Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Reactive lysine content in commercially available pet foods*

  • Charlotte van Rooijen (a1), Guido Bosch (a1), Antonius F. B. van der Poel (a1), Peter A. Wierenga (a2), Lucille Alexander (a3) and Wouter H. Hendriks (a1) (a4)...

Abstract

The Maillard reaction can occur during processing of pet foods. During this reaction, the ε-amino group of lysine reacts with reducing sugars to become unavailable for metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the reactive lysine (RL; the remaining available lysine) to total lysine (TL) ratio of commercial pet foods and to evaluate whether RL levels meet minimal lysine requirements (MLR). Sixty-seven extruded, canned and pelleted commercially available dog and cat foods for growth and maintenance were analysed for proximate nutrient composition, TL and RL. RL was expressed on a metabolisable energy basis and compared with the MLR for maintenance and growth. In dog foods, average RL:TL ratios were 0·87 (se 0·02) for extruded, 0·97 (se 0·02) for canned and 0·85 (se 0·01) for pelleted foods, with the lowest ratio of 0·77 in an extruded diet for growing dogs. In extruded and canned cat foods, the average ratio was 0·91 (se 0·02) and 0·90 (se 0·03), respectively, with the lowest ratio being 0·67 in an extruded diet for growing cats. Variation in the RL:TL ratio between and within processing type indicate that ingredients rather than processing might be the key factor influencing RL content in pet foods. Eight dry foods for growing dogs had RL contents between 96 and 138 % of MLR, indicating that RL has to be between 62 and 104 % digestible to meet the MLR. Considering the variability in RL digestibility, these foods could be at risk of not meeting the MLR for growing dogs. Ingredients and pet foods should be characterised with respect to the RL content and digestibility, to avoid limitations in the lysine supply to growing dogs.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Reactive lysine content in commercially available pet foods*
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Reactive lysine content in commercially available pet foods*
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Reactive lysine content in commercially available pet foods*
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license .

Corresponding author

Corresponding author: Dr G. Bosch, fax +31 317 484260, email guido.bosch@wur.nl

Footnotes

Hide All
*

This article was published as part of the WALTHAM International Nutritional Sciences Symposium Proceedings 2013.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1. Crane, SW, Cowell, CS, Stout, NP, et al. (2010) Chapter 8 – Commercial pet foods. In Small Animal Clinical Nutrition, 5th ed., pp. 156190 [Hand, MS, Thatcher, CD, Remillard, RL, et al. , editors]. Topeka, Kansas: Mark Morris Institute.
2. Thomas, M, van Zuilichem, DJ & van der Poel, AFB (1997) Physical quality of pelleted animal feed. 2. Contribution of processes and its conditions. Anim Feed Sci Technol 64, 173192.
3. Hurrell, RF & Carpenter, KJ (1981) The estimation of available lysine in foodstuffs after Maillard reactions. Prog Food Nutr Sci 5, 159176.
4. Moughan, PJ (2003) Amino acid availability: aspects of chemical analysis and bioassay methodology. Nutr Res Rev 16, 127141.
5. Finot, PA (2005) The absorption and metabolism of modified amino acids in processed foods. J AOAC Int 88, 894903.
6. Rutherfurd, SM, Rutherfurd-Markwick, KJ & Moughan, PJ (2007) Available (ileal digestible reactive) lysine in selected pet foods. J Agric Food Chem 55, 35173522.
7. Williams, PA, Hodgkinson, SM, Rutherfurd, SM, et al. (2006) Lysine content in canine diets can be severely heat damaged. J Nutr 136, 1998S2000S.
8. Tran, QD, van Lin, C, Hendriks, WH, et al. (2007) Lysine reactivity and starch gelatinization in extruded and pelleted canine diets. Anim Feed Sci Technol 138, 162168.
9. Hendriks, WH, Thomas, DG, Bosch, G, et al. (2013) Comparison of ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility of dry dog foods. J Anim Sci 91, 38073814.
10. NRC (2006) Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press.
11. Hendriks, WH, Moughan, PJ & Tarttelin, MF (1996) Gut endogenous nitrogen and amino acid excretions in adult domestic cats fed a protein-free diet or an enzymatically hydrolyzed casein-based diet. J Nutr 126, 955962.
12. Moughan, PJ & Rutherfurd, SM (1996) A new method for determining digestible reactive lysine in foods. J Agric Food Chem 44, 22022209.
13. van Rooijen, C, Bosch, G, van der Poel, AF, et al. (2013) The Maillard reaction and pet food processing: effects on nutritive value and pet health. Nutr Res Rev 26, 130148.
14. Tran, QD, Hendriks, WH & van der Poel, AFB (2011) Effects of drying temperature and time of a canine diet extruded with a 4 or 8 mm die on physical and nutritional quality indicators. Anim Feed Sci Technol 165, 258264.
15. Chiang, GH (1983) A simple and rapid high-performance liquid-chromatographic procedure for determination of furosine, lysine-reducing sugare derivative. J Agric Food Chem 31, 13731374.
16. Svihus, B, Uhlen, AK & Harstad, OM (2005) Effect of starch granule structure, associated components and processing on nutritive value of cereal starch: a review. Anim Feed Sci Technol 122, 303320.
17. Cramer, KR, Greenwood, MW, Moritz, JS, et al. (2007) Protein quality of various raw and rendered by-product meals commonly incorporated into companion animal diets. J Anim Sci 85, 32853293.
18. Hendriks, WH, van Baal, J & Bosch, G (2012) Ileal and faecal protein digestibility measurement in humans and other non-ruminants – a comparative species view. Br J Nutr 108, S247S257.
19. Fahey, GC, Barry, KA & Swanson, KS (2008) Age-related changes in nutrient utilization by companion animals. Annu Rev Nutr 28, 425445.

Keywords

Reactive lysine content in commercially available pet foods*

  • Charlotte van Rooijen (a1), Guido Bosch (a1), Antonius F. B. van der Poel (a1), Peter A. Wierenga (a2), Lucille Alexander (a3) and Wouter H. Hendriks (a1) (a4)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed