J., Emslie, H., Alderman, N., Burgess, P. (1998). The development of an ecologically valid test for assessing patients with dysexecutive syndrome. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 8, 213228.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed