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Measuring Cortical Connectivity in Alzheimer’s Disease as a Brain Neural Network Pathology: Toward Clinical Applications

  • Stefan Teipel (a1) (a2), Michel J. Grothe (a2), Juan Zhou (a3), Jorge Sepulcre (a4), Martin Dyrba (a2), Christian Sorg (a5) and Claudio Babiloni (a6)...

Abstract

Objectives: The objective was to review the literature on diffusion tensor imaging as well as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography (EEG) to unveil neuroanatomical and neurophysiological substrates of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as a brain neural network pathology affecting structural and functional cortical connectivity underlying human cognition. Methods: We reviewed papers registered in PubMed and other scientific repositories on the use of these techniques in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and clinically mild AD dementia patients compared to cognitively intact elderly individuals (Controls). Results: Hundreds of peer-reviewed (cross-sectional and longitudinal) papers have shown in patients with MCI and mild AD compared to Controls (1) impairment of callosal (splenium), thalamic, and anterior–posterior white matter bundles; (2) reduced correlation of resting state blood oxygen level-dependent activity across several intrinsic brain circuits including default mode and attention-related networks; and (3) abnormal power and functional coupling of resting state cortical EEG rhythms. Clinical applications of these measures are still limited. Conclusions: Structural and functional (in vivo) cortical connectivity measures represent a reliable marker of cerebral reserve capacity and should be used to predict and monitor the evolution of AD and its relative impact on cognitive domains in pre-clinical, prodromal, and dementia stages of AD. (JINS, 2016, 22, 138–163)

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Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Stefan Teipel, DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Gehlsheimer Str. 20, 18147 Rostock. E-mail: stefan.teipel@med.uni-rostock.de

References

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