Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Viral gene therapy for head and neck cancer

  • J P Hughes (a1) (a2), G Alusi (a1) (a3) and Y Wang (a1) (a4)

Abstract

Background:

Viral gene therapy is a promising new treatment modality for head and neck cancer. This paper provides the reader with a review of the relevant literature in this field.

Results:

There are government licensed viral gene therapy products currently in use for head and neck cancer, utilised in conjunction with established treatment modalities. The viruses target tumour-associated genes, with the first licensed virus replacing p53 gene function, which is frequently lost in tumourigenesis. Oncolytic viruses selectively destroy cancer cells through viral replication and can be armed with therapeutic transgenes.

Conclusion:

Despite considerable advances in this field over the last 40 years, further research is needed to improve the overall efficacy of the viruses and allow their widespread utilisation in the management of head and neck cancer.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Mr J P Hughes, c/o ENT secretaries, 3rd floor South Wing, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Charing Cross Hospital, Fulham Palace Road, London W6 8RF, UK Fax: 020 3311 1070, E-mail: jonathanphughes@gmail.com

Footnotes

Hide All

J P Hughes was the recipient of an award from The Journal of Laryngology & Otology towards his PhD in 2009.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1Hu, JC, Coffin, RS, Davis, CJ, Graham, NJ, Groves, N, Guest, PJ et al. A phase I study of OncoVEXGM-CSF, a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus expressing granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Clin Cancer Res 2006;12:6737–47
2Peng, Z.Current status of gendicine in China: recombinant human Ad-p53 agent for treatment of cancers. Hum Gene Ther 2005;16:1016–27
3Department Of Health. Genetics White Paper ‘Our inheritance, our future – realising the potential of genetics in the NHS’, 2003. In: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130107105354/http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4019239.pdf [24 November 2014]
4Lehrman, S.Virus treatment questioned after gene therapy death. Nature 1999;401:517–18
5Young, LS, Searle, PF, Onion, D, Mautner, V.Viral gene therapy strategies: from basic science to clinical application. J Pathol 2006;208:299318
6Hanahan, D, Weinberg, RA.The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 2000;100:5770
7Edelstein, ML, Abedi, MR, Wixon, J.Gene therapy clinical trials worldwide to 2007--an update. J Gene Med 2007;9:833–42
8Vile, RG, Russell, SJ, Lemoine, NR.Cancer gene therapy: hard lessons and new courses. Gene Ther 2000;7:28
9Hunt, JL, Barnes, L, Lewis, JS Jr, Mahfouz, ME, Slootweg, PJ, Thompson, LD.Molecular diagnostic alterations in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and potential diagnostic applications. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2014;271:211–23
10Weinstein, IB. Cancer.Addiction to oncogenes--the Achilles heal of cancer. Science 2002;297:63–4
11Liang, K, Ang, KK, Milas, L, Hunter, N, Fan, Z.The epidermal growth factor receptor mediates radioresistance. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;57:246–54
12Parato, KA, Breitbach, CJ, Le Boeuf, F, Wang, J, Storbeck, C, Ilkow, C et al. The oncolytic poxvirus JX-594 selectively replicates in and destroys cancer cells driven by genetic pathways commonly activated in cancers. Mol Ther 2012;20:749–58
13Zaoui, K, Bossow, S, Grossardt, C, Leber, MF, Springfeld, C, Plinkert, PK et al. Chemovirotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with EGFR-targeted and CD/UPRT-armed oncolytic measles virus. Cancer Gene Ther 2012;19:181–91
14Han, JB, Tao, ZZ, Chen, SM, Kong, YG, Xiao, BK.Adenovirus-mediated transfer of tris-shRNAs induced apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Lett 2011;309:162–9
15Brennan, JA, Mao, L, Hruban, RH, Boyle, JO, Eby, YJ, Koch, WM et al. Molecular assessment of histopathological staging in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 1995;332:429–35
16Shiraishi, K, Kato, S, Han, SY, Liu, W, Otsuka, K, Sakayori, M et al. Isolation of temperature-sensitive p53 mutations from a comprehensive missense mutation library. J Biol Chem 2004;279:348–55
17Searle, PF, Chen, MJ, Hu, L, Race, PR, Lovering, AL, Grove, JI et al. Nitroreductase: a prodrug-activating enzyme for cancer gene therapy. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2004;31:811–16
18Liu, CC, Shen, Z, Kung, HF, Lin, MC.Cancer gene therapy targeting angiogenesis: an updated review. World J Gastroenterol 2006;12:6941–8
19Adhim, Z, Lin, X, Huang, W, Morishita, N, Nakamura, T, Yasui, H et al. E10A, an adenovirus-carrying endostatin gene, dramatically increased the tumor drug concentration of metronomic chemotherapy with low-dose cisplatin in a xenograft mouse model for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma. Cancer Gene Ther 2012;19:144–52
20Tysome, JR, Wang, P, Alusi, G, Briat, A, Gangeswaran, R, Wang, J et al. Lister vaccine strain of vaccinia virus armed with the endostatin-angiostatin fusion gene: an oncolytic virus superior to dl1520 (ONYX-015) for human head and neck cancer. Hum Gene Ther 2011;22:1101–8
21Jiang, M, Liu, Z, Xiang, Y, Ma, H, Liu, S, Liu, Y et al. Synergistic antitumor effect of AAV-mediated TRAIL expression combined with cisplatin on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. BMC Cancer 2011;11:54
22Zitvogel, L, Tesniere, A, Kroemer, G.Cancer despite immunosurveillance: immunoselection and immunosubversion. Nat Rev Immunol 2006;6:715–27
23Bai, XF, Liu, J, Li, O, Zheng, P, Liu, Y.Antigenic drift as a mechanism for tumor evasion of destruction by cytolytic T lymphocytes. J Clin Invest 2003;111:1487–96
24Bubenik, J.MHC class I down-regulation: tumour escape from immune surveillance? (Review) Int J Oncol 2004;25:487–91
25Lehmann, C, Zeis, M, Schmitz, N, Uharek, L.Impaired binding of perforin on the surface of tumor cells is a cause of target cell resistance against cytotoxic effector cells. Blood 2000;96:594600
26Real, LM, Jimenez, P, Kirkin, A, Serrano, A, Garcia, A, Canton, J et al. Multiple mechanisms of immune evasion can coexist in melanoma tumor cell lines derived from the same patient. Cancer Immunol Immunother 2001;49:621–8
27Shin, MS, Kim, HS, Lee, SH, Park, WS, Kim, SY, Park, JY et al. Mutations of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1) and receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) genes in metastatic breast cancers. Cancer Res 2001;61:4942–6
28Kowalczyk, DW.Tumors and the danger model. Acta Biochim Pol 2002;49:295302
29Elpek, KG, Lacelle, C, Singh, NP, Yolcu, ES, Shirwan, H.CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells dominate multiple immune evasion mechanisms in early but not late phases of tumor development in a B cell lymphoma model. J Immunol 2007;178:6840–8
30Ryschich, E, Schmidt, J, Hammerling, GJ, Klar, E, Ganss, R.Transformation of the microvascular system during multistage tumorigenesis. Int J Cancer 2002;97:719–25
31Uyttenhove, C, Pilotte, L, Theate, I, Stroobant, V, Colau, D, Parmentier, N et al. Evidence for a tumoral immune resistance mechanism based on tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Nat Med 2003;9:1269–74
32Zhang, XM, Xu, Q.Metastatic melanoma cells escape from immunosurveillance through the novel mechanism of releasing nitric oxide to induce dysfunction of immunocytes. Melanoma Res 2001;11:559–67
33Beck, C, Schreiber, H, Rowley, D.Role of TGF-beta in immune-evasion of cancer. Microsc Res Tech 2001;52:387–95
34Kawamura, K, Bahar, R, Natsume, W, Sakiyama, S, Tagawa, M.Secretion of interleukin-10 from murine colon carcinoma cells suppresses systemic antitumor immunity and impairs protective immunity induced against the tumors. Cancer Gene Ther 2002;9:109–15
35Whiteside, TL.Tumor-induced death of immune cells: its mechanisms and consequences. Semin Cancer Biol 2002;12:4350
36Gallina, G, Dolcetti, L, Serafini, P, De Santo, C, Marigo, I, Colombo, MP et al. Tumors induce a subset of inflammatory monocytes with immunosuppressive activity on CD8+ T cells. J Clin Invest 2006;116:2777–90
37Chen, B, Timiryasova, TM, Haghighat, P, Andres, ML, Kajioka, EH, Dutta-Roy, R et al. Low-dose vaccinia virus-mediated cytokine gene therapy of glioma. J Immunother 2001;24:4657
38Kaufman, HL, Rao, JB, Irvine, KR, Bronte, V, Rosenberg, SA, Restifo, NP.Interleukin-10 enhances the therapeutic effectiveness of a recombinant poxvirus-based vaccine in an experimental murine tumor model. J Immunother 1999;22:489–96
39Kirn, DH, Thorne, SH.Targeted and armed oncolytic poxviruses: a novel multi-mechanistic therapeutic class for cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2009;9:6471
40Kaneda, Y, Tabata, Y.Non-viral vectors for cancer therapy. Cancer Sci 2006;97:348–54
41Everts, B, van der Poel, HG.Replication-selective oncolytic viruses in the treatment of cancer. Cancer Gene Ther 2005;12:141–61
42Parato, KA, Senger, D, Forsyth, PA, Bell, JC.Recent progress in the battle between oncolytic viruses and tumours. Nat Rev Cancer 2005;5:965–76
43Dock, G.Influence of complicating diseases upon leukaemia. Am J Med Sci 1904;127:563–92
44Wong, HH, Lemoine, NR, Wang, Y.Oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy: overcoming the obstacles. Viruses 2010;2:78106
45Martuza, RL, Malick, A, Markert, JM, Ruffner, KL, Coen, DM.Experimental therapy of human glioma by means of a genetically engineered virus mutant. Science 1991;252:854–6
46Garber, K.China approves world's first oncolytic virus therapy for cancer treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:298300
47Chang, J, Zhao, X, Wu, X, Guo, Y, Guo, H, Cao, J et al. A phase I study of KH901, a conditionally replicating granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: armed oncolytic adenovirus for the treatment of head and neck cancers. Cancer Biol Ther 2009;8:676–82
48McCart, JA, Ward, JM, Lee, J, Hu, Y, Alexander, HR, Libutti, SK et al. Systemic cancer therapy with a tumor-selective vaccinia virus mutant lacking thymidine kinase and vaccinia growth factor genes. Cancer Res 2001;61:8751–7
49Ginn, SL, Alexander, IE, Edelstein, ML, Abedi, MR, Wixon, J.Gene therapy clinical trials worldwide to 2012 - an update. J Gene Med 2013;15:6577
50Chisholm, E, Bapat, U, Chisholm, C, Alusi, G, Vassaux, G.Gene therapy in head and neck cancer: a review. Postgrad Med J 2007;83:731–7
51Vorburger, SA, Hunt, KK.Adenoviral gene therapy. Oncologist 2002;7:4659
52Jee, YS, Lee, SG, Lee, JC, Kim, MJ, Lee, JJ, Kim, DY et al. Reduced expression of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in tumor tissue compared to normal epithelium in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Anticancer Res 2002;22:2629–34
53Harrington, KJ, Nutting, CM, Pandha, HS.Gene therapy for head and neck cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2005;24:147–64
54Taylor, WR, Stark, GR.Regulation of the G2/M transition by p53. Oncogene 2001;20:1803–15
55Teodoro, JG, Evans, SK, Green, MR.Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by p53: a new role for the guardian of the genome. J Mol Med (Berl) 2007;85:1175–86
56Han, DM, Huang, ZG, Zhang, W, Yu, ZK, Wang, Q, Ni, X et al. Effectiveness of recombinant adenovirus p53 injection on laryngeal cancer: phase I clinical trial and follow up [in Chinese]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2003;83:2029–32
57Lee, J, Moon, C.Current status of experimental therapeutics for head and neck cancer. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2011;236:375–89
58Pan, JJ, Zhang, SW, Chen, CB, Xiao, SW, Sun, Y, Liu, CQ et al. Effect of recombinant adenovirus-p53 combined with radiotherapy on long-term prognosis of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:799804
59Zhang, SW, Xiao, SW, Liu, CQ, Sun, Y, Su, X, Li, DM et al. Recombinant adenovirus-p53 gene therapy combined with radiotherapy for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma [in Chinese]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2005;27:426–8
60Zhang, SW, Xiao, SW, Liu, CQ, Sun, Y, Su, X, Li, DM et al. Treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by recombinant adenovirus-p53 combined with radiotherapy: a phase II clinical trial of 42 cases [in Chinese]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2003;83:2023–8
61Clayman, GL, el-Naggar, AK, Lippman, SM, Henderson, YC, Frederick, M, Merritt, JA et al. Adenovirus-mediated p53 gene transfer in patients with advanced recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:2221–32
62Clayman, GL, Frank, DK, Bruso, PA, Goepfert, H.Adenovirus-mediated wild-type p53 gene transfer as a surgical adjuvant in advanced head and neck cancers. Clin Cancer Res 1999;5:1715–22
63Nemunaitis, J, Clayman, G, Agarwala, SS, Hrushesky, W, Wells, JR, Moore, C et al. Biomarkers predict p53 gene therapy efficacy in recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Clin Cancer Res 2009;15:7719–25
64O'Shea, CC, Johnson, L, Bagus, B, Choi, S, Nicholas, C, Shen, A et al. Late viral RNA export, rather than p53 inactivation, determines ONYX-015 tumor selectivity. Cancer Cell 2004;6:611–23
65Khuri, FR, Nemunaitis, J, Ganly, I, Arseneau, J, Tannock, IF, Romel, L et al. A controlled trial of intratumoral ONYX-015, a selectively-replicating adenovirus, in combination with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in patients with recurrent head and neck cancer. Nat Med 2000;6:879–85
66Xu, RH, Yuan, ZY, Guan, ZZ, Cao, Y, Wang, HQ, Hu, XH et al. Phase II clinical study of intratumoral H101, an E1B deleted adenovirus, in combination with chemotherapy in patients with cancer [in Chinese]. Ai Zheng 2003;22:1307–10
67Lu, W, Zheng, S, Li, XF, Huang, JJ, Zheng, X, Li, Z.Intra-tumor injection of H101, a recombinant adenovirus, in combination with chemotherapy in patients with advanced cancers: a pilot phase II clinical trial. World J Gastroenterol 2004;10:3634–8
68Xia, ZJ, Chang, JH, Zhang, L, Jiang, WQ, Guan, ZZ, Liu, JW et al. Phase III randomized clinical trial of intratumoral injection of E1B gene-deleted adenovirus (H101) combined with cisplatin-based chemotherapy in treating squamous cell cancer of head and neck or esophagus [in Chinese]. Ai Zheng 2004;23:1666–70
69Borrello, I, Pardoll, D.GM-CSF-based cellular vaccines: a review of the clinical experience. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2002;13:185–93
70Ruden, M, Puri, N.Novel anticancer therapeutics targeting telomerase. Cancer Treat Rev 2013;39:444–56
71Mace, AT, Ganly, I, Soutar, DS, Brown, SM.Potential for efficacy of the oncolytic Herpes simplex virus 1716 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck 2008;30:1045–51
72Papanastassiou, V, Rampling, R, Fraser, M, Petty, R, Hadley, D, Nicoll, J et al. The potential for efficacy of the modified (ICP 34.5(-)) herpes simplex virus HSV1716 following intratumoural injection into human malignant glioma: a proof of principle study. Gene Ther 2002;9:398406

Keywords

Viral gene therapy for head and neck cancer

  • J P Hughes (a1) (a2), G Alusi (a1) (a3) and Y Wang (a1) (a4)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed