Association (2010) Diagnosis and classification of
diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 33, Suppl. 1,
(2002) Insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome –
a challenge of the new millennium. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, Suppl. 1,
Cohen, H &
(1999) Diabetes and cardiovascular events in hypertensive
patients. Hypertension 33, 1130–1134.
4.The DECODE Study
Group (1999) Glucose tolerance and mortality:
comparison of WHO and American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria.
Lancet 354, 617–662.
Gaillard, T et al. (2004) Impaired insulin sensitivity, insulin
secretion, and glucose effectiveness predict future development of impaired glucose
tolerance and type 2 diabetes in pre-diabetic African Americans.
Diabetes Care 27, 1439–1446.
Egbuonu, N &
Edeoga, C (2010)
Principles and practice of nonpharmacological interventions to reduce
cardiometabolic risk. Med Princ Pract 19, 167–175.
Vassy, J et al. (2007) Systematic review: comparative effectiveness
and safety of oral medications for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann
Intern Med 147, 386–399.
& Watanabe, RM
(2010) Pharmacogenetics of anti-diabetes
drugs. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 3, 2610–2646.
Ding, X et al. (2006) Chocolate and prevention of cardiovascular
disease: a systematic review. Nutr Metab 3, .
& Vita, JA
(2011) Tea and cardiovascular disease.
Pharmacol Res 64, 136–145.
(2007) Effects of green tea and EGCG on cardiovascular and
metabolic health. J Am Coll Nutu 26, 373S–388S.
Caubet, O et al. (1999) Effects of red wine, tannic acid, or ethanol on
glucose tolerance in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients and on starch digestibility
in vitro. Metabolism 48, 1179–1183.
Bondia-Pons, I et al. (2010) Impact of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate
metabolism. Int J Mol Sci 11, 1365–1402.
Tamura, S et al. (2007) α-Glucosidase inhibitory profile of
catechins and theaflacins. J. Agric Food Chem 55, 99–105.
Govers, R &
James, DE (2002)
Regulated transport of the glucose transporter GLUT4.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3, 267–277.
& Kahn, CR
(2001) Insulin signaling and the regulation of glucose and
lipid metabolism. Nature 414, 799–806.
(2004) AMP-activated protein kinase: a key system mediating
metabolic responses to exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36, 28–34.
Miura, Y et al. (2011) Hypoglycemic effect of resveratrol in type 2
diabetic model db/db mice and its actions in cultured L6 myotubes and RIN-5F pancreatic
β-cells. J Clin Biochem Nutr 48, 237–244.
Nagayasu, H et al. (2008) Epigallocatechin gallate promotes GLUT4
translocation in skeletal muscle. Biochem Biophys Res
Commun 377, 286–290.
Liang, J et al. (2010) Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) protects
the insulin sensitivity in rat L6 muscle cells exposed to dexamethasone
condition. Phytomedicine 17, 14–18.
Kubo, M et al. (2010) Green and black tea suppress hyperglycemia and
insulin resistance by retaining the expression of glucose transporter 4 in muscle of
high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice. J Agric Food Chem 58, 12916–12923.
Nishiumi, S et al. (2011) Concentration of catechins and caffeine in
black tea affects suppression of fat accumulation and hyperglycemia in high-fat diet-fed
mice. Food Sci Technol Res 17, 353–359.
Hurst, JW et al. (2011) Cacao seeds are a “Super Fruit”: A
comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products. Chem
Cent J 5, .
Khan, N et al. (2009) Epicatechin, procyanidins, and phenolic
microbial metabolites after cocoa intake in humans and rats.
Anal Bioanal Chem 394, 1545–1556.
Mitchell, AE et al. (1999) HPLC method for the quantification of
procyanidins in cocoa and chocolate samples and correlation to total antioxidant
capacity. J Agric Food Chem 47, 4184–4188.
Wu, X et al. (2006) Procyanidin and catechin contents and
antioxidant capacity of cocoa and chocolate products. J Agric
Food Chem 54, 4057–4061.
Natsume, M et al. (2002) Proanthocyanidin glycosides and related
polyphenols from cacao liquor and their antioxidant effects.
Phytochemistry 59, 749–758.
Necozione, S et al. (2004) Short-term administration of dark chocolate is
followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood
pressure in healthy persons. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 611–614.
Lippi, C et al. (2005) Cocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin
resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in
hypertensives. Hypertension 46, 398–405.
Necozione, S et al. (2008) Blood pressure is reduced and insulin
sensitivity increased in glucose-intolerant, hypertensive subjects after 15 days of
consuming high-polyphenol dark chocolate. J Nutr 138, 1671–1676.
Osakabe, N et al. (2007) Dietary supplementation with cacao liquor
proanthocyanidins prevents elevation of blood glucose levels in diabetic obese
mice. Nutrition 23, 351–355.
Sanbongi, C et al. (1998) The antioxidative substances in cacao
liquor. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 44, 313–321.
Yamagishi, M et al. (2000) Analyses of polyphenols in cacao liquor, cocoa,
and chocolate by normal-phase and reversed-phase HPLC. Biosci
Biotechnol Biochem 64, 2581–2587.
Sasaki, K et al. (2008) Cacao procyanidins reduce plasma cholesterol
and increase fecal steroid excretion in rats fed a high-cholesterol
diet. Biofactors 33, 211–223.
& Butler, LG
(1977) Rapid visual estimation and spectrophotometric
determination of tannin content of sorghum grain. J Agric Food
Chem 25, 1268–1273.
& Ashida, H
(2007) Rapid preparation of a plasma membrane fraction from
adipocytes and muscle cells: application to detection of translocated glucose
transporter 4 on the plasma membrane. Biosci Biotechnol
Biochem 7, 2343–2346.
& Högger, P
(2007) Oligomeric procyanidins of French maritime pine bark
extract (Pycnogenol®) effectively inhibit α-glucosidase.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 77, 41–46.
& Czech, MP
(2007) The GLUT4 glucose transporter.
Cell Metab 5, 237–252.
Bladé, MC et al. (2004) Grape seed-derived procyanidins have an
antihyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and insulinomimetic
activity in insulin-sensitive cell lines. Endocrinology 145, 4985–4990.
Babu, PV et al. (2011) Dietary epicatechin promotes survival of obese
diabetic mice and Drosophila melanogaster. J
Nutr 141, 1095–1100.
Vaqué, M et al. (2010) Oligomers of grape-seed procyanidin extract
activate the insulin receptor and key targets of the insulin signaling pathway
differently from insulin. J Nutr Biochem 21, 476–481.
Yamada, K et al. (2010) Tea catechins modulate the glucose transport
system in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Food Funct 1, 167–173.
Suwannaphet, W et al. (2011) Grape seed extract supplementation prevents
high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance in rats by improving insulin and
adiponectin signaling pathways. Br J Nutr 106, 1173–1181.
Nanba, F et al. (2011) A black soybean seed coat extract prevents
obesity and glucose intolerance by up-regulating uncoupling proteins and down-regulating
inflammatory cytokines in high-fat diet-fed mice. J Agric Food
Chem 59, 8985–8993.
Coster, AC et al. (2010) Muscling in on GLUT4 kinetics.
Commun Integr Biol 3, 260–362.
Fazakerley, DJ &
James, DE (2011)
Mapping insulin/GLUT4 circuitry. Traffic 12, 672–681.
Nagayasu, H et al. (2004) Anti-obesity actions of green tea: possible
involvements in modulation of the glucose uptake system and suppression of the
adipogenesis-related transcription factors. Biofactors 22, 135–140.
Sullards, MC et al. (2002) Procyanidin dimer B2
(epicatechin-(4beta-8)-epicatechin) in human plasma after the consumption of a
flavanol-rich cocoa. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 798–804.
Marín, A et al. (2007) A new process to develop a cocoa powder with
higher flavonoid monomer content and enhanced bioavailability in healthy
humans. J Agric Food Chem 55, 3926–3935.
Romero, MP et al. (2010) Bioavailability of procyanidin dimers and
trimers and matrix food effects in in vitro and in
vivo models. Br J Nutr 103, 944–952.
Zou, T et al. (2012) Transport of cranberry A-type procyanidin
dimers, trimers, and tetramers across monolayers of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2
cells. J Agric Food Chem 60, 1390–1396.
Kobayashi, M et al. (2002) Anti-hyperglycemic effect of diacylated
anthocyanin derived from Ipomoea batatas cultivar ayamurasaski can be
achieved through the α-glucosidase inhibitory action. J
Agric Food Chem 50, 7244–7248.
Lavado, C et al. (2011) Effects of flavonoids on α-glucosidase
activity: Potential targets for glucose homeostasis.
Nutrition 27, 1161–1167.
Hiemori, M et al. (2007) Characterization of inhibitor of postprandial
hyperglycemia from the leaves of Nerium indicum.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 53, 166–173.
Takamatsu, K et al. (2006) Inhibition of α-glucosidase and
α-amylase by flavonoids. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 52, 149–153.
Kwon, CS &
Son, KH (2000)
Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and amylase by luteolin, a
falconoid. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64, 2458–2461.