Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A model of comprehension in spina bifida meningomyelocele: Meaning activation, integration, and revision

  • MARCIA A. BARNES (a1) (a2) (a3), JOELENE HUBER (a3), AMBER M. JOHNSTON (a1) and MAUREEN DENNIS (a3) (a4)

Abstract

Spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with adequate development of word reading and single word comprehension, but deficient text and discourse comprehension. Studies of comprehension in children with SBM are reviewed in relation to a comprehension model in which meanings are either activated from the surface code or constructed through resource-intensive integration and revision processes to form representations of the text base and models of the situation described by the text. Two new studies probed the construction of situation models in SBM. Experiment 1 tested the ability to build spatial and affective situation models from single sentences in 86 children with SBM (8 to 18 years of age) and 37 control children (8 to 16 years of age). Experiment 2 tested the ability to integrate across sentences to build spatial situation models in 15 children with SBM and 15 age-matched controls. Compared to age peers, children with SBM did not construct situation models that required integration of information across sentences, even though they could construct such models from single sentences. The data bear on the distinctive SBM neurocognitive profile, and more generally, on the significance of integration processes for the constructive aspects of language comprehension. (JINS, 2007, 13, 854–864.)

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Marcia A. Barnes, Psychology Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, L9H 4Y9, Canada. E-mail: barnesm@uoguelph.ca

References

Hide All

REFERENCES

Albrecht, J.E. & Myers, J.L. (1998). Accessing distant text information during reading: Effects of contextual cues. Discourse Processes, 26, 87107.
Barnes, M.A. & Dennis, M. (1992). Reading in children and adolescents after early-onset hydrocephalus and in normally developing peers: Phonological analysis, word recognition, word comprehension, and passage comprehension skill. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 17, 445465.
Barnes, M.A. & Dennis, M. (1996). Reading comprehension deficits arise from diverse sources: Evidence from readers with and without developmental brain pathology. In C. Cornoldi & J. Oakhill (Eds.), Reading Comprehension Difficulties (pp. 251278). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Barnes, M.A. & Dennis, M. (1998). Discourse after early-onset hydrocephalus: Core deficits in children of average intelligence. Brain and Language, 61, 309334.
Barnes, M.A. & Dennis, M. (2001). Knowledge-based inferencing after childhood head injury. Brain and Language, 76, 253265.
Barnes, M.A., Dennis, M., & Haefele-Kalvaitis, J. (1996). The effects of knowledge availability and knowledge accessibility on coherence and elaborative inferencing in children from six to fifteen years of age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 61, 216241.
Barnes, M.A., Faulkner, H., & Dennis, M. (2001). Poor reading comprehension despite fast word decoding in children with hydrocephalus. Brain and Language, 76, 3544.
Barnes, M.A., Faulkner, H., Wilkinson, M., & Dennis, M. (2004). Meaning construction and integration in children with hydrocephalus. Brain and Language, 89, 4756.
Barnes, M.A., Wilkinson, M., Boudousquie, A., Khemani, E., Dennis, M., & Fletcher, J.M. (2006). Arithmetic processing in chil-dren with spina bifida: Calculation accuracy, strategy use, and fact retrieval fluency. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39, 174187.
Bransford, J.D. & Franks, J.J. (1972). The abstraction of linguistic ideas: A review. Cognition, 1, 211249.
Bunge, S.A., Ochsner, K.N., Desmond, J.E., Glover, G.H., & Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2001). Prefrontal regions involved in keeping information out of mind. Brain, 124, 20742086.
Cain, K., Oakhill, J.V., Barnes, M.A., & Bryant, P.E. (2001). Comprehension skill, inference making ability and their relation to knowledge. Memory and Cognition, 29, 850859.
Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Elbro, C. (2003). The ability to learn new word meanings from context by school-age children with and without language comprehension difficulties. Journal of Child Language, 30, 681694.
Caplan, D. & Waters, G. (2006). Language disorders in aging. In E. Bialystok & F.I.M. Craik (Eds.), Life Span Cognition: Mechanisms of Change. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Clifton, C.Jr. & Duffy, S.A. (2001). Sentence and text comprehension: Roles of linguistic structure. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 167196.
Colvin, A.N., Yeates, O.K., Enrile, B.G., & Coury, D.L. (2003). Motor adaptation in children with myelomeningocele: Comparison to children with ADHD and healthy siblings. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 642652.
Darby, D. (2000). MacStim (version 3.0) computer software. West Melbourne, VIC, Australia: WhiteAnt Occasional Publishing.
Dempster, F.N. (1993). Resistance to interference: Developmental changes in a basic processing mechanism. In M.L. Howe & R. Pasnak (Eds.), Emerging Themes in Cognitive Development, Volume I: Foundations (pp. 327). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Dennis, M. & Barnes, M.A. (2002). Math and numeracy skills in young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Developmental Neuropsychology, 21, 141155.
Dennis, M., Fletcher, J.M., Rogers, S., Hetherington, R., & Francis, D. (2002). Object-based and action-based visual perception in children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 95106.
Dennis, M., Hendrick, E.B., Hoffman, H.J., & Humphreys, R.P. (1987). The language of hydrocephalic children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 9, 593621.
Dennis, M., Jacennik, B., & Barnes, M.A. (1994). The content of narrative discourse in children and adolescents after early-onset hydrocephalus and in normally-developing age peers. Brain and Language, 46, 129165.
Dennis, M., Jewell, D., Edelstein, K., Brandt, M., Hetherington, R., Blaser, S., & Fletcher, J. (2006a). Motor learning in children with spina bifida: Intact learning and performance on a ballistic task. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 598608.
Dennis, M., Landry, S.H., Barnes, M.A., & Fletcher, J.M. (2006b). A model of neurocognitive function in spina bifida over the lifespan. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 285296.
Edelstein, K., Dennis, M., Copeland, K., Francis, D., Frederick, J., Brandt, M., Hetherington, R., & Fletcher, J.M. (2004). Motor learning in children with spina bifida: Dissociation between performance level and acquisition rate. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 877887.
Engle, R.W., Conway, A.R.A., Tuholski, S.W., & Shisler, R.J. (1995). A resource account of inhibition. Psychological Science, 6, 122126.
Fletcher, J.M., Dennis, M., Northrup, H., Barnes, M.A., Hannay, H.J., Landry, S.H., Copeland, K., Blaser, S.E., Kramer, L.A., Brandt, M.E., & Francis, D.J. (2004). Spina bifida: Genes, brain, and development. In L.M. Glidden, (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Mental Retardation (Vol. 28). San Diego: Academic Press.
Fletcher, J.M., Copeland, K., Frederick, J., Blaser, S.E., Kramer, L.A., Northrup, H., Hannay, H.J., Brandt, M.E., Francis, D.J., Villarreal, G., Drake, J.M., Laurent, J., Townsend, I., Inwood, S., Boudousquie, A., & Dennis, M. (2005). Spinal lesion level in spina bifida meningomyelocele: A source of neural and cognitive heterogeneity. Journal of Neurosurgery, 102, 268279.
Fox Tree, J.E. & Meijer, P.J.A. (1999). Building syntactic structure in speaking. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 28, 7192.
Friederici, A.D. (2002). Towards a neural basis of auditory sentence processing. Trends in Cognitive Science, 6, 7884.
Gazzaley, A., Cooney, J.W., McEvoy, K., Knight, R.T., & D'Esposito, D. (2005). Top down enhancement and suppression of the magnitude and speed of neural activity. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 507517.
Gernsbacher, M.A. (1990). Language comprehension as structure building. Hillsdale. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gernsbacher, M.A. & Faust, M.E. (1991). The mechanism of suppression: A component of general comprehension skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 245262.
Graesser, A.C., Millis, K., & Zwaan, R.A. (1997). Discourse comprehension. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 163189.
Harnishfeger, K.K. & Bjorklund, D.F. (1994). A developmental perspective on individual differences in inhibition. Learning and Individual Differences, 6, 331355.
Horn, D.G., Lorch, E.P., Lorch, R.F., & Culatta, B. (1985). Distractibility and vocabulary deficits in children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 27, 713720.
Huber-Okrainec, J., Blaser, S.E., & Dennis, M. (2005). Idiom comprehension deficits in relation to corpus callosum agenesis and hypoplasia in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele. Brain and Language, 93, 349368.
Johnston, A. & Barnes, M.A. (2007). The role of attentional control in reading comprehension. Poster presentation at the Society for Scientific Studies in Reading annual conference, Prague, The Czech Republic, July 12–14.
Kintsch, W. (1988). The role of knowledge in discourse comprehension: A construction integration model. Psychological Review, 95, 163182.
Kirkpatrick, T.L. & Northrup, H. (2003). Neural tube defects: Genetics. Encyclopedia of the Human Gemone. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., Nature Publishing Group.
Long, D.L., Oppy, B.J., & Seely, M.R. (1997). Individual differences in readers' sentence- and text-level representations, Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 129145.
MacDonald, M.C., Pearlmutter, N.J., & Seidenberg, M.S. (1994). Lexical nature of syntactic ambiguity resolution. Psychological Review, 101, 676703.
Mani, K. & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1982). The mental representation of spatial descriptions. Memory & Cognition, 10, 181187.
Miyake, A. & Shah, P. (1999). Models of working memory. Mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Morrow, D.G., Bower, G.H., & Greenspan, S.L. (1989). Updating situation models during narrative comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 292312.
Parsons, J.G. (1969). An investigation into the verbal facility of hydrocephalic children with special reference to vocabulary, morphology, and fluency. Developmental Medicine and Childhood Neurology, 10, 109110.
Phillips, C.E., Jarrold, C., Baddeley, A., Grant, J., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2004). Comprehension of spatial language terms in Williams syndrome: Evidence for an interaction between domains of strength and weakness. Cortex, 40, 85101.
Purzner, J., Wilkinson, M., Boudousquie, A., Fletcher, J., & Barnes, M.A. (2004). Verbal and visual working memory in children with spina bifida. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10.
Salman, M.S., Sharpe, J.A., Eizenman, M., Lillakas, L., To, T., Westall, C., Steinbach, M., & Dennis, M. (2005). Saccades in children with spina bifida and Arnold-Chiari Type II malformation. Neurology, 64, 20982101.
Schmalhofer, F., McDaniel, M.A., & Keefe, D. (2002). A unified model for predictive and bridging inferences. Discourse Processes, 33, 105132.
Seidenberg, M.S., Tanenhaus, M.K., Leiman, J.M., & Bienkowski, M. (1982). Automatic access of the meaning of ambiguous words in context: Some limitations of knowledge-based processing. Cognitive Psychology, 14, 489537.
Snodgrass, J.G. & Vanderwart, M. (1980). A standardized set of 260 pictures: Norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Learning and Memory, 6, 174215.
Spooner, A.R.L., Gathercole, S.E., & Baddeley, D.E. (2006). Does weak reading comprehension reflect an integration deficit? Journal of Research in Reading, 29, 173193.
Thorndike, R.L., Hagen, E.P., & Sattler, J.M. (1986). The Stanford-Biner Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition. Chicago: Riverside.
Tompkins, C.A., Baumgaertner, A., Lehman, M.T., & Fassbinder, W. (2000). Mechanisms of discourse comprehension impairment after right hemisphere brain damage: Suppression in lexical ambiguity resolution. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43, 6278.
van den Broek, P., Young, M., Tzeng, Y., & Linderholm, T. (1999). The landscape model of reading: Inferences and the online construction of a memory representation. In H. van Oostendorp & S.R. Goldman (Eds.), The Construction of Mental Representations During Reading (pp. 7198). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Van Lancker-Sidtis, D. (2004). When novel sentences spoken or heard for the first time in the history of the universe are not enough: Toward a dual-process model of language. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 39, 144.
Vosse, T. & Kempen, G. (2000). Syntactic structure assembly in human parsing: A computational model based on competitive inhibition and a lexicalist grammar. Cognition, 75, 105143.
Woodcock, R.W. & Johnson, M.B. (1989). Tests of Cognitive Ability and Tests of Achievement. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside Publishing.
Yeates, K.O. & Enrile, B.G. (2005). Implicit and explicit memory in children with congenital and acquired brain disorder. Neuropsychology, 19, 618628.
Yeates, K.O., Enrile, B.G., Loss, N., Blumenstein, E., & Delis, D. (1995). Verbal learning and memory in children with myelomeningocele. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 20, 801815.
Zwann, R.A. & Radvansky, G.A. (1998). Situation models in language comprehension and memory. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 162185.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed