Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

New data on the anatomy of Conularia milwaukeensis Cleland, 1911 (Middle Devonian, Iowa and Wisconsin)

  • Heyo Van Iten (a1), Juliana de Moraes Leme (a2), Sabrina Coelho Rodrigues (a2) and Marcello Guimarães Simõtes (a3)

Extract

Reexamination of previously described conulariids has shown that the morphology of steeply pyramidal, generally four-sided conulariid exoskeletons is more complex than was realized by earlier generations of conulariid specialists (e.g., Van Iten, 1992a, 1992b; Jerre, 1994; Van Iten et al., 1996). Much of this complexity is expressed as variation in the anatomy of the corners and midlines (Van Iten, 1992a). In nearly all conulariids, the corners are sulcate, and in some genera (e.g., Archaeoconularia Bouček, 1939 and Pseudoconularia Bouček, 1939) the longitudinal center line, or midline, of the faces also is sulcate or is marked by a straight or zigzagged ridge. In the oldest known conulariid, Baccaconularia Hughes, Gunderson, and Weedon, 2000 (Cambrian: Furongian Series), the midlines are marked by a series of elongate invaginations. Corners and/or midlines of many other conulariids exhibit subtle or pronounced internal thickening (e.g., Van Iten, 1992a; Jerre, 1994). Most such conulariids exhibit one or two sets of longitudinal ridges, or carinae, with a single carina at each corner and/or a single carina or a pair of carinae at each midline. The height of the carinae varies considerably between species, ranging from less than one-fiftieth to over one-half the distance to the center of the exoskeletal cavity. Both corner and midline carinae may be continuous or (less frequently) seriated. Also, the abaxial edge of single midline carinae may have a single crest or (rarely) it may be weakly or strongly bifurcate.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Babcock, L. E., and Feldmann, R. M. 1986. Devonian and Mississippian conulariids of North America, Pt. A, General description and Conularia . Annals of Carnegie Museum, 55:349410.
Bergström, J. 1995. Conulariid affinities: a discussion. Geologiska Foreningens i Forhandlingar, 117:245.
Bischoff, G. C. O. 1978. Internal structures of conulariid tests and their functional significance, with special reference to Circonulariina n. suborder (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Senckenbergiana Lethaia, 59:275327.
Bouček, B. 1939. Conulariida, p. A113A131. In Schindewolf, O. H. (ed.), Handbuch der Paläozoologie, Band 2A. Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin.
Cleland, H. F. 1911. The fossils and stratigraphy of the Middle Devonic of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin, 21:1222.
Hall, J. 1847. Paleontology of New-York. Volume I. Containing Descriptions of the Organic Remains of the Lower Division of the New-York System (equivalent to the Lower Silurian rocks of Europe). C. Van Benthuysen, Albany 338 p.
Hall, J. 1876. Illustrations of Devonian Fossils: Gasteropoda, Pteropoda, Cephalopoda, Crustacea and Corals of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton and Chemung Groups. Albany, 7 p.
Hughes, N. C., Gunderson, G. O., and Weedon, M. J. 2000. Late Cambrian conulariids from Wisconsin and Minnesota. Journal of Paleontology, 74:828838.
Jerre, F. 1994. Anatomy and phylogenetic significance of Eoconularia loculata, a conulariid from the Silurian of Gotland. Lethaia, 27:97109.
Kiderlen, H. 1937. Die Conularien. Über Bau and Leben der ersten Scyphozoa. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Beilige-Band, 77:113169.
Lamouroux, J. V. F. 1809. Mémoires sur les Caulerpes, nouveau genre de la famille des algues marines. Journal Botanique, 2:136146.
Marques, A. C., and Collins, A. G. 2004. Cladistic analysis of Medusozoa and cnidarian evolution. Invertebrate Biology, 123:2342.
Moore, R. C., and Harrington, H. J. 1956. Conulata, p. F54F66. In Moore, R. C. (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Pt. F. Coelenterata. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas, Lawrence.
Munthe, J. 1980. Catalogue of fossil type and figured specimens in the Milwaukee Public Museum. Milwaukee Public Museum, Contributions in Biology and Geology, No. 39:127.
Simões, M. G., Rodrigues, S. C., Leme, J. M., and Van Iten, H. 2003. Body fossils as taphotaxa: Some middle Paleozoic conulariids (Cnidaria) as possible examples of taphonomic artifacts. Journal of Taphonomy, 1(3):165186.
Sinclair, G. W. 1948. The biology of the Conulariida. Unpublished , , 442 p.
Sinclair, G. W. 1952. A classification of the Conulariida. Fieldiana Geology, 10:135145.
Sowerby, J. 1821. The Mineral Conchology of Great Britain; or Coloured Figures and Descriptions of those Remains of Testaceous Animals or Shells, Which Have Been Preserved at Various Times, and Depths in the Earth. Vol. 3. Pt. 46. W. Harding, London, p. 107118.
Teller, E. E. 1911. A synopsis of type specimens of fossils from the Palaeozoic formations of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Natural History Society Bulletin, 11:170271.
Van Iten, H. 1991. Evolutionary affinities of conulariids, p. 145155. In Simonetta, A. M. and Conway Morris, S. (eds.), The Early Evolution of Metazoa and the Significance of Problematic Taxa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Van Iten, H. 1992a. Morphology and phylogenetic significance of the corners and midlines of the conulariid test. Palaeontology, 35:335358.
Van Iten, H. 1992b. Microstructure and growth of the conulariid test: implications for conulariid affinities. Palaeontology, 35:359372.
Van Iten, H., Fitzke, J. A., and Cox, R. S. 1996. Problematical fossil cnidarians from the Upper Ordovician of the north-central USA. Palaeontology, 39:10371064.
Werner, B. 1966. Stephanoscyphus (Scyphozoa, Coronatae) und seine direkte Abstammung von den fossilen Conulata. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 13:317347.
Werner, B. 1967. Stephanoscyphus Allman (Scyphozoa, Coronatae), ein rezenter Vertreter der Conulata? Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 41:137153.
Wiman, C. 1894. Paleontologische Notizen 1–2. University of Upsala, Geological Institution, Bulletin, 2(3):109117.

New data on the anatomy of Conularia milwaukeensis Cleland, 1911 (Middle Devonian, Iowa and Wisconsin)

  • Heyo Van Iten (a1), Juliana de Moraes Leme (a2), Sabrina Coelho Rodrigues (a2) and Marcello Guimarães Simõtes (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.