Skip to main content Accessibility help

The relations between allometry, phylogeny, and functional morphology in some calceocrinid crinoids

  • James C. Brower (a1)


Calceocrinids are unique crinoids with the crown movably hinged to a recumbent stem. The crown was raised for feeding by closing the hinge and bending the proximal stem. While resting, the crown lay parallel to the stem with the hinge opened. Allometric equations for four species reflect a combination of ontogeny, adult body size, phylogeny, habitat, and functional morphology. The hinge of most adult calceocrinids is extended into ear-like projections which made the crown more stable on the seafloor. For the hinge moment versus the effective weight of the crown, positive allometry characterized taxa that lived in agitated environments, whereas isometry was adequate for quiet-water species. The adult body size provides a secondary effect on the data for crinoids from the same type of environment. Here, the initial intercepts are transposed so that larger animals functioned like smaller ones. The equations are independent of phylogenetic position. All species exhibit positive allometry of the length and number of plates in the arms. The food-gathering capacity of a crinoid is estimated by the number of food-catching tube-feet multiplied by the width of the food grooves, whereas the soft parts that must be fed are proportional to the crown volume. The ratio of food-gathering capacity to crown volume is either fixed or decreases slightly in larger crinoids. Statistical tests reveal that all species follow a single developmental pattern for these two parameters. However, some of the evolutionary changes in the arms permitted calceocrinids to retain an adequate food-gathering capacity into larger adult body sizes.



Hide All
Alexander, R. M. 1982. Locomotion of Animals. Blackie, Glasgow and London, 162 p.
Ausich, W. I. 1980. A model for differentiation in lower Mississippian crinoid communities. Journal of Paleontology, 54:273288.
Ausich, W. I. 1984. Calceocrinids from the Early Silurian (Llandoverian) Brassfield Formation of southwestern Ohio. Journal of Paleontology, 58:11671185.
Ausich, W. I. 1986. Palaeoecology and history of the Calceocrinidae (Palaeozoic Crinoidea). Palaeontology, 29:8599.
Ausich, W. I., Kammer, T. W., and Lane, N. G. 1979. Fossil communities in Borden (Mississippian) Delta in Indiana and northern Kentucky. Journal of Paleontology, 53:11821196.
Breimer, A., and Webster, G. D. 1975. A further contribution to the paleoecology of fossil stalked crinoids. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Series B, 78:149167.
Brett, C. E. 1981. Systematics and paleoecology of the Late Silurian (Wenlockian) calceocrinid crinoids from New York and Ontario. Journal of Paleontology, 55:145175.
Brett, C. E. 1984. Autecology of Silurian pelmatozoan echinoderms. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 32:87120.
Brower, J. C. 1966. Functional morphology of Calceocrinidae with description of some new species. Journal of Paleontology, 40:613634.
Brower, J. C. 1973. Crinoids from the Girardeau Limestone (Ordovician). Palaeontographica Americana, 7:261499.
Brower, J. C. 1977. Calceocrinids from the Bromide Formation (Middle Ordovician) of southern Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey Circular, 78:128.
Brower, J. C. 1982. Phylogeny of primitive calceocrinids. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Monograph 1:90110.
Brower, J. C. and Veinus, J. 1978. Middle Ordovician crinoids from the Twin Cities area of Minnesota. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 74:372506.
Eckert, J. D. 1984. Early Llandovery crinoids and stelleroids from the Cataract Group (Lower Silurian) in southern Ontario, Canada. Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sciences Contribution 137, 82 p.
Gould, S. J. 1966. Allometry and size in ontogeny and phylogeny. Biological Reviews, 41:587640.
Gould, S. J. 1971. Geometric similarity in allometric growth: a contribution to the problem of scaling in the evolution of size. American Naturalist, 105:113136.
Gould, S. J. 1977. Ontogeny and Phylogeny. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 498 p.
Green, P. E. 1978. Analyzing Multivariate Data. Dryden Press, Hindsdale, Illinois, 519 p.
Hall, J. 1860. Contributions to Palaeontology, 1858 & 1859: Observations upon a New Genus of Crinoidea, Cheirocrinus. New York State Cabinet of Natural History, Annual Report 13:121124.
Hayami, I., and Matsukuma, A. 1970. Variation of bivariate characters from the standpoint of allometry. Palaeontology, 13:588605.
Huxley, J. S. 1932. Problems of Relative Growth. Methuen, London, 276 p.
Imbrie, J. 1956. Biometrical methods in the study of invertebrate fossils. American Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 108:211252.
Jaekel, O. 1918. Phylogenie und system der Pelmatozoen. Palaeontologischen Zeitschrift, Band III, Heft, 1:1128.
Kammer, T. W. 1985. Aerosol filtration theory applied to Mississippian deltaic crinoids. Journal of Palaeontology, 59:551560.
Kesling, R. B., and Sigler, J. P. 1969. Cunctocrinus, a new Middle Devonian calceocrinid crinoid from the Silica Shale of Ohio. University of Michigan, Museum of Paleontology Contributions, 22:339360.
Kuhry, B., and Marcus, L. F. 1977. Bivariate linear models in biometry. Systematic Zoology, 2:201209.
Laudon, L. R. 1957. Crinoids. Geological Society of America, Memoir 67, Vol. 2:961971.
Macurda, D. B. Jr. 1973. Ecology of comatulid crinoids at Grand Bahama Island. Hydro-lab Journal (Bulletin of the Hydro-lab Underwater Research Program), 2:924.
Macurda, D. B. Jr. and Meyer, D. L. 1974. Feeding posture of modern stalked crinoids. Nature, 247:394396.
Magnus, D. B. E. 1967. Ecological and etiological studies and experiments on the echinoderms of the Red Sea. Studies in Tropical Oceanography, Miami, 5:633664.
Meek, F. B., and Worthen, A. H. 1873. Paleontology. Descriptions of invertebrates from Carboniferous System. Geological Survey of Illinois, Vol. 5, Geology and Palaeontology, p. 321619.
Meyer, D. L. 1973. Distribution and living habits of comatulids near Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Marine Science Bulletin, 23:244259.
Meyer, D. L. 1979. Length and spacing of the tube feet in crinoids (Echinodermata) and their role in suspension feeding. Marine Biology, 51:361369.
Meyer, D. L. 1982a. Food composition and feeding behavior of sympatric species of comatulids from the Palau Islands (Western Pacific), p. 4349. In Lawrence, J. M. (ed.), International Echinoderms Conference, Tampa Bay. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Meyer, D. L. 1982b. Food and feeding mechanisms: Crinozoa, p. 2542. In Jangoux, M. and Lawrence, J. M. (ed.), Echinoderm Nutrition. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Meyer, D. L. and Macurda, D. B. Jr. 1977. Adaptive radiation of comatulid crinoids. Paleobiology, 3:7482.
Meyer, D. L. and Macurda, D. B. Jr. 1980. Ecology and distribution of the shallow-water crinoids of Palau and Guam. Micronesica, 16:5999.
Moore, R. C. 1962. Revision of Calceocrinidae. University of Kansas, Paleontological Contributions, Echinodermata, article 4, 40 p.
Moore, R. C. and Lane, N. G. 1978. Superfamily Calceocrinacea, p. T524T533. In Moore, R. C. and Teichert, C. (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part T, Echinodermata 2. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, Lawrence.
Neter, J., Wasserman, W., and Kutner, M. H. 1983. Applied Linear Regression Models. Richard D. Irwin, Inc., Homewood, Illinois, 547 p.
Nichols, D. 1960. The histology and activities of the tube-feet of Antedon bifida . Quarterly Journal of the Microscopical Society, 101:105117.
Prokop, R.J. 1970. Family Calceocrinidae, Meek and Worthen, 1869 (Crinoidea) in the Silurian and Devonian of Bohemia. Sbornik Geologickych Ved Paleontologie Svak, 12:79134.
Ringueberg, E. N. S. 1889. The Calceocrinidae; a revision of the family, with descriptions of some new species. New York Academy of Science, 4:388408.
Rubenstein, D. I., and Koehl, M. A. R. 1977. The mechanisms of filter feeding: some theoretical considerations. American Naturalist, 111:981994.
Rutman, J., and Fishelson, L. 1969. Food composition and feeding behavior of shallow-water crinoids at Eilat (Red Sea). Marine Biology, 3:4657.
Sokal, R. R., and Rohlf, F. J. 1969. Biometry. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 776 p.
Springer, F. 1926. American Silurian crinoids. Smithsonian Institution, Publication 2871:1143.
Sprinkle, J., and Longman, M. W. 1982. Echinoderm paleoecology. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Monograph 1:6875.
Warner, G. F. 1977. On the shapes of passive suspension feeders, p. 567576. In Keegan, B. F., Ceidigh, P. O., and Boaden, P. J. S. (eds.), Biology of Benthic Organisms. Pergamon Press, New York.
Webster, G. D. 1976. A new genus of calceocrinid from Spain with comments on mosaic evolution. Palaeontology, 19:681688.
White, J. F., and Gould, S. J. 1965. Interpretation of the coefficient in the allometric equation. American Naturalist, 99:518.
Worthen, A. H. 1890. Description of fossil invertebrates. Illinois Geological Survey, Vol. 8, Pt. 2, Sec. 1, p. 69154.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The relations between allometry, phylogeny, and functional morphology in some calceocrinid crinoids

  • James C. Brower (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.