Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Does Apolipoprotein e4 Status Moderate the Association of Family Environment with Long-Term Child Functioning following Early Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury? A Preliminary Study

  • Amery Treble-Barna (a1), Huaiyu Zang (a2), Nanhua Zhang (a2), Lisa J. Martin (a3), Keith Owen Yeates (a4), H. Gerry Taylor (a5), Shari L. Wade (a1) and Brad G. Kurowski (a1)...

Abstract

Objectives: To examine whether apolipoprotein e4 (APOE) status moderates the association of family environment with child functioning following early traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Sixty-five children with moderate to severe TBI and 70 children with orthopedic injury (OI) completed assessments 6, 12, 18 months, and 3.5 and 6.8 years post injury. DNA was extracted from saliva samples and genotyped for APOE e4 status. Linear mixed models examined moderating effects of APOE e4 status on associations between two family environment factors (parenting style, home environment) and three child outcomes (executive functioning, behavioral adjustment, adaptive functioning). Results: Children with TBI who were carriers of the e4 allele showed poorer adaptive functioning relative to non-carriers with TBI and children with OI in the context of low authoritarianism. At high levels of authoritarianism, non-carriers with TBI showed the poorest adaptive functioning among groups. There were no main effects or interactions involving APOE and executive functioning or behavioral adjustment. Conclusions:The APOE e4 allele was detrimental for long-term adaptive functioning in the context of positive parenting, whereas in less optimal parenting contexts, being a non-carrier was detrimental. We provide preliminary evidence for an interaction of APOE e4 status and parenting style in predicting long-term outcomes following early TBI. (JINS, 2016, 22, 859–864)

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Amery Treble-Barna, Division of Pediatric Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039. E-mail: amery.treble-barna@cchmc.org

References

Hide All
Achenbach, T.M., & Rescorla, L.A. (2001). Manual for ASEBA School-Age Forms & Profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.
Baumrind, D. (1966). Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Development, 887907.
Berg, K., Kondo, I., Drayna, D., & Lawn, R. (1989). “Variability gene” effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) genes. Clinical Genetics, 35(6), 437445.
Bradley, R.H., & Caldwell, B.M. (1984). The HOME Inventory and family demographics. Developmental Psychology, 20(2), 315.
Brichtova, E., & Kozak, L. (2008). Apolipoprotein E genotype and traumatic brain injury in children--Association with neurological outcome. Child’s Nervous System, 24(3), 349356. doi:10.1007/s00381-007-0459-6
Crawford, F.C., Vanderploeg, R.D., Freeman, M.J., Singh, S., Waisman, M., Michaels, L., & Mullan, M.J. (2002). APOE genotype influences acquisition and recall following traumatic brain injury. Neurology, 58(7), 11151118.
Friedman, G., Froom, P., Sazbon, L., Grinblatt, I., Shochina, M., Tsenter, J., & Groswasser, Z. (1999). Apolipoprotein E-ε4 genotype predicts a poor outcome in survivors of traumatic brain injury. Neurology, 52(2), 244248.
Gioia, G.A., Isquith, P.K., Guy, S.C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). Behavior rating inventory of executive function. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Hodges, K., Wong, M.M., & Latessa, M. (1998). Use of the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) as an outcome measure in clinical settings. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 25(3), 325336.
Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 6570.
Ihle, A., Bunce, D., & Kliegel, M. (2012). APOE ε4 and cognitive function in early life: A meta-analysis. Neuropsychology, 26(3), 267277.
Kassam, I., Gagnon, F., & Cusimano, M.D. (2016). Association of the APOE-ε4 allele with outcome of traumatic brain injury in children and youth: A meta-analysis and meta-regression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 87, 433440.
Kurowski, B., Backeljauw, B., Zang, H., Zhang, N., Martin, L.J., Pilipenko, V., & Wade, S. (2015). Influence of catechol-O-methyltransferase on executive functioning longitudinally after early childhood traumatic brain injury: Preliminary findings. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 31(3), E1E9.
Kurowski, B., Martin, L.J., & Wade, S.L. (2012). Genetics and outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI): What do we know about pediatric TBI? Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 5(3), 217231. doi:10.3233/PRM-2012-0214
Lee, B.K., Glass, T.A., James, B.D., Bandeen-Roche, K., & Schwartz, B.S. (2011). Neighborhood psychosocial environment, apolipoprotein E genotype, and cognitive function in older adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(3), 314321.
Liberman, J.N., Stewart, W.F., Wesnes, K., & Troncoso, J. (2002). Apolipoprotein E ε4 and short-term recovery from predominantly mild brain injury. Neurology, 58(7), 10381044.
Lichtman, S.W., Seliger, G., Tycko, B., & Marder, K. (2000). Apolipoprotein E and functional recovery from brain injury following postacute rehabilitation. Neurology, 55(10), 15361539.
Lo, T.Y., Jones, P.A., Chambers, I.R., Beattie, T.F., Forsyth, R., Mendelow, A.D., && Minns, R.A. (2009). Modulating effect of apolipoprotein E polymorphisms on secondary brain insult and outcome after childhood brain trauma. Child’s Nervous System, 25(1), 4754. doi:10.1007/s00381-008-0723-4
McClelland, G.H., Judd, C.M. (1993). Statistical difficulties of detecting interactions and moderator effects. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 376390.
Ost, M., Nylen, K., Csajbok, L., Blennow, K., Rosengren, L., & Nellgard, B. (2008). Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and gender difference in outcome after severe traumatic brain injury. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 52(10), 13641369. doi:10.1111/j.1399-6576.2008.01675.x
Ponsford, J., McLaren, A., Schönberger, M., Burke, R., Rudzki, D., Olver, J., &&Ponsford, M. (2011). The association between apolipoprotein E and traumatic brain injury severity and functional outcome in a rehabilitation sample. Journal of Neurotrauma, 28(9), 16831692.
Quinn, T.J., Smith, C., Murray, L., Stewart, J., Nicoll, J.A., & Graham, D.I. (2004). There is no evidence of an association in children and teenagers between the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele and post-traumatic brain swelling. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 30(6), 569575. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2990.2004.00581.x
Ritchie, K., Jaussent, I., Stewart, R., Dupuy, A.M., Courtet, P., Malafosse, A., &&Ancelin, M.L. (2011). Adverse childhood environment and late‐life cognitive functioning. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26(5), 503510.
Robinson, C.C., Mandleco, B., Olsen, S.F., & Hart, C.H. (1995). Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Development of a new measure. Psychological Reports, 77(3), 819830.
Teasdale, G., & Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet, 2(7872), 8184.
Teasdale, G.M., Murray, G.D., & Nicoll, J.A. (2005). The association between APOE epsilon4, age and outcome after head injury: A prospective cohort study. Brain, 128(Pt 11), 25562561. doi:10.1093/brain/awh595
Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., Walz, N.C., Stancin, T., & Wade, S.L. (2010). The family environment as a moderator of psychosocial outcomes following traumatic brain injury in young children. Neuropsychology, 24(3), 345356. doi:10.1037/a0018387

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed