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Performance-Based Everyday Functioning after Stroke: Relationship with IADL Questionnaire and Neurocognitive Performance

  • Joseph R. Sadek (a1) (a2), Nikki Stricker (a3) (a4), John C. Adair (a1) (a5) and Kathleen Y. Haaland (a1) (a2) (a5)

Abstract

Neuropsychologists frequently are asked to comment on everyday functioning, but the research relies mostly on questionnaire-based assessment of daily functioning. While performance-based assessment of everyday functioning has many advantages over commonly used questionnaires, there are few empirically validated comprehensive performance-based measures. We present data here on a performance-based battery of daily living skills, the Functional Impact Assessment (FIA) in 47 unilateral stroke patients and 37 matched healthy controls. The FIA was validated by comparing it to performance on the self- and informant-report version of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ). We also examined the relationship between the FIA and cognitive functioning using the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB). The stroke group's performance on the FIA, FAQ (self and informant), and NAB (total and domain scores) was significantly (d′s ≥ .80) lower than the control group. The NAB total score and all domain scores were highly correlated with the FIA in the stroke group (r's > .7), and only one NAB domain score (visuospatial) was a unique predictor. This may be due to the fact that most of the NAB domains have a statistical problem of multicollinearity, which may explain why only the spatial domain was a unique predictor. While the informant FAQ was significantly correlated with FIA total score (r = .48, p < .01), the NAB total score was a significantly better predictor (r = .83, p < .001) than the informant FAQ. NAB total scaled score of less than 86 predicted impairment on the FIA with 92% sensitivity and 84% specificity. Our findings argue that the FIA is sensitive to deficits associated with stroke and is highly associated with all neuropsychological domains (attention, executive functions, language and spatial skills, and memory). (JINS, 2011, 17, 832–840)

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Joseph R. Sadek, New Mexico VA Healthcare, Psychiatry, 1501 San Pedro Drive SE (116B), Albuquerque, NM 87108. E-mail: jsadek@unm.edu

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