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The 5S model proposes five hierarchical levels (systems, summaries, synopses, syntheses and studies) of pre-appraised evidence to guide evidence-based practice. This review aimed to identify and summarise pre-appraised evidence at the highest available 5S level for the management of different subsets of otitis media: acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, chronic suppurative otitis media and cholesteatoma in both adults and children.
Data sources were pre-appraised evidence resources. Evidence freely available from sources at the highest available level of the 5S model were summarised for this review.
System level evidence exists for acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. Summary level evidence exists for recurrent acute otitis media and medical management of chronic suppurative otitis media. There is an absence of randomised controlled trials to prove the efficacy of surgical management of chronic suppurative otitis media and cholesteatoma.
Until randomised controlled trial data are generated, consensus publications on the surgical management of chronic suppurative otitis media and cholesteatoma should be used to guide best practice.
To present the clinical outcomes obtained by the first facial transplant teams worldwide, reviewing current practice and addressing controversies.
A bibliographic search of Medline and Embase databases was performed, and a comparative analysis of all articles published from 1980 to the present was conducted. Two independent investigators screened the manuscripts in accordance with pre-defined criteria.
A total of 12 partial and 5 full facial transplants were recorded in the literature. Procedures included partial and near-total facial myocutaneous flaps, and complex osteomyocutaneous grafts. Fifteen patients had fully vascularised grafts, and two patients died of transplant-related and infectious complications.
Facial transplantation can restore quality of life and enable the social re-integration of recipients. Results published by the first facial transplant teams are promising. However, long-term reports of aesthetic and functional outcomes are needed to more precisely define outcomes. In addition, significant technical, medical and ethical issues remain to be solved.
Foreign body aspiration is common and potentially life threatening. Although rigid bronchoscopy has the potential for serious complications, it is the ‘gold standard’ of diagnosis. It is used frequently in light of the inaccuracy of clinical examination and chest radiography. Computed tomography is proposed as a non-invasive alternative to rigid bronchoscopy.
This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and safety of computed tomography used in the diagnosis of suspected foreign body aspiration, and compare this with the current gold standard, in order to examine the possibility of using computed tomography to reduce the number of diagnostic rigid bronchoscopies performed.
The study comprised a review of literature published from 1970 to 2013, using the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Embase and Medline electronic databases.
The sensitivity for computed tomography ranged between 90 and 100 per cent, with four studies demonstrating 100 per cent sensitivity. Specificity was between 75 and 100 per cent. Radiation exposure doses averaged 2.16 mSv.
Computed tomography is a sensitive and specific modality in the diagnosis of foreign body aspiration, and its future use will reduce the number of unnecessary rigid bronchoscopies.
The management of Bell's palsy has been the subject of much debate, with corticosteroids being the preferred medication. However, evidence also supports the use of antiviral drugs for severe cases and even decompression surgery in patients who, despite medical treatment, are not recovering.
A literature review was conducted on the management of Bell's palsy.
This paper describes the background, statistical evidence, study results and pathophysiological theories that support more aggressive treatment for patients with severe palsy and those who have inadequate recovery.
Combination therapy including antiviral medication significantly improves outcomes in patients with severe Bell's palsy. Decompression should be considered in patients who have not recovered with drug treatment.
There are currently no guidelines in the UK for the specific management of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia related epistaxis. The authors aimed to review the literature and provide an algorithm for the management of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia related epistaxis.
The Medline and Embase databases were interrogated on 15 November 2013 using the search items ‘hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia’ (title), ‘epistaxis’ (title) and ‘treatment’ (title and abstract), and limiting the search to articles published in English.
A total of 46 publications were identified, comprising 1 systematic review, 2 randomised, controlled trials, 27 case series, 9 case reports, 4 questionnaire studies and 3 in vitro studies.
There is a lack of high-level evidence for the use of many of the available treatments for the specific management of epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Current management should be based on a multidisciplinary team approach involving both a hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia physician and an ENT surgeon, especially when systemic therapy is being considered. The suggested treatment algorithm considers that the severity of epistaxis merits intervention at different levels of the treatment ladder. The patient should be assessed using a reproducible validated assessment tool, for example an epistaxis severity score, to guide treatment. More research is required, particularly in the investigation of topical agents targeting the development and fragility of telangiectasiae in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.