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The VOC and Japanese Rice in the Early Seventeenth Century

  • Yao Keisuke (a1)

Extract

According to traditional scholarship, Sakoku or the national seclusion of Japan in the early seventeenth century was primarily carried out with the intention of prohibiting Christianity. It is generally agreed that the seclusion ofJapan was completed through a series of edicts, the socalled Sakokurei (which were issued between 1633 and 1639 by the Bakufu (the Tokugawa Shogunal government). Through these edicts the Christian religion was forbidden in Japan. Japanese trading activities abroad were also prohibited through the issue of Kai-kin or maritime prohibitions. Finally the Portuguese trade from Macao was terminated. It is generally believed that the seclusion ofJapan was brought about as a means to gain better control of theJapanese people. In the final analysis the closure of Japan had a double meaning: the political meaning, the prohibition of Christianity, and an economic meaning, the restriction of trade.

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Notes

1 Seiichi, Iwao gave a dear definition of Sakoku in 1963. Seiichi, Iwao, ‘Sakoku’, Iwanami koza Nihon rekishi X (Tokyo 1964). See also Boxer, C.R., The Christian Century in Japan, 1549–1850 (London 1951); Elisonas, J., ‘Christianity and the daimyo’, The Cambridge History of Japan IV (Cambridge 1991) 369.

2 Iwao Seiichi, ibid; Seiichi, Iwao, ‘Japanese Foreign Trade in the 16th and 17th Centuries’, Ada Asiatica 30 (1976). In recent studies Arano Yasunori used Kai-lun (maritime prohibitions) instead of Sakoku.

3 Yasunori, Arano, ‘Taikun gaiko taisei no kakuritsu’ (Establishment of diplomatic system of the Taikun), Eiichi, Kato and Tadao, Yamada eds., Sakoku, of Koza Nihon Kinseishi II (Tokyo 1981); Yasunori, Arano, Kinsei Nihon to Higashi Azia (Early Modern Japan and East Asia) (Tokyo 1988).

4 Junnosuke, Sasaki, ‘Bakuhansei kokka ron’ (Theory of state of the Bakuhan system) in: Hidesaburo, Hara a.o. eds., Taikei Nihon kokkashi III (Tokyo 1975).

5 Yasunao, Nakata, Kinsei Taigai kankei no kenkyu (A Study on foreign relations in the early modern period) (Tokyo 1985).

6 Nakata Yasunao, ibid.; Koichiro, Takase, Kirisitanjidai no kenkyu (A Study on the Christian Age) (Tokyo 1976). These studies on the relations between seclusion and commerce are surveyed and introduced by Eiichi, Kato, ‘Development of Japanese Studies on Sakoku (Closing the Country): A Survey’, Ada Asiatica 22 (1972).

7 Sasaki, ibid.; Cambridge History of Japan, ibid.

8 Nobuhiko, Nakai, ‘Kinsei toshi no hatten’ (Development of Cities in Early Modern Japan), Iwanami koza Nihon rekishi XI (Tokyo 1963); Tadashi, Nakamura, ‘Shima bara no Ran to Sakok’ (The Shimabara Rebellion and Seclusion), Iwanami koza Nihon rekishi X (Tokyo 1975).

9 Tsuneo, Moriyama, ‘Toyotomi-ki kaigai boeki no ichikeitai’ (A form of foreign trade in die Toyotomi-regime), Tokai Daigaku Bungabaku Kiyo 8 (1966).

10 Takase Koichiro, ibid.; Seiichi, Iwao, ‘Japanese Foreign Trade in the 16th and 17th Centuries’, Ada Asiatica 30 (1976).

11 Op. cit.; Seiichi, Iwao, Shuinsen boekishi no kenkyu (A Study of the History of the Red-seal Ship) (Tokyo 1958).

12 Akira, Hayashi, Tsuko Ichiran VIII (Tokyo 1913) 543545.

13 Nagazumi Yoko, ‘Hirado Oranda shokan’ (Dutch Factory in Hirado); Nagazumi, and Mariko, Takeda, Hirado Oranda Shokan. Hirado Igirisu Shokan (Tokyo 1981); Hirobusi, Yamamoto, Kan'ei jidai (Kan'ei era) (Tokyo 1989).

14 Genseiroku, Buke, in: Ryosuke, Isii eds., Kinsei hosei shiryo so-sho II (Tokyo 1959).

15 Gotoke Reijo, in Isii Ryosuke eds., ibid., I, 3–4.

16 Eiichi, Kato, ‘Rengo Oranda Higashi Indo Kaisha no Senryaku-Kyoten toshite no Hirado’ (Hirado as a strategic point of the United Dutch East India Company), Nihon Zenkindai no Kokka to Taigai-kankei (Tokyo 1987).

17 Copy missive van Leonaert Camps uyt Firando aen gouverneur generael Coen in dato 15 October 1621, ARA, V.O.C. 1075, fol. 86r.

18 Factuyre van de coopmanschappen contant silver, enz., ARA, V.O.C. 1063, fol. 476v–481r.

19 Facture van de goederen en coopmanschappen, door Jacques Specx oppercoopman in Japan. ARA, V.O.C, 1068, fo. 396–398.

20 Copie missive van Cornells van Nijenrode in dato 21 Maert anno 1631, ARA, V.O.C., 1103, fol. 124–129.

21 Negotie Journaal anno 1624/26, ARA, N.FJ. 830.

22 Dagregister gehouden te Edo door Willem Jansz. van Amersfoort anno 1632, ARA, N.FJ. 273, dato 5 JuIy.

23 Negotie Journael anno 1636, ARA, N.F.J. 836.

24 op. cit.

25 Dagregister anno 1633/39, ARA, N.FJ. 54, dato 25 November anno 1635.

26 ibid., dato 2 December anno 1635.

27 Dagregister anno 1639/41, ARA, N.FJ. 55, dato 7 July anno 1639.

28 Michihiro, Ishibara, Nihon Kisshi no Kenkyu (A study on the Chinese Missions asking to send armed forces) (Tokyo 1945).

29 Dagregister anno 1639/41, ARA, N.FJ. 55, dato 7 July anno 1639.

30 ibid., dato 14 Augustus anno 1641.

31 Hayashi Akira, ibid. IV, 267–269.

32 Hayashi Akira, ibid. IV, 289–299.

33 Hayashi Akira, ibid. IV, 267–269.

34 Roessing, M.H.P., Het Archief van de Nederlandse Factorij in Japan 1609–1860 ('s-Gravenhage 1964).

35 Negotie Journael anno 1620–24, ARA, N.FJ. 829.

36 Negotie Journael anno 1636, ARA, N.FJ. 836.

37 Akira, Nagazumi, ‘Oranda no Higashi Indi Keiei Shoki ni okeru Boeki no Yakuwa ri’ (The Role of Trade in the Early Management of Dutch East India), Toyo Cahuko 39-42 (1964).

38 op. cit.

39 Nagazumi Akira, Oranda Higashi Indo Kaisha (The Dutch East India Company) (Tokyo Shuppansha 1971) 114–116.

40 Factuur anno 1635/37, ARA, N.FJ. 763. Facturen anno 1640–1644, ARA, N.FJ. 764–768.

41 Eiichi, Kato, ‘Unification and Adaptation, the Early Shogunate and Dutch Trade Policies’ in: Blussé, L. and Gaastra, F.S. eds., Companies and Trade (Leiden 1981).

42 Takashi, Nakamura, ‘Taiwan ni okeru Ranjin no Nogyo-Shorei to Hattatsu’ (The Dutch promotion and development of Agriculture in Taiwan), Shakai Keuai Shigaku 7-3 (1937).

43 Takashi, Nakamura, ‘Oranda no Taiwan Keiei’ (The Dutch administration in Taiwan), Tenri Daigaku Gahuko 43 (1964).

44 Blussé, J.L. a.o., De Dagregisters van het Kasteel Zeelandia, Taiwan 1629–1664 1 ('s-Gravenhage 1986).

45 For example, in 1644 the Dutch in Formosa requested 150 lasten (about 296.4 tons) of Siamese rice to the factory in van der Chijs, Siam. JA. a.o., Dagregister gehmtden int Casteel Batavia VIII ('s-Gravenhage 1903) 145.

46 Blussé, Dagregisters van het Kasteel Zeelandia.

47 Factuur anno 1661, ARA, N.FJ. 785.

48 Factuur anno 1665, ARA, N.FJ. 787.

49 Negotie Journaal anno 1641, ARA, N.FJ. 841.

50 Dagregister anno 1633/1639, ARA, N.FJ. 53, dato 2 November anno 1634.

51 Copie missive van Cornells van Nijenrode in dato 21 Maert anno 1631, ARA. V.O.C. 1103, fol. 124–129.

52 Dagregister anno 1633/1639, ARA, N.FJ. 53, dato 2 November anno 1634.

53 Negotie Journaal anno 1641, ARA, N.FJ. 841.

54 Negotie Journalen anno 1642/43–1643/44, ARA, N.FJ. 842–843.

55 Negotie Journaal anno 1648/49, ARA, N.FJ. 849.

56 Factuur anno 1648, ARA. N.FJ. 772.

57 Yoko, Takeno, Han Boeti-shi no Kenkyu (Study of clan-trade) (Tokyo 1979).

58 Yasuhihro, Mori, Daimyo Kin yushi-ron (A Study of the History of aimyo Finance) (Tokyo 1970).

59 Hayashi Akira, ibid. IV, 267–269.

60 Nakai Nobuhiko, ibid.

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The VOC and Japanese Rice in the Early Seventeenth Century

  • Yao Keisuke (a1)

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