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Overseas History in the Netherlands after the Second World War. Historical Backgrounds, Modern Developments, Present-Day Situation

  • H.L. Wesseling (a1)

Extract

Is history science or art? This is a problem which has been on people's minds for more than a century and certainly it is an interesting question. But within the framework of this contribution it is not really important, for, whether one practises art history or history of science, one faces the same problem. On the one hand such a history is first and foremost a history of the work and achievements of individuals. A history of science which does not deal with the work of Copernicus, Newton and Einstein is as useless as a history of art in which Rembrandt, Rubens and Michelangelo do not figure. Art and history are and will remain foremost the work of individuals of genius. On the other hand it is also true that a history of art or science which confines itself exclusively to a series of sketches of individuals and their work is not satisfactory either. Artists and scientists do not work within a vacuum. As one discerns tendencies and trends in art, likewise within the field of science one finds schools and paradigms. In order to understand works of art and science we have to look closely at influences and examples, at the time-spirit, the spiritual climate, et cetera.

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Notes

1 Cf. e.g. Carbonell, Charles-Olivier, Histoire et historiens. line mutation ideologique des hisloriens francais, 1865–1885 (Toulouse 1976), andBoer, Pirn den, Ceschiedenis ah beroep. Deprofession nalisering van de geschiedbeocfening in Frankrijk, 1880–1914 (History as a profession. The professionalizing of history in France, 1880–1914) (Nijmegen 1987).

2 Cf. Romein, J., In opdracht van de tijd. Tien voordrachten over historische thema's (Per order of time. Ten lectures on historical themes) (Amsterdam 1946).

3 Sources inédites de l'histoire du Maroc ed. by the Castries, Due de (6 vols., Paris 1906-1923).

4 See Fasseur, C., De indologen. Ambtenaren voor de Oosl (The indologists. Civil servants for the East) (Amsterdam 1993) andOtterspeer, W. ed., Leiden Oriental Connections, 1850–1940 (Leiden 1989), esp. C. Fasseur, W. Otterspeer, L. Blussé, F. Vos and W. van Gulik.

5 Cf. Heesterman, J.C., ‘The Precarious Rise and Survival of Sanskrit and Indian Studies’ and H. 't Hart, ‘Imagine Leiden without Kern’, both in Otterspeer, Oriental Connections, 115125 and 126–140 resp., and Waarom Sanskrit? Honderdvijfentwintigjaar Sanskrit in Neder-land (Why Sanskrit? One hunderd and twenty five years of Sanskrit in the Netherlands). lectures, Ten ed. Muyzenberg, Hanneke van den and Bruijn, Thomas de (Leiden 1991).

6 One could think of the well known studies of Immanuel Wallerstein on this subject.

7 For the development of lndonesian historiography, see Klooster, H.A.J., Indonesian schrijven hun geschiedenis. De ontwikkeling van de Indonesische geschiedbeoefening in theorie en praklijk, 1900–1980 (Indonesians write their history. The development of lndonesian historical studies in theory and in practice) (Dordrecht 1985).

8 van der Sprankel, J.W. Berkelbach and Brandt, C.D.J. ed., Depelgrimstocht der mensheid (The Pilgrimage of humanity) (Utrecht 1952 4.)

9 Cf. Romein, J., De eeuw van Aziê. Opkomst, ontwikkelingen overwinningvan het modern-auatische nationalisme (The Asian Century. The rise, development and victory of modern asiatic nationalism) (Leiden 1956) andWertheim, W.F., Indonesian Society in Transition: A Study ofSocial Change (The Hague/Bandung 1956); id., East-West Parallels: Sociological Approaches to Modern Asia (The Hague 1964); id., Evolutie en revolutie: de golfslag der emancipatze (Evolution and revolution, waves in emancipation) (Amsterdam 1971).

10 Resink, G.J., Indonesia's History between the Myths. Essays in Legal History and Historical Theory (The Hague 1968).

11 Cf. e.g. Bastin, J., The Study of Modern Southeast-Asian History (Kuala Lumpur 1959).

12 Meilink-Roelofsz, M.A.P., Asian Trade and European Influence in the Indonesian Archipelago between 1500 and about 1630 (The Hague 1962).

13 See Leur, J.C. van, Indonesian Trade and Society. Essays in Asian Social and Economic History (The Hague/Bandung 1955).

14 For Van Leur and his work see Vogel, J., De opkomst van hel indocentrischegeschiedbeeld. Leven en werken van B.J.O. Schrieke enf.C. van Leur (The rise of indocentric history. Life and work of B.J.O. Schrieke and J.C. Van Leur) (Hilversum 1992).

15 Van Leur, , Trade and Society, 261.

16 Ibidem, 157–245.

17 Ibidem, 268–290.

18 Ch. Woude, van der and Rademakers-Wolf, E., ‘Verslag van een onderzoek naar dissertaties met een historisch wetenschappelijke inslag’ (Report on research of historical dissertations), Aanzet (mei 1986) 3552.

19 Woude, Van der and Rademakers-Wolf, , ‘Verslag’, 4346.

20 Blaas, P., ‘Nederlandse geschiedschrijving na 1945’ (Dutch Historiography after 1945) in Mijnhardt, W.W. ed., Kantelend geschiedbeeUl. Nederlandse hisloriografie sinds 1945 (Toppling historical images. Dutch historiography since 1945) (Utrecht 1983) 37.

21 This list in the leaflet The Institute for the History of Eurofiean Expansion, which can be obtained free of charge from: Secretariaat IGEER, P.B. 9515,2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands.

22 See for the following also: Schutte, G.J., ‘De koloniale geschiedschrijving’ (Colonial histo-riography) in Mijnhardt, Kantelend geschiedbeeld (cf. n. 20) 289310;Bootsma, N. A., ‘Indone sie, Suriname en de Antillen’ (Indonesia, Dutch Guyana and the Netherlands Antilles) in Luykx, P., Bootsma, N. ed., De laatste tijd (The contemporary age) (Utrecht 1987) 299345. Indispensable isCoolhaas, W.Ph., A Critical Survey of Studies on Dutch Colonial History (second edition revised by Schutte, G.J., The Hague 1980). For the current bibliography cf. the Current Annotated Bibliography of Dutch Expansion Studies (CABDES) published annually as number 3/4 of Itinerant. European Journal of Overseas History.

23 Coolhaas, W.Ph., Generate missiven van Gouvemeurs-Generaal en Raden aan Heren XVII der Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie (General missives of Governors-General and Councillors to the Heren XVII of the V.O.C.) (The Hague 1960), continued by Goor, J. van.

24 Bruijn, J.R., Gaastra, F.S., I, Schoffer, Dutch-Asiatic Shipping in the 17th and 18th Centuries ( 3 vols., The Hague 1979-1987).

25 Blusse, J.L., Opstall, M.E. van, Yung-ho, Ts'ao ed., De dagregisters van het K/isteel Zeelandia, Taiwan 1629–16621, 1629–1641 (The daily registers of the Fortress of Zeelandia, Taiwan) (The Hague 1986).

26 Vermeulen, A.C.J., The Dcshima Dagregisters, Their Original Tables of Contents (IGEER, Leiden 1986), continued by Velde, P.G.E.I.J. van der.

27 Kwantes, R.C., De ontwikkeling van de nationalistische beweging in Nederlandsch-Indie. Bronnen-publicatie (The development of the nationalistic movement in the Dutch East Indies. A source publication) (4 vols., Groningen 1975-1982); Wai, S.L. van der, Het onderwijsbeleid in Nederlandsch-Indie, 1900–1940; een bronnenpublikatie (Educational policy in the Dutch East Indies, 1900–1940; A source publication) (Groningen 1963); Wai, S.L. van der, De opkomst van de nationalistische beweging in Nederlands-Indië; een bronnenpublikatie (The rise of the nationalist movement in the Dutch East Indies; A source publication) (Groningen 1967); Creutzberg, P., Het ekonomisch beleid in Nederlandsch-Indie. Capita Selecta. Een bronnen-publikatie (The economic policy in the Dutch East Indies. Capita Selecta. Publication of sources) (2 vols., Groningen 1972-1974).

28 Wai, S.L. van der, Of/iciele bescheiden betreffende de Nederlands-Indonesische belrekkingen, 1945–1950 (Official documents regarding Dutch-Indonesian relations, 1945–1950) (The Hague 1971), continued by P.J. Drooglever and M.J.B. Schouten.

29 Creutzberg, P., Changing Economy in Indonesia: A Selection of Statistical Source Materialfrom the Early 19th Century up to 1940 (The Hague/Amsterdam 1975), continued by P. Boom-gaard.

30 Gobée, E., Adriaanse, C., Ambtelijke adviezen van C. Snouck Hurgronje, 1889–1936 (Official advices of C. Snouck Hurgronje, 1889–1936) (3 vols., The Hague 1957-1965); Baud, W A, De semi-ofjidele en particuliere briefwisseling lussen J.C. Baud en J.J. Rochussen, 1845–1851 (The semi-official and private correspondence between …) (3 vols., Leiden dissertation 1983); Lequin, F., The private correspondence ofIsaac Titsingh (2 vols., Amsterdam 1990-1993); Knaap, G.J., In deze halve gevangenis. Dagboek van Mr. Dr. L.F. Jansen, Balavia/Djakarta 1942–1945 (In this semi-prison. Diary of …) (Franeker 1988).

31 Cf. Nieuwe Algemene Gesckiedenis der Nederlanden (New general history of the Netherlands) (15 vols., Haarlem 1978-1983). A recent work of synthesis is Goor, J. van, De Nederlandse kolonien. Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse expansie, 1600–1975 (The Dutch Colonies. History of Dutch expansion, 1600–1975) (Den Haag 1993).

32 E.g. Andaya, L.Y., The Kingdom of Johor, 1641–1728 (Kuala Lumpur/London 1975); Gupta, A. Das, Malabar in Asian Trade, 1740–1800 (Cambridge 1967); Prakash, O., The Dutch East-India Company and the Economy of Bengal, 1630–1720 (Princeton 1985); Arasaratnam, S., Merchants, Companies and Commerce on the Coromandel Coast, 1650–1740 (Delhi 1986); Gupta, A. Das, Indian Merchants and the Decline of Surat, c. 1700–1750 (Wiesbaden 1979).

33 Cf. e.g. Boxer, C.R., The Dutch seaborne empire, 1600–1800 (London 1965); Glamann, K., Dutch-Asiatic Trade, 1620–1740 (The Hague/Copenhagen 1958); Steensgaard, N., Carracks, Caravans and Companies: The Structural Crisis in the European-Asian Trade in the Early 17th Century (Copenhagen 1973).

34 Cf. Lier, R.A.J. van, Samenleving in een grensgebied, een sociaal hislorische sludie over de maatschappij in Suriname (Society in a border region, a socio-historical study of Dutch Guyana society) (The Hague 1949); Hoetink, H., Het pairoon van de crude Curacaose samenleving (The pattern of ancient Curacaon society) (Assen 1958).

35 Cf. Stapel, F.W. ed., Ceschiedenis van Nederlandsch-Indie (History of the Dutch East Indies) 5 ( vols., Amsterdam 1938-1940).

36 Baudet, H., Fennema, M. ed., Het Nederlands belting bij Indie (The Dutch interest in the Indies) (Utrecht 1983); Lindblad, J.Th., Between Dayak and Dutch. The Economic History of Southeast Kalimantan, 1880–1942 (Dordrecht 1988).

37 Davis, L.A., Huttenback, R.A., Mammon and the Pursuit of Empire. The Political Economy of British Imperialism, 1860–1912 (Cambridge 1986); Marseille, J., Empire colonial el capilalisme francais. Histoire d'un divorce (Paris 1984). There are two important works on Dutch colonial politics in the nineteenth century: Fasseur, C., The Politics of Colonial Exploitation. Java, the Dutch, and the Cultivation System (Ithaca, N.Y., 1992) and jong, J. de, Van balig slot naar ereschuld. De discussie over de finandile verhouding tussen Nederland en Indie en de hervorming van de Nederlandse koloniale politick, 1860–1900 (From credit balance to debt of honour. Discussion on the financial relation between Holland and the Indies and the reform of Dutch colonial policy, 1860–1900) (The Hague 1989).

38 Abdullah, Taufik, ‘The Making of a Schakel-Society. The Minangkabau Region in the Late 19th Century’ in: Papers of the Dutch-Indonesian Historical Conference (Leiden/Jakarta 1978) 143153.

39 Wesseling, H.L., ‘The Giant diat was a Dwarf or the Strange History of Dutch Imperialism’ in: Theory and Practice in the History of European Expansion Overseas. Essays in Honour of Ronald Robinson (London 1989) 5870.

40 Kuitenbrouwer, M., The Netherlands and the Rise of Modern Imperialism. Colonies and Foreign Policy (Oxford 1991). For a discussion of the reactions to this book, see Locher-Scholten, E., ‘Dutch expansion in the Indonesian Archipelago around 1900 and the imperialism debate’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 25 (1994) 91111.

41 Breman, J., Taming the Coolie Beast. Plantation Society and the Colonial Order in Southeast Asia (Delhi 1989).

42 Doom, J.A.A. van and Hendrix, W.J., Het Nederlands-Indonesische conflict. Ontsporing van geweld (The Dutch-Indonesian conflict. Lapse into violence) (Amsterdam/Dieren 1983 2).

43 de Jong, L., Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog (The Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Second World War) Vol. 11 (The Hague 1984-1986) and Vol. 12 (The Hague 1988).

44 Cf. esp. Bank, J.Th.M., Kathotieken en de Indonesische revolutie (Roman Catholics and the Indonesian revolution) (Baarn 1983); de Jong, J.J.P., Diplomatie of strijd. Het Nederlands beleid tegenover de Indonesische revolutie, 1945–1947 (Diplomacy or struggle. Dutch policy concerning the Indonesian revolution) (Meppel 1988); Groen, P.M.H., Marsroutes en dwaalsporen. Het Nederlands militair strategisch beleid in Indonesia, 1945–1950 (Lines of march and wrong tracks. Dutch military strategic policy in Indonesia, 1945–1950) (The Hague 1991).

45 See for this Bootsma, , ‘Indonesiē’, 316317.

Overseas History in the Netherlands after the Second World War. Historical Backgrounds, Modern Developments, Present-Day Situation

  • H.L. Wesseling (a1)

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