Ménière’s disease is a vestibular disorder characterized by episodic vertigo, tinnitus, fluctuant hearing loss, and ear fullness, with vertiginous attacks being the most disabling complaint. The effectiveness of conservative treatment has been variable, while surgical techniques provide more permanent relief from vertigo, but pose possible morbidity and cochlear risk. Intratympanic administration of gentamicin has been proposed as an alternative for patients with debilitating Ménière’s disease who have failed to respond to standard medical treatment. The goal of such treatment is to control vertigo by partially or completely destroying the vestibular system, while at the same time maintaining hearing.
In this review we present the current medical literature on pathophysiology, pharmacokinetics, administration methods, dosage, treatment protocols, and problems related to intratympanic administration of gentamicin for patients with MD.
Intratympanic gentamicin administration is a simple medical modality for treatment of persistent vertigo in patients with Ménière’s disease. According to recent world research protocols, we propose the instillation of gentamicin by transtympanic injection, as a quick, easy, well-tolerated, ambulatory and cost-effective technique. Drug solution concentrations should be dependent on the frequency, intensity and duration of vertigo spells, as well as the degree of existing hearing loss, thus providing progressive vertigo relief with a low possibility of secondary deafness.