Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-54jdg Total loading time: 0.536 Render date: 2022-08-15T07:07:44.159Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Theory of Mind and Parental Nurturance as Predictors of Peer Relationships After Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: A Test of Moderated Mediation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 July 2019

Stephanie Deighton*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
Christianne Laliberté Durish
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
H. Gerry Taylor
Affiliation:
Departments of Pediatrics and Psychology, The Ohio State University, and Center for Biobehavioral Health, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA
Kenneth Rubin
Affiliation:
Department of Human Development & Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
Maureen Dennis
Affiliation:
Program in Neuroscience and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
Erin D. Bigler
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA
Kathryn Vannatta
Affiliation:
Departments of Pediatrics and Psychology, The Ohio State University, and Center for Biobehavioral Health, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA
Cynthia A. Gerhardt
Affiliation:
Departments of Pediatrics and Psychology, The Ohio State University, and Center for Biobehavioral Health, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA
Terry Stancin
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, MetroHealth Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
Keith Owen Yeates
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, AB, Canada
*
*Correspondence and reprint requests to: Stephanie Deighton, Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada. E-mail: smdeight@ucalgary.ca

Abstract

Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained in childhood is associated with poor social outcomes. This study investigated the role of theory of mind (ToM) as a mediator of the relation between TBI and peer rejection/victimization and reciprocated friendships, as well as the moderating effect of parental nurturance on those relationships. Method: Participants were children of 8–13 years old (M = 10.45, SD = 1.47), including 13 with severe TBI, 39 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 32 children with orthopedic injuries. Data on peer rejection/victimization and friendship were collected in school classrooms using the Extended Class Play and friendship nominations. Parents rated parental nurturance using the Child-Rearing Practices Report. Finally, ToM was measured based on children’s average performance across three tasks measuring different aspects of ToM. Results: Severe TBI was associated with poorer ToM, greater peer rejection/victimization, and fewer reciprocated friendships. ToM mediated the relation between severe TBI and peer rejection/victimization (i.e., severe TBI predicted poorer ToM, which in turn predicted greater rejection/victimization). Parental nurturance significantly moderated this relation, such that the mediating effect of ToM was significant only at low and average levels of parental nurturance, for both severe and complicated mild/moderate TBI groups. Neither the mediating effect of ToM nor the moderating effect of parental nurturance was significant for reciprocated friendships. Conclusion: High parental nurturance may mitigate the negative effects of ToM deficits on risk of peer rejection/victimization among children with TBI. Interventions designed to increase parental nurturance or ToM may promote better social outcomes among children with TBI.

Type
Regular Research
Copyright
Copyright © INS. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2019. 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Anderson, V. & Beauchamp, M.H. (2012). Developmental social neuroscience and childhood brain insult: Theory and practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca Google Scholar
Booth-Laforce, C., Oh, W., Kim, A.H., Rubin, K.H., Rose-Krasnor, L., & Burgess, K. (2006). Attachment, self-worth, and peer-group functioning in middle childhood. Attachment & Human Development, 8(4), 309325. doi: 10.1080/14616730601048209 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brand, A.E. & Klimes-Dougan, B. (2010). Emotion socialization in adolescence: The roles of mothers and fathers. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2010(128), 85100. doi: 10.1002/cd.270 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brophy-Herb, H.E., Schiffman, R.F., Bocknek, E.L., Dupuis, S.B., Fitzgerald, H.E., Horodynski, M., Onaga, E., Van Egeren, L.A., & Hillaker, B. (2011). Toddlers’ social-emotional competence in the contexts of maternal emotion socialization and contingent responsiveness in a low-income sample. Social Development, 20(1), 7392. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00570.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bukowski, W.M., Hoza, B., & Boivin, M. (1994). Measuring friendship quality during pre-and early adolescence: The development and psychometric properties of the Friendship Qualities Scale. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11(3), 471484. doi: 10.1177/0265407594113011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dennis, M., Simic, N., Bigler, E.D., Abildskov, T., Agostino, A., Taylor, H.G., Rubin, K., Vannatta, K., Gerhardt, C.A., Stancin, T., & Yeates, K.O. (2013). Cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind (ToM) in children with traumatic brain injury. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 5, 2539. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2012.11.006 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dennis, M., Francis, D.J., Cirino, P.T., Schachar, R., Barnes, M.A., & Fletcher, J.M. (2009). Why IQ is not a covariate in cognitive studies of neurodevelopmental disorders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(3), 331343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dennis, M., Barnes, M.A., Wilkinson, M., & Humphreys, R.P. (1998). How children with head injury represent real and deceptive emotion in short narratives. Brain and Language, 61(3), 450483. doi: 10.1006/brln.1997.1886 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dennis, M., Purvis, K., Barnes, M.A., Wilkinson, M., & Winner, E. (2001). Understanding of literal truth, ironic criticism, and deceptive praise following childhood head injury. Brain and Language, 78(1), 116. doi: 10.1006/brln.2000.2431 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Farrant, B.M., Devine, T.A., Maybery, M.T., & Fletcher, J. (2012). Empathy, perspective taking and prosocial behaviour: The importance of parenting practices. Infant and Child Development, 21(2), 175188. doi: 10.1002/icd.740 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ganesalingam, K., Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., Walz, N.C., Stancin, T., and Wade, S. (2011). Executive functions and social competence in young children 6 months following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 25, 466476. doi: 10.1037/a0022768 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haskett, M.E. & Willoughby, M. (2007). Paths to child social adjustment: Parenting quality and children’s processing of social information. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(1), 6777. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2006.00627.x Google ScholarPubMed
Hayes, A.F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper]. Retrieved from http://www.afhayes.com/public/process2012.pdf Google Scholar
Hayes, A.F. (2015). An index and test of linear moderated mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50, 122. doi: 10.1080/00273171.2014.962683 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hayes, A.F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York. NY: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
Heverly-Fitt, S., Wimsatt, M.A., Menzer, M.M., Rubin, K.H., Dennis, M., Taylor, H.G., Stancin, T., Gerhardt, C.A., Vannatta, K., Bigler, E.D., & Yeates, K.O. (2014). Friendship quality and psychosocial outcomes among children with traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 20, 684693. doi: 10.1017/S1355617714000393 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hung, A.H., Cassedy, A., Schultz, H.M., Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., Stancin, T., Walz, N.C., & Wade, S.L. (2017). Predictors of long-term victimization after early pediatric traumatic brain injury. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 38(1), 4957. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000366 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kashluba, S., Hanks, R.A., Casey, J.E., & Mills, S.R. (2008). Neuropsychologic and functional outcome after complicated mild traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89(5), 904911.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kingery, J.N., & Erdley, C.A., & Marshall, K.C. (2011) Peer acceptance and friendship as predictors of early adolescents’ adjustment across the middle school transition. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 57(3), 215243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klimes-Dougan, B., Brand, A.E., Zahn-Waxler, C., Usher, B., Hastings, P.D., Kendziora, K., & Garside, R.B. (2007). Parental emotion socialization in adolescence: Differences in sex, age and problem status. Social Development, 16(2), 326342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ladd, G.W., & Burgess, K.B. (2001). Do relational risks and protective factors moderate the linkages between childhood aggression and early psychological and school adjustment? Child Development, 72(5), 15791601. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00366 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ladd, G.W., & Ladd, B.K. (1998). Parenting behaviors and parent–child relationships: Correlates of peer victimization in kindergarten? Developmental Psychology, 34(6), 1450.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Langlois, J.A., Rutland-Brown, W., & Thomas, K.E. (2005). The incidence of traumatic brain injury among children in the United States: differences by race. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20(3), 229238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malcolm, K.T., Jensen-Campbell, L.A., Rex-Lear, M., & Waldrip, A.M. (2006) Divided we fall: Children’s friendships and peer victimization. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 23, 721740. doi: 10.1177/0265407506068260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masten, A.S., Morison, P., & Pellegrini, D.S. (1985). A revised class play method of peer assessment. Developmental Psychology, 21(3), 523. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp2601_7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mezulis, A.H., Hyde, J.S., & Clark, R. (2004). Father involvement moderates the effect of maternal depression during a child’s infancy on child behavior problems in kindergarten. Journal of Family Psychology, 18(4), 575.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nangle, D.W., Erdley, C.A., Newman, J.E., Mason, C.A., & Carpenter, E.M. (2003). Popularity, friendship quantity, and friendship quality: Interactive influences on children’s loneliness and depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32(4), 546555. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3204_7 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Newcomb, A.F., & Bagwell, C.L. (1995) Children’s friendship relations: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 306347. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.117.2.306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, J.H., Essex, M.J., Zahn-Waxler, C., Armstrong, J.M., Klein, M.H., & Goldsmith, H.H. (2005). Relational and overt aggression in middle childhood: Early child and family risk factors. Early Education & Development, 16(2), 233258. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2005.10472869 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Potter, J.L., Wade, S.L., Walz, N.C., Cassedy, A., Stevens, M.H., Yeates, K.O., & Taylor, H.G. (2011). Parenting style is related to executive dysfunction after brain injury in children. Rehabilitation Psychology, 56(4), 351. doi: 10.1037/a0025445 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rickel, A.U., & Biasatti, L.L. (1982). Modification of the block child rearing practices report. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38(1), 129134.3.0.CO;2-3>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, K.E., Fountain-Zaragoza, S., Dennis, M., Taylor, H.G., Bigler, E.D., Rubin, K., Vannatta, K., Gerhardt, C.A., Stancin, T., & Yeates, K.O. (2014). Executive functions and theory of mind as predictors of social adjustment in childhood traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 31(22), 18351842. doi: 10.1089/neu.2014.3422 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Root, A.E., Wimsatt, M., Rubin, K.H., Bigler, E.D., Dennis, M., Gerhardt, C.A., Stancin, T., Taylor, H.G., Vannatta, K., & Yeates, K.O. (2016). Children with traumatic brain injury: Associations between parenting and social adjustment. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 42, 17. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2015.10.002 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosema, S., Crowe, L., & Anderson, V. (2012). Social function in children and adolescents after traumatic brain injury: A systematic review 1989–2011. Journal of Neurotrauma, 29(7), 12771291. doi: 10.1089/neu.2011.2144 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ross, K.A., McMillan, T., Kelly, T., Sumpter, R., & Dorris, L. (2011). Friendship, loneliness and psychosocial functioning in children with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 25(12), 12061211. doi: 10.3109/02699052.2011.609519 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rubin, K.H., Bukowski, W.M., & Bowker, J.C. (2015). Children in peer groups. In Lerner, R.M., Bornstein, M.H., and Leventhal, T. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (pp. 175222). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.Google Scholar
Rubin, K.H., Wojslawowicz, J.C., Rose-Krasnor, L., Booth-LaForce, C., & Burgess, K.B. (2006). The best friendships of shy/withdrawn children: Prevalence, stability, and relationship quality. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34(2), 139153. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-9017-4 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ryan, N.P., Catroppa, C., Beare, R., Silk, T.J., Crossley, L., Beauchamp, M.H., Yeates, K.O., & Anderson, V.A. (2016). Theory of mind mediates the prospective relationship between abnormal social brain network morphology and chronic behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(4), 683692. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsw007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schneier, A.J., Shields, B.J., Hostetler, S.G., Xiang, H., & Smith, G.A. (2006). Incidence of pediatric traumatic brain injury and associated hospital resource utilization in the United States. Pediatrics, 118(2), 483492. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-2588 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwartz, L., Taylor, H.G., Drotar, D., Yeates, K.O., Wade, S.L., & Stancin, T. (2003). Long-term behavior problems following pediatric traumatic brain injury: prevalence, predictors, and correlates. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 28(4), 251263. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsg013 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sodian, B. (2011). Theory of mind in infancy. Child Development Perspectives, 5(1), 3943. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2010.00152.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teasdale, G., & Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet, 2(7872), 8184. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(74)91639-0 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wade, S.L., Cassedy, A., Walz, N.C., Taylor, H.G., Stancin, T., & Yeates, K.O. (2011). The relationship of parental warm responsiveness and negativity to emerging behavior problems following traumatic brain injury in young children. Developmental Psychology, 47(1), 119. doi: 10.1037/a0021028 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). USA: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Wellman, H.M., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). Meta analysis of theory of mind development: the truth about false belief. Child Development, 72(3), 655684. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00304 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolfe, K.R., Bigler, E.D., Dennis, M., Gerhardt, C.A., Rubin, K., Taylor, H.G., Vannatta, K., & Yeates, K O. (2014). Self-awareness of peer-rated social attributes in children with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 40(3), 272284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wojslawowicz Bowker, J.C., Rubin, K.H., Booth-LaForce, C., & Rose-Krasnor, L. (2006) Behavioral characteristics associated with stable and fluid best friendship patterns in middle childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 52, 671693. doi: 10.1353/mpq.2006.0000 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yan-Yan, L., & Biao, S. (2006). Mothers’ parenting style and the development of children’s theory of mind. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 20(1), 59.Google Scholar
Yeates, K.O., Bigler, E.D., Dennis, M., Gerhardt, C.A., Rubin, K.H., Stancin, T., Taylor, H.G., & Vannatta, K. (2007). Social outcomes in childhood brain disorder: a heuristic integration of social neuroscience and developmental psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 133(3), 535. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.3.535 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeates, K.O., Bigler, E.D., Abildskov, T., Dennis, M., Gerhardt, C.A., Vannatta, K., Rubin, K.H., Stancin, T., & Taylor, H.G. (2014). Social competence in pediatric traumatic brain injury: From brain to behavior. Clinical Psychological Science, 2(1), 97107. doi: 10.1177/2167702613499734 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yeates, K.O., Gerhardt, C.A., Bigler, E.D., Abildskov, T., Dennis, M., Rubin, K.H., Stancin, T., Taylor, H.G., & Vannatta, K. (2013). Peer relationships of children with traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 19(5), 518527. doi: 10.1017/S1355617712001531 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeates, K.O., Taylor, H.G., Walz, N.C., Stancin, T., & Wade, S.L. (2010). The family environment as a moderator of psychosocial outcomes following traumatic brain injury in young children. Neuropsychology, 24(3), 345. doi: 10.1037/a0018387 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Theory of Mind and Parental Nurturance as Predictors of Peer Relationships After Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: A Test of Moderated Mediation
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Theory of Mind and Parental Nurturance as Predictors of Peer Relationships After Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: A Test of Moderated Mediation
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Theory of Mind and Parental Nurturance as Predictors of Peer Relationships After Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: A Test of Moderated Mediation
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *