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Patterns of memory: A normative taxonomy of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning – Second Edition (WRAML-2)

  • THOMAS M. ATKINSON (a1), TIMOTHY R. KONOLD (a1) and JOSEPH J. GLUTTING (a2)

Abstract

Memory is arguably the most important function of cognition. When left undetected, memory impairments are linked to life long underachievement and negative social consequences. Given that the construct of memory is multidimensional, the current study examined patterns of multiple indicators associated with memory across individuals ranging in age from 5 to 85 years who had been administered the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning – Second Edition (WRAML-2). Multistage cluster analysis with independent age replications was used to empirically identify normative profiles in a sample of (n = 1172) typically developing individuals. This procedure considered how various indicators of memory operate in concert by accounting for the nonlinear multivariate relationships among them. Results supported nine common (or core) profile types that satisfied all formal heuristic and statistical criteria, including complete coverage, satisfactory within-type homogeneity, between-type dissimilarity, and replicability. A summary of the defining characteristics for each profile is provided. (JINS, 2008, 14, 869–877.)

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Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Thomas M. Atkinson, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Health Outcomes Research Group, 307 E. 63rd St., 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10065. E-mail: atkinsot@mskcc.org

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