Hostname: page-component-546b4f848f-q5mmw Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-06-03T22:19:08.865Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Spicing Wine at the Symposion: Fact or Fiction? Some Critical Thoughts on Material Aspects of Commensality in the Early Iron Age and Archaic Mediterranean World

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 September 2021

Alexandra Villing*
The British Museum*


HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Interpretations of metal graters and pottery tripod bowls as Leitfossils of a trans-Mediterranean ‘orientalizing’ culture of spiced-wine consumption have of late become a staple of scholarship on sympotic banqueting, shaping our perception of ancient wine-drinking and its role in cross-cultural interaction in the first half of the first millennium BC. Yet a closer look at the evidence for spiced wine and the use of graters casts serious doubt on assumptions of a widespread practice of adding ‘spices’ to wine during the Greek symposion and of the use of graters or tripod grinding bowls for such a purpose in the Mediterranean and Near Eastern world. A more plausible scenario, it is argued, arises from the well-attested association of graters with cheese and other primarily culinary commodities. It sees the grater’s prime function and symbolic significance shift from a use in Early Iron Age ‘Homeric’ hospitality to becoming a tool in the increasingly complex cuisines associated with the Archaic and Classical banquet – an indicator of evolving Mediterranean commensality with no less of an international horizon, but a commensality that involved interaction and shared consumption beyond the narrowly sympotic.

Research Article
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies


* I am grateful to Susanne Ebbinghaus, Alan Johnston, Corinna Riva, Judith Swaddling and two anonymous reviewers, for helpful comments and suggestions in the preparation of this article, and to Douglais Cairns, Lin Foxhall and Gina Coulthard, for their help during the editorial process. Part of the research was completed during a Leverhulme Trust Research Fellowship in 2008 (RF/6/RFG/2008/0510) and a Visiting Fellowship at the British School at Athens in 2016.


Albenda, P. (1976) ‘Landscape bas-reliefs in the Bīt-Ḫilāni of Ashurbanipal’, BASO 224, 4972 Google Scholar
Albertocchi, M. (2012) ‘“Eugenie” ebbre? Considerazioni su alcune pratiche rituali del Thesmophorion di Bitalemi a Gela’, Kernos 25, 5774 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allegro, N. (ed.) (2008) Himera 5: l’abitato (Palermo)Google Scholar
Alvarez-Mon, J. (2009) ‘Ashurbanipal’s feast: a view from Elam’, IA 44, 131–80 Google Scholar
Ambrosini, L. (2013) ‘Candelabra, thymiateria and kottaboi at banquets: Greece and Etruria in comparison’, Etruscan Studies 16, 138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amigues, S. (2004) ‘Le silphium: état de la question’, JS 2004.2, 191–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amigues, S. (2016) ‘Plantes et produits végétaux de l’Asie profonde dans le monde grec antique’, in Jouanna, J., Schiltz, V. and Zink, M. (eds), La Grèce dans les profondeurs de l’Asie: actes du XXVIe colloque de la Villa Kérylos, 9 et 10 octobre 2015 (Cahiers de la Villa Kérylos 27) (Paris) 121–36Google Scholar
Amyx, D.A. (1958) ‘The Attic stelai, part III: vases and other containers’, Hesperia 27, 163310 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Auberger, J. (2000) ‘“Du prince au berger, tout homme a son content de fromage …” Odyssée, 4, 87–88’, REG 113, 141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barra Bagnasco, M. (1989) Locri Epizefiri 3: cultura materiale e vita quotidiana (Florence and Turin)Google Scholar
Bedigan, K. (2009) ‘Re-enactment and ritual consumption: the kykeon in ancient mystery cults’, in Baker, S., Gray, A., Lakin, K., Madgwick, R., Poole, K. and Sandias, M. (eds), Food and Drink in Archaeology 2: University of Nottingham Postgraduate Conference 2008 (Blackawton) 29–37Google Scholar
Bellelli, V. and Botto, M. (2002) ‘I bacini di tipo fenicio-cipriota: considerazioni sulla diffusione di una forma ceramica nell’Italia medio-tirrenica nel periodo tra il VI e il IV secolo a.C.’, in Paoletti, O. and Tamagno Perna, L. (eds), Etruria e Sardegna centro-settentrionale tra l’età del l’età del bronzo finale e l’arcaismo: atti del XXI Convegno di Studi Etruschi ed Italici, Sassari-Alghero-Torralba 1998 (Rome) 177–207Google Scholar
Bison, L. (2021) Food and Foodways in Phoenician and Punic Sardinia: New Data from Organic Residue Analyses on Cookware (Ph.D. Diss. Bristol)Google Scholar
Bison, L., Cramp, L., Hodos, T. and Salis, G. (2020) ‘L’analisi dei residui organici: nuove prospettive per lo studio delle tradizioni culinarie nel mondo fenicio-punico’, in Gómez Bellard, C., Pérez Jorda, G. and Vendrell Betí, A. (eds), La alimentación en el mundo fenicio-pùnico: producciones, procesos y consumos (Seville) 19–43Google Scholar
Blinkenberg, C. (1931) Lindos: fouilles de l’acropole 1902–1914 1: les petits objets (Berlin)Google Scholar
Botto, M. (2000) ‘Tripodi siriani e tripodi fenici dal Latium Vetus e dall’Emina meridionale’, in Bartoloni, P. and Campanella, L. (eds), La ceramica fenicia di Sardegna: dati, problematiche, confronti: atti del primo Congresso internazionale sulcitano, Sant’Antioco, 19–21 settembre 1997 (Collezione di studi fenici 40) (Rome) 63–98Google Scholar
Botto, M. (2002) ‘I contatti fra le colonie fenicie di Sardegna e l’Etruria settentrionale attraverso lo studio della documentazione ceramica’, in Paoletti, O. and Tamagno Perna, L. (eds), Etruria e Sardegna centro-settentrionale tra l’età del bronzo finale e l’arcaismo: atti del XXI Convegno di Studi Etruschi ed Italici, Sassari-Alghero-Torralba 1998 (Rome) 225–47Google Scholar
Boulay, T. (2012) ‘Les techniques vinicoles grecques, des vendanges aux Anthestéries: nouvelles perspectives’, in Lion, B. (ed.), L’histoire de l’alimentation dans l’Antiquité: bilan historiographique (Dialogues d’histoire ancienne supplement 7) (Besançon) 95–115Google Scholar
Boulay, T. (2014) ‘L’analyse sensorielle des vins grecs, d’Homère à Galien’, in Hinnewinkel, J.-C. and Lavaud, S. (eds), Vins et vignobles: les itinéraires de la qualité: actes du colloque ADES-ISVV, Bordeaux, 5–7 juin 2013 (Bordeaux) 17–28Google Scholar
Boulay, T. (2015) ‘Wine appreciation in ancient Greece’, in Wilkins, J. and Nadeau, R. (eds), A Companion to Food in the Ancient World (Chichester) 273–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boulay, T. (2018) ‘Tastes of wine: sensorial wine analysis in ancient Greece’, in Rudolph, K.C. (ed.), Taste and the Ancient Senses (London) 197–211Google Scholar
Brize, P. (1989–1990) ‘Archaische Bronzevotive aus dem Heraion von Samos’, in Bartoloni, G., Colonna, G. and Grotanelli, C. (eds), Anathema: regime delle offerte e vita dei santuari nel mediterraneo antico (Scienze dell’antichità 3/4) (Rome) 317–26Google Scholar
Bruns, G. (1970) Küchenwesen und Mahlzeiten (Archaeologia Homerica 2, Q) (Göttingen)Google Scholar
Buchholz, H.-G. (1963) ‘Steinerne Dreifussschalen des ägäischen Kulturkreises und ihre Beziehungen zum Osten’, JDAI 78, 177 Google Scholar
Bunimovitz, S. and Lederman, Z. (2016) ‘Opium or oil? Late Bronze Age Cypriot base ring juglets and international trade revisited’, Antiquity 90.354, 1552–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cambitoglou, A., Birchall, A. Coulton, J.J. and Green, J.R. (1988) Zagora: Excavation of a Geometric Town on the Island of Andros 2: Excavation Season 1969, Study Season 1969–70 (Athens)Google Scholar
Chovanec, Z. (2018) ‘Intoxication on the wine dark sea: investigating psychoactive substances in the eastern Mediterranean’, in Fitzpatrick, S.M. (ed.), Ancient Psychoactive Substances (Gainesville) 43–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cottonaro, M. (2012) ‘Uso rituale dei mortai a macinello? Riflessioni su alcuni contesti funerari tardoarcaici nell’area armerina’, in Lo Pinzino, S. (ed.), Studi, ricerche, restauri per la tutela del patrimonio culturale ennese (Palermo)Google Scholar
Curé, A.-M. (2015) ‘Mediterranean-type cooking ware in indigenous contexts during the Iron Age in southern Gaul (6th-3rd centuries BC)’, in Spataro, M. and Villing, A. (eds), Ceramics, Cuisine and Culture: The Archaeology and Science of Kitchen Pottery in the Ancient Mediterranean World (Oxford) 190–202Google Scholar
Curtis, R.I. (2001) Ancient Food Technology (Leiden, Boston and Cologne)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalby, A. (1996) Siren Feasts: A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece (London)Google Scholar
Dalby, A. (2000) Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices (London)Google Scholar
Dalby, A. (2003) Food in the Ancient World from A to Z (London)Google Scholar
Dalby, A. (2011) Geoponika: Farm Work (Totnes)Google Scholar
Davidson, J. (1997) Courtesans and Fishcakes (London)Google Scholar
Davies, J.K. (2016) ‘Towards a general model of long-distance trade: aromatics as a case study’, in Harris, E.M., Lewis, D.M. and Woolmer, M. (eds), The Ancient Greek Economy: Markets, Households and City- States (Cambridge) 299–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dayagi-Mendels, M. and Rozenberg, S. (eds) (2010) Chronicles of the Land: Archaeology in The Israel Museum Jerusalem (Jerusalem)Google Scholar
de Caro, S. and Gialanella, C. (1998) ‘Novità pitecusane: l’insediamento di Punta Chiarito a Forio d’Ischia’, in Bats, M. and D’Agostino, B. (eds), Euboica: l’Eubea e la presenza euboica in Calcidica e in Occidente (Naples) 337–53Google Scholar
de Grummond, (ed.) (2009) The Sanctuary of the Etruscan Artisans at Cetamura del Chianti: The Legacy of Alvaro Tracci (Florence)Google Scholar
Delatte, A. (1955) Le cycéon: breuvage rituel des Mystères d’Eleusis (Paris)Google Scholar
Deller, K. (1987) ‘Ashurbanipal in der Gartenlaube’, Baghdader Mitteilungen 18, 229–38 Google Scholar
Dietler, M. (1990) ‘Driven by drink: the role of drinking in the political economy and the case of Early Iron Age France’, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 9.4, 352–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dietler, M. (2010) Archaeologies of Colonialism: Consumption, Entanglement, and Violence in Ancient Mediterranean France (Berkeley)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dietler, M. (2018) ‘Alcohol as liquid material culture: feasting in comparative perspective’, in Ebbinghaus, S. (ed.), Animal-Shaped Vessels from the Ancient World: Feasting with Gods, Heroes and Kings (Cambridge MA) 25–31Google Scholar
Donder, H. (2002) ‘Funde aus Milet XI: die Metallfunde’, AA 2002, 18 Google Scholar
Donder, H. (2016) ‘Die Metallfunde vom Kalabaktepe in Milet: Siedlungsniederschlag oder thesauriertes Altmetall?’, in Baitinger, H. (ed.), Materielle Kultur und Identität im Spannungsfeld zwischen mediterraner Welt und Mitteleuropa (Mainz) 175–84Google Scholar
Dzierzbicka, D. (2018) Oίvoς: Production and Import of Wine in Graeco-Roman Egypt (Journal of Juristic Papyrology Supplement 31) (Warsaw) 209–29Google Scholar
Ermidoro, S. (2015) Commensality and Ceremonial Meals in the Neo-Assyrian Period (Venice)Google Scholar
Esposito, A. (2010) ‘L’Italie au coeur de la Méditerranée (VIIIe-VIIe s.): contexts, transferts et transitions’, in Étienne, R. (ed.), La Méditerranée au VIIe siècle av. J.-C. (essais d’analyses archéologiques) (Paris) 116–35Google Scholar
Fabbricotti, E. (1986) ‘Braciere e cosidetti thymiateria fittile’, in Swaddling, J. (ed.), Italian Iron Age Artefacts in the British Museum: Papers of the Sixth British Museum Classical Colloquium 1982 (London) 185–91Google Scholar
Fehr, B. (1971) Orientalische und griechische Gelage (Bonn)Google Scholar
Feldman, M. (2014) Communities of Style: Portable Luxury Arts, Identity, and Collective Memory in the Iron Age Levant (Chicago and London)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finkelstein, I. (2016) ‘The Levant and the eastern Mediterranean in the early phases of the Iron Age: the view from micro-archaeology’, in Aruz, J. and Seymour, M. (eds), Assyria to Iberia: Art and Culture in the Iron Age (New York) 112–22Google Scholar
Foley, B.P., Hansson, M.C., Kourkoumelis, D.P. and Theodoulou, T.A. (2012) ‘Aspects of ancient Greek trade re-evaluated with amphora DNA evidence’, Journal of Archaeological Science 39.2, 389–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Furtwängler, A. (1890) Olympia: die Ergebnisse der von dem Deutschen Reich veranstalteten Ausgrabung 4: die Bronzen und die übrigen kleineren Funde von Olympia (Berlin)Google Scholar
García Soler, M.J. (2001) El arte de comer en la antigua Grecia (Madrid)Google Scholar
García Soler, M.J. (2021) ‘El vino griego antiguo y los cinco sentidos’, in Soares, C., Torres Silveira, A.J. and Laurioux, B. (eds), Mesa dos Sentidos & Sentidos da Mesa 1 (Coimbra) 41–65Google Scholar
Gaspa, S. (2012) Alimenti e pratiche alimentari in Assiria: le materie alimentari nel culto ufficiale dell’Assiria del primo millennio A.C. (Padova)Google Scholar
Gehrig, U.L. (1964) Die geometrischen Bronzen aus dem Heraion von Samos (Ph.D. Diss. Hamburg) Gilboa, A. and Namdar, D. (2015) ‘On the beginnings of South Asian spice trade with the Mediterranean region: a review’, Radiocarbon 57.2, 265–83Google Scholar
Girella, L. (2005) ‘Ceramica da cucina dal sito di Haghia Triada: rapporto preliminare da un deposito ceramico del MM III’, ASAA 83, 371410 Google Scholar
González Prats, A. (2011) La Fonteta: excavaciones de 1996–2002 en la colonia fenicia de la actual desembocadura del río Segura (Guardamar del Segura, Alicante) (Alicante)Google Scholar
Gorny, R.L. (1995) ‘Viticulture and ancient Anatolia’, in McGovern, P.E., Fleming, S.J. and Katz, S.H. (eds), The Origins and Ancient History of Wine (Amsterdam) 133–74Google Scholar
Graells i Fabregat R., Zuchtriegel, G. and Longo, F. (eds) (2017) Le armi di Athena: il santuario settentrionale di Paestum (Naples)Google Scholar
Griffith, F.L. (1888) ‘Appendix: Egyptological notes from Naukratis and the neighbourhood’, in E.A. Gardner, Naukratis: Part II (London) 77–84Google Scholar
Guggisberg, M. (2017) ‘Polyphem und der Käse: Anmerkungen zum Krater des Aristonothos von Cerveteri’, in Cappuccini, L., Leypold, C. and Mohr, M. (eds), Fragmenta Mediterranea: contatti, tradizioni e innovazioni in Grecia, Magna Grecia, Etruria e Roma: studi in onore di Christoph Reusser (Sesto Fiorentino) 91–103Google Scholar
Haggis, D.C. (2018) ‘Discussion and debate: in defense of a contextual classical archaeology’, JMA 31.1, 101–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haggis, D.C., Mook, M.S., Fitzsimons, R.D., Scarry, C.M. and Snyder, L.M. (2011) ‘The excavation of Archaic houses at Azoria in 2005–2006’, Hesperia 80.3, 431–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haggis, D.C., Mook, M.S., Fitzsimons, R.D., Scarry, C.M., Snyder, L.M., Stefanakis, M.I. and West, W.C. (2007) ‘Excavations at Azoria, 2003–2004, part 1: the Archaic civic complex’, Hesperia 76, 243321 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haw, S.G. (2017) ‘Cinnamon, cassia, and ancient trade’, Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology 4.1, 5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawkins, T. (2016) ‘Bupalus in Scheria: Hipponax’s Odyssean transcontextualizations’, in Swift, L. and Carey, C. (eds), Greek Iambus and Elegy: New Approaches (Oxford) 229–52Google Scholar
Herrmann, V.R. and Schloen, J.D. (eds) (2014) In Remembrance of Me: Feasting with the Dead in the Ancient Middle East (Oriental Institute Museum Publications 37) (Chicago)Google Scholar
Hitch, S. (2017) ‘Tastes of Greek poetry: from Homer to Aristophanes’, in Rudolph, K.. (ed.), Taste and the Ancient Senses (New York and London) 22–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffmann, H. (1964) ‘Cheese grater in the form of a goat’, in Muscarella, O.W. (ed.), Ancient Art: The Norbert Schimmel Collection (Mainz) 22Google Scholar
Iozzo, M. (2013) ‘The François Vase: notes on technical aspects and function’, in Shapiro, H.A., Iozzo, M. and Lezzi-Hafter, A. (eds), The François Vase: New Perspectives (Kilchberg) 54–65Google Scholar
Jacobsthal, P. (1932) ‘Λέαινα ἐπὶ τυροκνήστιδος, MDAI(A) 57, 17 Google Scholar
Jacopi, G. (1931–1939) Clara Rhodos 4: esplorazione archeologica di Camiro 1: scavi nelle necropoli Camiresi 1929–1930 (Rhodes)Google Scholar
Jenkins, I. and Sloan, K. (1996) Vases and Volcanoes: Sir William Hamilton and His Collection (London) Jerkovic, I., Marijanovic, Z., Gugic, M. and Roje, M. (2011) ‘Chemical profile of the organic residue from ancient amphora found in the Adriatic Sea determined by direct GC and GC-MS analysis’, Molecules 16.9, 7936–48Google Scholar
Kilian, K. (1975) Fibeln in Thessalien von der mykenischen bis zur archaischen Zeit: prähistorische Bronzefunde 14.2 (Munich)Google Scholar
Kilian-Dirlmeier, I. (2002) Kleinfunde aus dem Itonia-Heiligtum bei Philia (Thessalien) (Mainz)Google Scholar
Kistler, E. (2009) ‘Connected: cultura simposiale intermediterranea e i gruppi elitari nella Sicilia arcaica’, in Ampolo, C. (ed.), Immagine e immagini della Sicilia e di altre isole del Mediterraneo antico (Pisa) 743–62Google Scholar
Kistler, E. (2014) ‘Die Mediterranée um 500 v. Chr.: eine Welt in Bewegung’, AA 2014.1, 181–204Google Scholar
Kistler, E. (2017) ‘Lokal divergierende Antworten auf die Krater-isierung West- und Mittelsiziliens (6.-5. Jh. v. Chr.): Perspektiven des Binnenlandes’, in Cappuccini, L., Leypold, C. and Mohr, M. (eds), Fragmenta Mediterranea: contatti, tradizioni e innovazioni in Grecia, Magna Grecia, Etruria e Roma: studi in onore di Christoph Reusser (Sesto Fiorentino) 111–31Google Scholar
Kistler, E. and Mohr, M. (2015) ‘Monte Iato: two late Archaic feasting places between the local and the global’, in Kistler, E., Öhlinger, B., Mohr, M. and Hoernes, M. (eds), Sanctuaries and the Power of Consumption: Networking and the Formation of Elites in the Archaic Western Mediterranean World: Proceedings of the International Conference in Innsbruck, 20th-23rd March 2012 (Wiesbaden) 385–415Google Scholar
Klebinder-Gauß, G. (2007) Bronzefunde aus dem Artemision von Ephesos (Vienna)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koh, A.J., Yasur-Landau, A., Cline, E.H. (2014) ‘Characterizing a Middle Bronze palatial wine cellar from Tel Kabri, Israel’, PLoS ONE 9.8, e106406, CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kourakou-Dragona, S. (2015) Vine and Wine in the Ancient Greek World (Athens)Google Scholar
Krapf, M. (2009) ‘Eisenzeitliche (Käse-)Reiben in Gräbern, Heiligtümern und Siedlungen’, AKB 39, 509–26 Google Scholar
Kroll, W. (1917) ‘Käse’, RE 19, 1494 Google Scholar
Kučan, D. (1995) ‘Zur Ernährung und dem Gebrauch von Pflanzen im Heraion von Samos im 7. Jahrhundert v. Chr.’, JDAI 110, 164 Google Scholar
Leclère, F. and Spencer, A.J. (2014) Tell Dafana Reconsidered: The Archaeology of an Egyptian Frontier Town (London)Google Scholar
Levi, D. (1976) Festos e la civiltà minoica 1 (Rome)Google Scholar
Levi, D. and Carinci, F. (1988) Festòs e la civiltà minoica 2 (Rome)Google Scholar
Lohmann, H. (2012) ‘“… und es blitzet von Erz der große Saal”: zum Bankettsaal des archaischen Panionion’, in Günther, L.-M. (ed.), Tryphe und Kultritual im archaischen Kleinasien: ex oriente luxuria? (Wiesbaden) 96–125Google Scholar
Loretz, O. (1993) ‘Ugaritisch-hebräisch “hmr/hmr” und “msk(/mzg)”: Neu- und Mischwein in der Ägais und in Syrien-Palästina’, UF 25, 247–58 Maass, M. and Kilian-Dirlmeier, I. (1998) ‘Aegina - Aphaiatempel: Bronzefunde außer Waffen’, AA 1998, 57–104Google Scholar
Mallowan, M.E.L. (1950) ‘Excavations at Nimrud. 1949–1950’, Iraq 12.2, 147–83 Maravela-Solbakk, A. (2009) ‘Byzantine inventory lists of food provisions and utensils on an Ashmolean papyrus’, ZPE 170, 127–46Google Scholar
Marro, C. and Michel, C. (2013) ‘Le sel dans les sociétés anciennes du Proche-Orient et du Caucase: exploitations et usages d’après les sources archéologiques et épigraphiques’, in Michel, C. (ed.), L’alimentation dans l’Orient ancient: cuisines et dépendances (Cahier des Thèmes transversaux ArScAn 9, 2011–2012) (Nanterre) 357–72Google Scholar
Martin, S.R. (2018) ‘Eastern Mediterranean feasts: what do we really know about the Marzeah?’, in Niesiolowski-Spanò, L. and Węcowski, M. (eds), Change, Continuity, and Connectivity: North-Eastern Mediterranean at the Turn of the Bronze Age and in the Early Iron Age (Wiesbaden) 294–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGovern, P.E. (2003) Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins of Viniculture (Princeton and Oxford)Google Scholar
McGovern, P.E., Luley, B.P., Rovira, N., Mirzoian, A., Callahan, M.P., Smith, K.E., Hall, G.R., Davidson, T. and Henkina, J.M. (2013) ‘Beginning of viniculture in France’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110.25, 10147–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGovern, P.E., Mirzoian, A. and Halla, G.R. (2009) ‘Ancient Egyptian herbal wines’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106.18, 7361–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McPhee, I. (2000) ‘Falaieff bell-kraters from ancient Corinth’, Hesperia 69.4, 453–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morgan, C. (2012) ‘Setting Zagora in context’, in Descoeudres, J.-P. and Paspalas, S. (eds), Zagora in Context: Settlements and Intercommunal Links in the Geometric Period (900–700 BC). MedArch 25, 29–42Google Scholar
Morstadt, B. (2008) Phönizische Thymiateria: Zeugnisse des Orientalisierungsprozesses im Mittelmeerraum (Alter Orient und Altes Testament 354) (Münster)Google Scholar
Munro, P. (1973) Die spätägyptischen Totenstelen (Glückstadt) Google Scholar
Namdar, D., Amrani, A. and Kletter, R. (2015) ‘Cult and trade in Yavneh through the study of organic residues’, in Kletter, R., Ziffer, I. and Zwickel, W. (eds), Yavneh 2: The ‘Temple Hill’ Repository Pit (Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, Series Archaeologica 36) (Fribourg) 214–23Google Scholar
Namdar, D., Gilboa, A., Neumann, R., Finkelstein, I. and Weiner, S. (2013) ‘Cinnamaldehyde in Early Iron Age Phoenician flasks raises the possibility of Levantine trade with South East Asia’, Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 13.2, 1–19Google Scholar
Namdar, D., Neumann, R. and Weiner, S. (2010) ‘Residue analysis of chalices from the Repository Pit’, in Kletter, R., Ziffer, I. and Zwickel, W. (eds), Yavneh 1: The Excavation of the ‘Temple Hill’ Repository Pit and the Cult Stands (Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, Series Archaeologica 30) (Fribourg) 167–73Google Scholar
Naville, E. and Griffith, F.L. (1890) The Mound of the Jew and the City of Onias: The Antiquties of Tell el Yahûdîyeh (London)Google Scholar
Nelson, M. (2014) ‘Did ancient Greeks drink beer?’, Phoenix 68.1/2, 27–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nijboer, A.J. (2013) ‘Banquet, marzeah, symposion and symposium during the Iron Age: disparity and mimicry’, in De Angelis, F. (ed.), Regionalism and Globalism in Antiquity: Exploring their Limits (Colloquia Antiqua 7) (Leuven) 95–125Google Scholar
Oates, J. (1959) ‘Late Assyrian pottery from Fort Shalmaneser’, Iraq 21.2, 130–46 Olson, S.D. (2018) ‘Perfumed wine μυρίνης οἶνος): Diph. fr. 17.10, Posidipp. Com. fr. 36, Philippid. fr. 40 and the lexica’, Mnemosyne 71.4, 689–92 Olson, S.D. and Sens, A. (2000) Archestratos of Gela (Oxford)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, R. (2005) Polytheism and Society at Athens (Oxford)Google Scholar
Payne, H. (1940) Perachora: The Sanctuaries of Hera Akraia and Limenia: Excavations of the BritishSchool of Archaeology at Athens 1930–3: Architecture, Bronzes, Terracottas (Oxford)Google Scholar
Pelagatti, P. (ed.) (1987) L’alimentazione nel mondo antico 2: gli Etruschi (Rome)Google Scholar
Petrie, W.M.F. (1888) Tanis 2: Nebesheh and Defenneh (London)Google Scholar
Pieraccini, L.C. (2006) ‘Home is where the hearth is: the function of the Caeretan brazier’, Ancient West & East 5, 8089 Google Scholar
Pieraccini, L.C. (2014a) ‘Food and drink in the Etruscan world’, in Turfa, J.M. (ed.), The Etruscan World (London and New York) 812–22Google Scholar
Pieraccini, L.C. (2014b) ‘The ever elusive Etruscan egg’, EtrStud 17.2, 267–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Postgate, N. (2015) ‘The bread of Aššur’, Iraq 77, 159–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powell, M.A. (1995) ‘Wine and the vine in ancient Mesopotamia’, in McGovern, P.E., S.J. Fleming and S.H. Katz (eds), The Origins and Ancient History of Wine (Amsterdam) 97–122 Google Scholar
Prêtre, C. (2016) La fibule et le clou: ex-voto et instrumentum de l’Artémision (Etudes Thasiennes 23) (Athens)Google Scholar
Prince, C.K. (2009) ‘The lioness and the cheese-grater (Ar. Lys. 231–232)’, SIFC (4th series) 7.2, 149–75Google Scholar
Quevedo, A. (2011) ‘Un rallador de cerámica: reflexiones en torno a una pieza romana de cocina de Carthago Nova (Cartagena)’, Sagvntvm 43, 155–66 Google Scholar
Rabinowitz, A.T. (2004) Symposium, Community and Cultural Exchange in Archaic Sicily and South Italy (Ph.D. Diss. Michigan)Google Scholar
Radner, K. (2014) ‘Zagros spice mills: the Simurrean and the Hašimur grindstones’, in Greco, A., Gaspa, S., Morandi Bonacossi, D., Ponchia, S. and Rollinger, R. (eds), From Source to History: Studies on Ancient Near Eastern Worlds and Beyond Dedicated to Giovanni Battista Lanfranchi (Münster) 573–80Google Scholar
Rahmani, S. (2013) ‘Étude du kykéôn d’après la lecture d’Homère’, in Mazoyer, M. and Aufrère, S.H. (eds), De Hattuša à Memphis: Jacques Freu in honorem (Paris) 209–13Google Scholar
Ramage, N.H. (1986) ‘Two new Attic cups and the siege of Sardis’, AJA 90, 419–24 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reade, J.M. (1995) ‘The symposion in ancient Mesopotamia: archaeological evidence’, in Murray, O. and Tecuşan, M. (eds), In Vino Veritas (London) 35–56Google Scholar
Reade, J.M. (2005) ‘Religious ritual in Assyrian sculpture’, in Porter, B.N. (ed.), Ritual and Politics in Ancient Mesopotamia (New Haven) 7–61Google Scholar
Reusser, C. (1993) ‘Una tomba visentina nel Museo Archeologico di Chiusi: considerazioni sulla fase arcaica di Bisenzio’, Prospettiva 70, 7586 Google Scholar
Ricci, G. (1955) ‘Necropoli della Banditaccia: zona A “del recinto”’, in P. Pace, R. Vighi, G. Ricci and M. Moretti, Caere = Monumenti antichi dell’Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei 42, col. 201–1048Google Scholar
Ridgway, D. (1997) ‘Nestor’s cup and the Etruscans’, OJA 16, 325–44 Google Scholar
Riva, C. (2010) The Urbanisation of Etruria: Funerary Practices and Social Change, 700–600 BC (Cambridge) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riva, C. (2017) ‘Wine production and exchange and the value of wine consumption in sixth-century BC Etruria’, JMA 30, 237–61 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, D.M. (1941) Olynthus 10: Metal and Minor Miscellaneous Finds (Baltimore)Google Scholar
Rosen, R. (1987) ‘Hipponax fr. 48 Dg. and the Eleusinian kykeon’, AJPh 108.3, 416–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosól, R. (2018) ‘Early Semitic loanwords in Greek’, in Niesiołowski-Spanò, L. and Węcowski, M. (eds), Change, Continuity, and Connectivity: North-Eastern Mediterranean at the Turn of the Bronze Age and in the Early Iron Age (Wiesbaden) 334–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubensohn, O. (1962) Das Delion von Paros (Wiesbaden)Google Scholar
Santocchini Gerg, S. (2013) ‘L’apparato decorativo della ceramica dell’Etruria padana’, in C. Mattioli, Atlante tipologico delle forme ceramiche di produzione locale in Etruria Padana (Bologna) 495–535Google Scholar
Sardà Seuma, S., Garcia i Rubert, D. and Moreno Martínez, I. (2016) ‘Feasting, Phoenician trade and dynamics of social change in northeastern Iberia: rituals of commensality in the Early Iron Age settlement of Sant Jaume (Alcanar, Catalonia)’, JMA 29, 3760 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saripanidi, V. (2017) ‘Constructing continuities with a “heroic” past: death, feasting and political ideology in the Archaic Macedonian kingdom’, in Tsingarida, A. and Lemos, I.S. (eds), Constructing Social Identities in Early Iron Age and Archaic Greece (Brussels) 73–135Google Scholar
Schipporeit, S.T. (2005) ‘Gefässe und Geräte im Kultmahl’, ThesCRA 5, 326–42 Google Scholar
Sherratt, S. (2004) ‘Feasting in Homeric epic’, in Wright, J.C. (ed.), The Mycenaean Feast: Hesperia 73.2, 301–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silvestrini, M. and Sabbati, T. (eds) (2008) Potere e splendore: gli antichi Piceni a Matelica (Rome)Google Scholar
Singer-Avitz, L. (2007) ‘On pottery in Assyrian style: a rejoinder’, Tel Aviv 34.2, 182–203 Searight, A., Reade, H. and Finkel, I. (2008) Assyrian Stone Vessels and Related Material in the British Museum (London)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, R.K., Stacey, R.J., Bergströmac, E. and Thomas-Oates, J. (2018) ‘Detection of opium alkaloids in a Cypriot base-ring juglet’, Analyst 143, 5127–36 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stampolidis, N.C., Papadopoulou, E., Lourentzatou, I.G. and Fappas, I. (2018) Crete: Emerging Cities: Aptera, Eleutherna, Knossos (Athens)Google Scholar
Stronach, D. (1995) ‘The imagery of the wine bowl: wine in Assyria in the early first millennium BC’, in McGovern, P.E., Fleming, S.J. and Katz, S.H. (eds), The Origins and Ancient History of Wine (Amsterdam) 175–95Google Scholar
Struble, E. and Herrmann, V. (2009) ‘An eternal feast at Sam’al: the new Iron Age mortuary stele from Zincirli in context’, BASO 356, 1549 Google Scholar
Sztetyllo, Z. (1976) Mirmeki: Wykopadiska Odcinka Polskeogo w r. 1957 (Warsaw)Google Scholar
Swift, E. (2017) Roman Artefacts and Society: Design, Behaviour, and Experience (Oxford)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tamburini, P. (1997) ‘Tripod bowl’, in Buranelli, F. (ed.), La raccolta Giacinto Giuglielmi 1: la ceramica (Vatican City) 197–98Google Scholar
Thurmond, D.L. (2017) From Vines to Wines in Classical Rome: A Handbook of Viticulture and Oenology in Rome and the Roman West (Leiden)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomlinson, R.A. (1980) ‘Two notes on possible hestiatoria’, ABSA 75, 221–28 Google Scholar
Trivigno, L. and Mazzoli, M. (2014) ‘Metal objects’, in E. Lanza Catti and K. Swift, The Chora of Metaponto 5: A Greek Farmhouse at Ponte Fabrizio (Austin) 361–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tzedakis, Y. and Martlew, H. (1999) Minoans and Mycenaeans: Flavours of their Time (Athens)Google Scholar
Turfa, J.M. (2014) ‘De Vulci à Chypre et au-delà: voyages du cycle étrusco-corinthien de Codros’, in Ambrosini, L. and Jolivet, P. (eds), Les potiers d’Etrurie et leur monde: contacts, échanges, transferts: hommages à Mario A. del Chiaro (Paris) 209–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Valmin, N. (1938) The Swedish Messenia Expedition (Lund)Google Scholar
van Alfen, P. (2002) Pant’Agatha: Commodities in Levantine-Aegean Trade during the Persian Period, 64th c. B.C. (Ph.D. Diss. Texas)Google Scholar
Villing, A. and Pemberton, E. (2010) ‘Corinthian mortaria: form and function’, Hesperia 79, 555–638 Villing, A. (forthcoming a) Mortaria and Mediterraneanisation CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Villing, A. and Pemberton, E. (forthcoming b) ‘Greek cuisine and commensality: reconsidering the social role of food in the deipnonsymposion’, in Charalambidou, X., Crielaard, J.P. and Morgan, C. (eds), Feasting with the Greeks: Towards a Social Archaeology of Ritual Consumption in the Greek World (Oxford)Google Scholar
Vives-Ferrándiz Sanchez, J. (2007) ‘Trípodes, ánforas y consumo de vino: acerca de la actividad comercial fenicia en la costa oriental de la Península Ibérica’, Rivista di studi fenici 32.2, 9–33Google Scholar
Wagner, H. (2008) In Odysseus’ Küche: Esssitten in der griechischen Archaik von Homer bis Hipponax (Innsbruck)Google Scholar
Waldbaum, J. (1978) From Bronze to Iron: The Transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age in the Eastern Mediterranean (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 54) (Gothenburg)Google Scholar
Węcowski, M. (2014) The Rise of the Greek Aristocratic Banquet (Oxford and New York)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Węcowski, M. (2018) ‘When did the symposion die? On the decline of the Greek aristocratic banquet’, in van den Eijnde, F., Blok, J.H. and Strootman, R. (eds), Feasting and Polis Institutions (Leiden) 257–72Google Scholar
Weiss Adamson, M. (2004) Food in Medieval Times (Westport)Google Scholar
West, M.L. (1998) ‘Grated cheese fit for heroes’, JHS 118, 190–91 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilkins, J. (2000) The Boastful Chef: The Discourse of Food in Ancient Greek Comedy (Oxford)Google Scholar
Wilkins, J.M. and Hill, S. (2006) Food in the Ancient World (Malden MA and Oxford)Google Scholar
Winter, I.J. (2016) ‘The court banquets of Sargon II of Assyria: commensality as a positive affirmation of the (successful) hunt and battle’, in Bartolini, G. and Biga, M.G. (eds), Not Only History: Proceedings of the Conference in Honor of Mario Liverani (Winona Lake) 35–52Google Scholar
Woolley, C.L. (1955) Alalakh: An Account of the Excavations at Tell Atchana in the Hatay, 1937–1949 (Oxford)Google Scholar
Younger, W. (1966) Gods, Men, and Wine (London)Google Scholar
Zamora, J.-A. (2000) La vid y el vino en Ugarit (Madrid)Google Scholar
Zinn, F. (2018) Die Weinkultur der Griechen (Norderstedt)Google Scholar