Skip to main content Accessibility help

The Neuropsychological Profile of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Lewy Body Dementias

  • Joanna Ciafone (a1), Bethany Little (a1), Alan J. Thomas (a1) and Peter Gallagher (a1) (a2)



Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD) have substantial clinical and biological overlap, with cognitive deficits typically observed in the executive and visuospatial domains. However, the neuropsychological profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) associated with these disorders are not well understood.


This systematic review examined existing literature on cognition in MCI due to LB disease (MCI-LB) and PD (PD-MCI) using an electronic search of seven databases (Medline, Embase, Psychinfo, PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, and ScienceDirect). MCI-LB results were reviewed narratively given the small number of resulting papers (n = 7). Outcome variables from PD-MCI studies (n = 13) were extracted for meta-analysis of standardised mean differences (SMD).


In MCI-LB, executive dysfunction and slowed processing speed were the most prominent impairments, while visuospatial and working memory (WM) functions were also poor. MCI-LB scored significantly lower on verbal memory tests relative to controls, but significantly higher than patients with MCI due to Alzheimer’s disease. Quantitative analysis of studies in PD-MCI showed a similar profile of impairment, with the largest deficits in visuospatial function (Benton Judgement of Line Orientation, SMD g = −2.09), executive function (Trail Making Test B, SMD g = −1.65), verbal ability (Naming Tests, SMD g = −0.140), and WM (Trail Making Test A, SMD g = −1.20). In both MCI-LB and PD-MCI, verbal and visuospatial memory retrieval was impaired, while encoding and storage appeared relatively intact.


The findings of this systematic review indicate similar neuropsychological profiles in the MCI stages of DLB and PDD. Executive impairment may at least partially explain poor performance in other domains.


Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Joanna Ciafone, Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Biomedical Research Building, 3rd Floor, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle upon Tyne NE4 5PL, United Kingdom. E-mail:


Hide All
Aarsland, D. (2016). Cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 22, S144S148.
Aarsland, D., Kurz, M., Beyer, M., Bronnick, K., Piepenstock Nore, S., & Ballard, C. (2008). Early discriminatory diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies. The emerging role of CSF and imaging biomarkers. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 25(3), 195205.
Albert, M.S., DeKosky, S.T., Dickson, D., Dubois, B., Feldman, H.H., Fox, N.C., Gamst, A., Holtzman, D.M., Jagust, W.J., Petersen, R.C., Snyder, P.J., Carrillo, M.C., Thies, B., & Phelps, C.H. (2011). The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 7(3), 270279.
Anderson, R.J., Simpson, A.C., Channon, S., Samuel, M., & Brown, R.G. (2013). Social problem solving, social cognition, and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Behavioral Neuroscience, 127(2), 184192.
Baddeley, A. (1996). Exploring the central executive. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A, 49(1), 528.
Baddeley, A.D. & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 8, 4789.
Benton, A.L., Hamsher, K.D., Varney, N.R., & Spreen, O. (1983). Judgment of Line Orientation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Biundo, R., Weis, L., Facchini, S., Formento-Dojot, P., Vallelunga, A., Pilleri, M., & Antonini, A. (2014). Cognitive profiling of Parkinson disease patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 20(4), 394399.
Bocanegra, Y., García, A.M., Lopera, F., Pineda, D., Baena, A., Ospina, P., Alzate, D., Buriticá, O., Moreno, L., Ibáñez, A., & Cuetos, F. (2017). Unspeakable motion: Selective action-verb impairments in Parkinson’s disease patients without mild cognitive impairment. Brain and Language, 168, 3746.
Boeve, B.F. (2012). Mild cognitive impairment associated with underlying Alzheimer’s disease versus Lewy body disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 18(Suppl. 1), S41S44.
Braak, H., Del Tredici, K., Rüb, U., de Vos, R.A.I., Steur, E.N.H.J., & Braak, E. (2003). Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 24(2), 197211.
Bronnick, K., Alves, G., Aarsland, D., Tysnes, O.-B., & Larsen, J.P. (2011). Verbal memory in drug-naive, newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease. The retrieval deficit hypothesis revisited. Neuropsychology, 25(1), 114124.
Bryan, J., Luszcz, M.A., & Pointer, S. (1999). Executive function and processing resources as predictors of adult age differences in the implementation of encoding strategies. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 6(4), 273287.
Burn, D.J. & McKeith, I.G. (2003). Current treatment of dementia with Lewy bodies and dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 18(S6), 7279.
Busse, A., Hensel, A., Gühne, U., Angermeyer, M., & Riedel-Heller, S. (2006). Mild cognitive impairment long-term course of four clinical subtypes. Neurology, 67(12), 21762185.
Bussè, C., Caffarra, P., Rossi, A., Zorzi, G., Fragiacomo, F., Camporese, G., Pompanin, S., Di Bernardo, G.A. & Cagnin, A. (2018). Testing hippocampal memory in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 64(2), 349353.
Cagnin, A., Bussè, C., Gardini, S., Jelcic, N., Guzzo, C., Gnoato, F., Mitolo, M., Ermani, M., & Caffarra, P. (2015). Clinical and cognitive phenotype of mild cognitive impairment evolving to dementia with Lewy bodies. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 5(3), 442449.
Centre, T.N.C. (2014). Review Manager (RevMan) [Computer program] (Version Version 5.3). Copenhagen: The Cochrane Collaboration.
Copeland, B.J. & Schiess, M.C. (2013). Can mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease predict the development of dementia? JAMA Neurology, 70(5), 553555.
Corsi, P.M. (1972). Human memory and the medial temporal region of the brain. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34(819B).
Costa, A., Zabberoni, S., Peppe, A., Serafini, F., Scalici, F., Caltagirone, C., & Carlesimo, G.A. (2015). Time-based prospective memory functioning in mild cognitive impairment associated with Parkinson’s disease: Relationship with autonomous management of daily living commitments. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 333.
Cowan, N. (1999). An embedded-processes model of working memory. Models of Working Memory: Mechanisms of Active Maintenance and Executive Control, 20, 506.
Crane, P.K., Carle, A., Gibbons, L.E., Insel, P., Mackin, R.S., Gross, A., Jones, R.N., Mukherjee, S., Curtis, S.M., Harvey, D., Weiner, M., Mungas, D., & Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2012). Development and assessment of a composite score for memory in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Brain Imaging and Behavior, 6(4), 502516.
Dalrymple-Alford, J.C., Livingston, L., MacAskill, M.R., Graham, C., Melzer, T.R., Porter, R.J., Watts, R., & Anderson, T.J. (2011). Characterizing mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 26(4), 629636.
Darweesh, S.K.L., Verlinden, V.J.A., Stricker, B.H., Hofman, A., Koudstaal, P.J., & Ikram, M.A. (2017). Trajectories of prediagnostic functioning in Parkinson’s disease. Brain, 140(2), 429441.
Deeks, J.J. & Higgins, J.P.T. (2010). Statistical algorithms in review manager 5. Statistical Methods Group of the Cochrane Collaboration, 1(11), 111.
Donaghy, P.C. & McKeith, I.G. (2014). The clinical characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies and a consideration of prodromal diagnosis. Alzheimers Research & Therapy, 6, 46.
Donaghy, P.C., O’Brien, J.T., & Thomas, A.J. (2015). Prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies. Psychological Medicine, 45(02), 259268.
Donaghy, P.C., Taylor, J.P., O’Brien, J.T., Barnett, N., Olsen, K., Colloby, S.J., Lloyd, J., Petrides, G., McKeith, I.G., & Thomas, A.J. (2018). Neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive profile in mild cognitive impairment with Lewy bodies. Psychological Medicine, 48(14), 23842390.
Downes, J.J., Priestley, N.M., Doran, M., Ferran, J., Ghadiali, E., & Cooper, P. (1998). Intellectual, mnemonic, and frontal functions in dementia with Lewy bodies: A comparison with early and advanced Parkinson’s disease. Behavioural Neurology, 11(3), 19981999.
El-Nazer, R., Adler, C.H., Beach, T.G., Belden, C.M., Artz, J., Shill, H.A., Driver-Dunckley, E., Mehta, S.H., Sabbagh, M.N., Serrano, G.E., Sue, L.I., Zamrini, E., & Benge, J.F. (2019). Regional neuropathology distribution and verbal fluency impairments in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.
Engle, R.W., Tuholski, S.W., Laughlin, J.E., & Conway, A.R.A. (1999). Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: A latent-variable approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128(3), 309.
Flicker, C., Ferris, S.H., & Reisberg, B. (1991). Mild cognitive impairment in the elderly predictors of dementia. Neurology, 41(7), 10061006.
Fujishiro, H., Nakamura, S., Sato, K., & Iseki, E. (2015). Prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 15(7), 817826.
Galtier, I., Nieto, A., Lorenzo, J.N., & Barroso, J. (2016). Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: Diagnosis and progression to dementia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 38(1), 4050.
Gelb, D.J., Oliver, E., & Gilman, S. (1999). Diagnostic criteria for Parkinson disease. Archives of Neurology, 56(1), 3339.
Génier Marchand, D., Postuma, R.B., Escudier, F., De Roy, J., Pelletier, A., Montplaisir, J., & Gagnon, J.F. (2018). How does dementia with Lewy bodies start? Prodromal cognitive changes in REM sleep behavior disorder. Annals of Neurology, 83(5), 10161026.
Gershberg, F.B. & Shimamura, A.P. (1995). Impaired use of organizational strategies in free recall following frontal lobe damage. Neuropsychologia, 33(10), 13051333.
Gibbons, L.E., Carle, A.C., Mackin, R.S., Harvey, D., Mukherjee, S., Insel, P., Curtis, S.M., Mungas, D., Crane, P.K., & Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging. (2012). A composite score for executive functioning, validated in Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) participants with baseline mild cognitive impairment. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 6(4), 517527.
Gnanalingham, K.K., Byrne, E.J., Thornton, A., Sambrook, M.A., & Bannister, P. (1997). Motor and cognitive function in Lewy body dementia: Comparison with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 62(3), 243252.
Goldman, J.G., Williams-Gray, C., Barker, R.A., Duda, J.E., & Galvin, J.E. (2014). The spectrum of cognitive impairment in Lewy body diseases. Movement Disorders, 29(5), 608621.
Hedges, L. & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical Methods for Meta-Analysis. New York: Academic Press.
Henry, J.D. & Crawford, J.R. (2004). Verbal fluency deficits in Parkinson’s disease: A meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10(4), 608622.
Henry, J.D., Crawford, J.R., & Phillips, L.H. (2004). Verbal fluency performance in dementia of the Alzheimer’s type: A meta-analysis. Neuropsychologia, 42(9), 12121222.
Hessen, E., Stav, A.L., Auning, E., Selnes, P., Blomsø, L., Holmeide, C.E., Johansen, K.K., Eliassen, C.F., Reinvang, I., Fladby, T., & Aarsland, D. (2016). Neuropsychological profiles in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, 6(2), 413421.
Higginson, C.I., Wheelock, V.L., Carroll, K.E., & Sigvardt, K.A. (2005). Recognition memory in Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia: Evidence inconsistent with the retrieval deficit hypothesis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27(4), 516528.
Hirst, W. & Volpe, B.T. (1988). Memory strategies with brain damage. Brain and Cognition, 8(3), 379408.
Hughes, A., Daniel, S., Kilford, L., & Lees, A. (1992). Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. A clinico-pathological study of 100 cases. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 55, 181184.
Jellinger, K.A. & Korczyn, A.D. (2018). Are dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia the same disease? BMC Medicine, 16(1).
Jicha, G., Schmitt, F., Abner, E., Nelson, P., Cooper, G., Smith, C., & Markesbery, W. (2010). Prodromal clinical manifestations of neuropathologically confirmed Lewy body disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 31(10), 18051813.
Kane, J.P., Surendranathan, A., Bentley, A., Barker, S.A., Taylor, J.P., Thomas, A.J., Allan, L.M., McNally, R.J., James, P.W., McKeith, I.G., & Burn, D.J. (2018). Clinical prevalence of Lewy body dementia. Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy, 10(1), 19.
Kemp, J., Philippi, N., Phillipps, C., Demuynck, C., Albasser, T., Martin-Hunyadi, C., Schmidt-Mutter, C., Cretin, B., & Blanc, F. (2017). Cognitive profile in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies. Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy, 9(1), 19.
Lange, K.L., Bondi, M.W., Salmon, D.P., Galasko, D., Delis, D.C., Thomas, R.G., & Thal, L.J. (2002). Decline in verbal memory during preclinical Alzheimer’s disease: Examination of the effect of APOE genotype. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8(7), 943955.
Lippa, C.F., Duda, J.E., Grossman, M., Hurtig, H.I., Aarsland, D., Boeve, B.F., Brooks, D.J., Dickson, D.W., Dubois, B., Emre, M., Fahn, S., Farmer, J.M., Galasko, D., Galvin, J.E., Goetz, C.G., Growdon, J.H., Gwinn-Hardy, K.A., Hardy, J., Heutink, P., Iwatsubo, T., Kosaka, K., Lee, V.M., Leverenz, J.B., Masliah, E., McKeith, I.G., Nussbaum, R.L., Olanow, C.W., Ravina, B.M., Singleton, A.B., Tanner, C.M., Trojanowski, J.Q., Wszolek, Z.K., & DLB/PDD Working Group (2007). DLB and PDD boundary issues diagnosis, treatment, molecular pathology, and biomarkers. Neurology, 68(11), 812819.
Litvan, I., Goldman, J.G., Tröster, A.I., Schmand, B.A., Weintraub, D., Petersen, R.C., Mollenhauer, B., Adler, C.H., Marder, K., Williams‐Gray, C.H., Aarsland, D., Kulisevsky, J., Rodriguez-Oroz, M.C., Burn, D.J., Barker, R.A., & Emre, M. (2012). Diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: Movement Disorder Society Task Force guidelines. Movement Disorders, 27(3), 349356.
Logie, R. & Pearson, D. (1997). The inner eye and the inner scribe of visuo-spatial working memory: Evidence from developmental fractionation. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 9(3), 241257.
MacCarthy, D. (1972). Manual for the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities. New York: Psychological Corporation.
Mahurin, R.K., Feher, E.P., Nance, M.L., Levy, J.K., & Pirozzolo, F.J. (1993). Cognition in Parkinson’s disease and related disorders, In Parks, R.W., Zec, R.F., & Wilson, R.S. (Eds.), Neuropsychology of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias (pp. 308349). New York: Oxford University Press.
Martin, A., Brouwers, P., Cox, C., & Fedio, P. (1985). On the nature of the verbal memory deficit in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain and Language, 25(2), 323341.
Massa, F., Arnaldi, D., De Cesari, F., Girtler, N., Brugnolo, A., Grazzini, M., Bauckneht, M., Meli, R., Morbelli, S., Pardini, M., Sambuceti, G., De Carli, F., Tiraboschi, P., & Nobili, F. (2019). Neuroimaging findings and clinical trajectories of Lewy body disease in patients with MCI. Neurobiology of Aging, 76, 917.
McKeith, I.G., Boeve, B.F., Dickson, D.W., Halliday, G., Taylor, J.-P., Weintraub, D., Aarsland, D., Galvin, J., Attems, J., Ballard, C.G., Bayston, A., Beach, T.G., Blanc, F., Bohnen, N., Bonanni, L., Bras, J., Brundin, P., Burn, D., Chen-Plotkin, A., Duda, J.E., El-Agnaf, O., Feldman, H., Ferman, T.J., Ffytche, D., Fujishiro, H., Galasko, D., Goldman, J.G., Gomperts, S.N., Graff-Radford, N.R., Honig, L.S., Iranzo, A., Kantarci, K., Kaufer, D., Kukull, W., Lee, V.M.Y., Leverenz, J.B., Lewis, S., Lippa, C., Lunde, A., Masellis, M., Masliah, E., McLean, P., Mollenhauer, B., Montine, T.J., Moreno, E., Mori, E., Murray, M., O’Brien, J.T., Orimo, S., Postuma, R.B., Ramaswamy, S., Ross, O.A., Salmon, D.P., Singleton, A., Taylor, A., Thomas, A., Tiraboschi, P., Toledo, J.B., Trojanowski, J.Q., Tsuang, D., Walker, Z., Yamada, M., & Kosaka, K. (2017). Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies Fourth consensus report of the DLB Consortium. Neurology, 89(1), 88100. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004058.
McKeith, I.G., Dickson, D.W., Lowe, J., Emre, M., O’Brien, J.T., Feldman, H., Cummings, J., Duda, J.E., Lippa, C., Perry, E.K., Aarsland, D., Arai, H., Ballard, C.G., Boeve, B., Burn, D.J., Costa, D., Del Ser, T., Dubois, B., Galasko, D., Gauthier, S., Goetz, C.G., Gomez-Tortosa, E., Halliday, G., Hansen, L.A., Hardy, J., Iwatsubo, T., Kalaria, R.N., Kaufer, D., Kenny, R.A., Korczyn, A., Kosaka, K., Lee, V.M., Lees, A., Litvan, I., Londos, E., Lopez, O.L., Minoshima, S., Mizuno, Y., Molina, J.A., Mukaetova-Ladinska, E.B., Pasquier, F., Perry, R.H., Schulz, J.B., Trojanowski, J.Q., Yamada, M., & Consortium on DLB. (2005). Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies third report of the DLB consortium. Neurology, 65(12), 18631872.
McKeith, I., Taylor, J.P., Thomas, A., Donaghy, P., & Kane, J. (2016). Revisiting DLB diagnosis: A consideration of prodromal DLB and of the diagnostic overlap with Alzheimer disease. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 29(5), 249253.
Mondon, K., Gochard, A., Marqué, A., Armand, A., Beauchamp, D., Prunier, C., Jacobi, D., de Toffol, B., Autret, A., Camus, V., & Hommet, C. (2007). Visual recognition memory differentiates dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 78(7), 738741.
Montse, A., Pere, V., Carme, J., Francesc, V., & Eduardo, T. (2001). Visuospatial deficits in parkinsons disease assessed by judgment of line orientation test: Error analyses and practice effects. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23(5), 592598.
Nelson, P.T., Jicha, G.A., Kryscio, R.J., Abner, E.L., Schmitt, F.A., Cooper, G., Xu, L.O., Smith, C.D., & Markesbery, W.R. (2010). Low sensitivity in clinical diagnoses of dementia with Lewy bodies. Journal of Neurology, 257(3), 359366.
Peraza, L.R., Nesbitt, D., Lawson, R.A., Duncan, G.W., Yarnall, A.J., Khoo, T.K., Kaiser, M., Firbank, M.J., O’Brien, J.T., Barker, R.A., & Brooks, D. J. (2017). Intra- and inter-network functional alterations in Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment. Human Brain Mapping, 38(3), 17021715.
Petersen, R.C. (2004). Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. Journal of Internal Medicine, 256(3), 183194.
Petersen, R.C., Smith, G.E., Waring, S.C., Ivnik, R.J., Kokmen, E., & Tangelos, E.G. (1997). Aging, memory, and mild cognitive impairment. International Psychogeriatrics, 9(S1), 6569.
Petersen, R.C., Smith, G.E., Waring, S.C., Ivnik, R.J., Tangalos, E.G., & Kokmen, E. (1999). Mild cognitive impairment: Clinical characterization and outcome. Archives of Neurology, 56(3), 303308.
Pigott, K., Rick, J., Xie, S.X., Hurtig, H., Chen-Plotkin, A., Duda, J.E., Morley, J.F., Chahine, L.M., Dahodwala, N., Akhtar, R.S., Siderowf, A., Trojanowski, J.Q., & Weintraub, D. (2015). Longitudinal study of normal cognition in Parkinson disease. Neurology, 85(15), 12761282.
Poletti, M., Frosini, D., Pagni, C., Baldacci, F., Nicoletti, V., Tognoni, G., Lucetti, C., Del Dotto, P., Ceravolo, R., & Bonuccelli, U. (2012). Mild cognitive impairment and cognitive-motor relationships in newly diagnosed drug-naive patients with Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 83(6), 601606.
Postuma, R.B., Berg, D., Stern, M., Poewe, W., Olanow, C.W., Oertel, W., Obeso, J., Marek, K., Litvan, I., Lang, A.E., Halliday, G., Goetz, C.G., Gasser, T., Dubois, B., Chan, P., Bloem, B.R., Adler, C.H., & Deuschl, G. (2015). MDS clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 30(12), 15911601.
Robbins, T.W., James, M., Owen, A.M., Sahakian, B.J., Lawrence, A.D., McInnes, L., & Rabbitt, P.M. (1998). A study of performance on tests from the CANTAB battery sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction in a large sample of normal volunteers: Implications for theories of executive functioning and cognitive aging. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 4(5), 474490.
Sadiq, D., Whitfield, T., Lee, L., Stevens, T., Costafreda, S., & Walker, Z. (2017). Prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies and prodromal Alzheimer’s disease: A comparison of the cognitive and clinical profiles. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 58(2), 463470.
Sanyal, J., Banerjee, T.K., & Rao, V.R. (2014). Dementia and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson’s disease from India: A 7-year prospective study. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and other Dementias, 29(7), 630636.
Shin, M.-S., Park, S.-Y., Park, S.-R., Seol, S.-H., & Kwon, J.S. (2006). Clinical and empirical applications of the Rey–Osterrieth complex figure test. Nature Protocols, 1(2), 892899.
Song, I.-U., Kim, J.-S., Jeong, D.-S., Song, H.-J., & Lee, K.-S. (2008). Early neuropsychological detection and the characteristics of Parkinson’s disease associated with mild dementia. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 14(7), 558562.
Thomas, A.J., Hendriksen, M., Piggott, M., Ferrier, I.N., Perry, E., Ince, P., & O’Brien, J.T. (2006). A study of the serotonin transporter in the prefrontal cortex in late‐life depression and Alzheimer’s disease with and without depression. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 32(3), 296303.
Tröster, A.I. & Fields, J.A. (1995). Frontal cognitive function and memory in Parkinson’s disease: Toward a distinction between prospective and declarative memory impairments? Behavioural Neurology, 8(2), 5974.
Troyer, A.K., Moscovitch, M., Winocur, G., Alexander, M.P., & Stuss, D. (1998). Clustering and switching on verbal fluency: The effects of focal frontal-and temporal-lobe lesions. Neuropsychologia, 36(6), 499504.
Wang, Y.Q., Tang, B.S., Yan, X.X., Chen, Z.H., Xu, Q., Liu, Z.H., Wang, K., & Guo, J.F. (2015). A neurophysiological profile in Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment and dementia in China. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 22(6), 981985.
Whittington, C.J., Podd, J., & Kan, M.M. (2000). Recognition memory impairment in Parkinson’s disease: power and meta-analyses. Neuropsychology, 14(2), 233.
Williams-Gray, C., Foltynie, T., Brayne, C., Robbins, T., & Barker, R. (2007). Evolution of cognitive dysfunction in an incident Parkinson’s disease cohort. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 130(7), 17871798.
Yarnall, A.J., Breen, D.P., Duncan, G.W., Khoo, T.K., Coleman, S.Y., Firbank, M.J., Nombela, C., Winder-Rhodes, S., Evans, J.R., Rowe, J.B., Mollenhauer, B., Kruse, N., Hudson, G., Chinnery, P.F., O’Brien, J.T., Robbins, T.W., Wesnes, K., Brooks, D.J., Barker, R.A., Burn, D.J., & ICICLE-PD Study Group (2014). Characterizing mild cognitive impairment in incident Parkinson disease: The ICICLE-PD Study. Neurology, 82(4), 308316.
Yoon, J.H., Kim, M., Moon, S.Y., Yong, S.W., & Hong, J.M. (2015). Olfactory function and neuropsychological profile to differentiate dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer’s disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment: A 5-year follow-up study. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 355(1–2), 174179.
Yu, R.L., Wu, R.M., Tai, C.H., Lin, C.H., Cheng, T.W., & Hua, M.S. (2012). Neuropsychological profile in patients with early stage of Parkinson’s disease in Taiwan. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 18(10), 10671072.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Ciafone et al. supplementary material
Ciafone et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (20 KB)
20 KB
Supplementary materials

Ciafone et al. supplementary material
Ciafone et al. supplementary material 2

 Unknown (56 KB)
56 KB

The Neuropsychological Profile of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Lewy Body Dementias

  • Joanna Ciafone (a1), Bethany Little (a1), Alan J. Thomas (a1) and Peter Gallagher (a1) (a2)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.