Research on twinning in developed countries is well documented, but little is known about twinning in less-developed countries due to a lack of data or data limitations. This study examined the level of, trends in and determinants of twin births and their survival under age five in Jordan, using the 2012 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) data. The birth history of 11,352 women included in the JPFHS provided information on 9859 live births that occurred within 5 years of the survey date, and these constituted the study subjects. Descriptive statistics, and bivariate and multivariate multilevel logistic regression models were used for data analysis. About 3.5% of the total live births were twins, which is one of the highest rates in developing countries. The twinning rate showed an increasing trend in Jordan, increasing by 45% from 2.4% in 1990 to 3.5% in 2012. Higher maternal age at child birth, higher parity, poor and richer economic status, contraceptive use status, secondary and above level of education of mothers and non-consanguinity were found to be associated with a higher rate of twin births in Jordan. Twins were observed to have a higher risk of low birth weight, being smaller in physical size at birth and at more than four times higher risk of neonatal death compared with singletons. To reduce the risk of having twin births and further improve the maternal and child health, antenatal, delivery and postnatal care should be tailored towards the special needs of twin births in Jordan. Twin pregnancies should be detected at the early stage of pregnancy so that perinatal outcomes can be improved by frequent prenatal visits, health education, counselling and proper management of peripartum complications.