Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Recruitment, Training and Conflicts surrounding “Native teachers” in the Moravian Mission in the Danish West Indies in the Nineteenth Century

  • Jan Hüsgen

Abstract

This article studies the role of indigenous teachers within the school system run by the Moravian mission in the Danish West Indies. The mission opened its first day schools for enslaved children in 1841 a few years before the abolition of slavery. The missionaries were reliant on the support of teachers of Afro-Caribbean origin, which were trained in one of the teacher training institutes run by the Mico-Charity Society. This article proposes that the recruitment of Afro-Caribbean teachers with different denominational backgrounds and professional education challenged the mission hierarchy. This will be pointed out by focusing on the recruitment and training of the teachers and by an analysis of their position within the mission society.

Copyright

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Jan Hüsgen is a Research Associate at the Department for Research and Scientific Cooperation at the Dresden State Art Collections (Germany). His main research interests are the Moravian mission in the Danish and British Caribbean, with a special focus on slavery and slave emancipation.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Primary Sources
Unity Archives, Herrnhut, Germany (UA):
Minutes of the Unity Elders Conference (UEC)
R 15 Bb 26h, Letters from the Mission in the Danish West Indies to the UEC (1834–1843)
R 15 Bb 26i, Letters from the Mission in the Danish West Indies to the UEC (1844–1854)
R 15 Ba 28, Minutes of the School Conference in Friedensthal, St. Croix 1841
R 15 Bb 19 (b), Negotiations with the Danish Government
Moravian Archives Bethlehem, PA (MAB):
Eastern West Indies (EWI), C. 15.2. Minutes of the Helper Conferences (1843–1848)
Bagger, J. A Catechism of Scriptural Truths, Principally Designed for the Use of the Country Schools in the Danish West Indies. N.p.: 1841.
Brereton, B. “Family Strategies, Gender and the Shift to Wage Labour in the British Caribbean.” In The Colonial Caribbean in Transition. Essays on Postemancipation Social and Cultural History, edited by Kevin Yelvington, 76107. Kingston: University of West Indies Press, 1999.
Campbell, C. “Education, Religion and Culture.” In General History of the Caribbean, vol. 4, The Long Nineteenth Century: Nineteenth Century Transformations, edited by K. O. Lawrence, 482513. Paris: UNESCO, 2011.
Degn, C. Die Schimmelmanns im atlantischen Dreieckshandel. Zwischen Gewinn und Gewissen. Neumünster: Wachholtz, 1974.
Fryd-Johansen, J. “Landskolerne: skoler for slavebørn på landet.” In Skolerne I palmernes skygge, edited by Julie Fryd-Johansen, Jesper Eckhardt Larsen and Vagn Skovgaard-Petersen, 103122. Odense: Dansk Skolemuseum, 2008.
Füllberg-Stolberg, C. “The Moravian Mission and the Emancipation of Slaves in the Caribbean.” In The End of Slavery in Africa and the Americas. A Comparative Approach, edited by Ulrike Schmieder, 81102. Berlin: Lit Verlag, 2011.
Green, W. British Slave Emancipation: The Sugar Colonies and the Great Experiment, 18301870. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Gordon, S. “The Negro Education Grant, 1835–1845: Its application in Jamaica.” In British Journal of Educational Studies 6:2 (1958): 140150.
Hall, D. Five of the Leewards 1834–1870: The Major Problems of the Post-Emancipation Period in Antigua, Barbuda, Montserrat, Nevis and St. Kitts. Barbados: Caribbean Universities Press, 1971.
Hall, N. A. T. Slave Society in the Danish West Indies, edited by Barry W. Higman. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.
Higman, B. W. “Small Islands, Large Questions: Post-Emancipation Historiography of the Leeward Islands.” In Small Islands, Large Questions. Society, Culture and Resistance in the Post-Emancipation Caribbean, edited by Karen Fog Olwig, 830. London: Macmillan, 1992.
Highfield, A. R. “Patterns of Accommodation and Resistance. The Moravian Witness to Slavery in the Danish West Indies.” In Time Longa’ Dan Twine: Notes on the Culture, History, and People of the U.S. Virgin Islands, edited by Arnold R. Highfield, 203233. St. Croix: Antilles Press, 2009.
Hurwitz, E., et al. Educational Imperialism: American School Policy and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Chicago: University Press of America, 1987.
Klingberg, F. “The Lady Mico Charity Schools in the British West Indies, 1835–1842.” In The Journal of Negro History 24:3 (1939): 291344.
Lampe, A. Mission or Submission? Moravian and Catholic Missionaries in the Dutch Caribbean During the 19th Century. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2001.
Larsen, J. Virgin Islands Story. A History of the Lutheran State Church, Other Churches, Slavery, Education, and Culture in the Danish West Indies, now the Virgin Islands. Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1950.
Lawætz, H. Brødremenigheden i Dansk Vestindien 1760–1848. Copenhagen: Wroblewski, 1902.
Olwig, K. F. Global Culture, Island Identity: Continuity and Change in the Afro-Caribbean Community of Nevis. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic, 2002.
Olwig, K. F. Cultural Adaptation and Resistance on St. John: Three Centuries of Afro-Caribbean Life. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1987.
Ramløv, P. Brødrene og Slaverne. Et blad af Dansk Vestindiens historie. Copenhagen: Kristeligt Dagblads Forlag, 1968.
Richardson, H. “Distant Garden. Moravian Mission and the Culture of Slavery in the Danish West Indies 1732–1848.” In Journal of Moravian History 2 (2007): 5574.
Rothe, L. A Description of the Island of Antigua with Particular Reference to Emancipation’s Results 1846, edited by Neville A. Hall. Kingston: University of West Indies, 1996.
Sebro, L. “Den kulturelle mission—Brødremenigheden i Dansk Vestindien.” In På sporet af imperiet: Dansk tropefantasier, edited by Lene Bull Christensen, et al., 3949. Roskilde: Institut for Sprog og Kultur, 2005.
Stow, D. The Training System of Education. For the Moral and Intellectual Elevation of Youth. Glasgow: Blackie and Son, 1846.
Turner, M. Slaves and Missionaries. The Disintegration of Jamaican Slave Society, 1787–1834. Kingston: University of West Indies Press, 2000.
Vibæk, J. “Danks vestindiens storhedstid.” In Vore gamle Tropekolonier, edited by Johannes Brøndsted, vol. 2. Copenhagen: Fremad, 1966.
Warner-Lewis, M. Archibald Monteath. Igbo, Jamaican, Moravian. Kingston: University of West Indies Press, 2007.
Wendt, H. Die missionarische Gesellschaft. Mikrostrukturen einer kolonialen Globalisierung. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2011.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The Recruitment, Training and Conflicts surrounding “Native teachers” in the Moravian Mission in the Danish West Indies in the Nineteenth Century

  • Jan Hüsgen

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.