Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A Human Security Framework for the Management of Invasive Nonindigenous Plants

  • Andrew J. Tanentzap (a1), Dawn R. Bazely (a2), Peter A. Williams (a3) and Gunhild Hoogensen (a4)

Abstract

Few individuals or governments have suggested that invasions by nonindigenous species are relevant to the broader issue of human security, despite a growing awareness of the ecological, economic, and societal impacts associated with invasive nonindigenous species (INIS). We propose that by framing management actions in a human and environmental security context, the threats (and benefits) posed by INIS to individuals and communities can be explicitly articulated and debated. This framework allows multiple stakeholders to bring their concerns to bear upon specific policy, and attempts to integrate broad environmental concerns within its parameters. We use the case of ecosystem-based management of invasive nonindigenous plants as an example of the utility of a human security framework. The dominant management approach to these species remains focused on the individual species, despite increasing calls for the implementation of ecosystem-based management strategies. Ecosystem-based management is supported by generalized and widely accepted mechanisms of plant community dynamics, such as succession, disturbance, and interspecific competition, but these scientific arguments do not consistently carry weight at the policy level and with the broader public. A human security framework may provide an approach for overcoming this resistance by placing the debate over management within the social and political context of the wider community. Overall, human security can allow applied ecologists to be better positioned to meet the challenges of communicating the need for science-based management.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A Human Security Framework for the Management of Invasive Nonindigenous Plants
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A Human Security Framework for the Management of Invasive Nonindigenous Plants
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A Human Security Framework for the Management of Invasive Nonindigenous Plants
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: ajt65@cam.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Arkema, K. K., Abramson, S. C., and Dewsbury, B. M. 2006. Marine ecosystem-based management: from characterization to implementation. Front. Ecol. Environ 4:525532.
Atkinson, I. A. E. 2001. Introduced mammals and models for restoration. Biol. Conserv 99:8196.
Baiser, B., Lockwood, J. L., La Puma, D., and Aronson, M. F. J. 2008. A perfect storm: two ecosystem engineers interact to degrade deciduous forests of New Jersey. Biol. Invasions 10:785795.
Bay, R. F. and Sher, A. A. 2008. Success of active revegetation after Tamarix removal in riparian ecosystems of the southwestern United States: a quantitative assessment of past restoration projects. Restor. Ecol 16:113128.
Benton, T. G., Solan, M., Travis, J. M. J., and Sait, S. M. 2007. Microcosm experiments can inform global ecological problems. Trends Ecol. Evol 22:516521.
Bessey, C. E. 1893. The Russian thistle in Nebraska. Bull. Agric. Exp. Stn. Nebraska 6:6773.
Bessey, C. E. and Webber, H. J. 1890. Report of the Botanist on the Grasses and Forage Plants, and the Catalogue of Plants. Lincoln, NE State Journal Company. 162.
Blossey, B. and Notzold, R. 1995. Evolution of increased competitive ability in invasive non-indigenous plants: a hypothesis. J. Ecol 83:887889.
Brauch, H. G., Spring, ÚO., Mesjasz, C., Grin, J., Dunay, P., Behera, N. C., Chourou, B., Kameri-Mbote, P., and Liotta, P. H. 2008. Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualising Security in the 21st Century. Berlin Springer-Verlag. 1147.
Brauch, H. G., Spring, ÚO., Grin, J., Mesjasz, C., Kameri-Mbote, P., Behera, N. C., Chourou, B., and Krummenacher, H. 2009. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concept. Berlin Springer-Verlag. 1592.
Bremner, A. and Park, K. 2007. Public attitudes to the management of invasive non-native species in Scotland. Biol. Conserv 139:306314.
Brown, D. E. and Minnich, R. A. 1986. Fire and creosote bush scrub of the western Sonoran Desert, California. Am. Midl. Nat 116:411422.
Brown, J. H., Sax, D. F., Simberloff, D., and Sagoff, M. 2007. Aliens among us. Conserv. Mag 8:1421.
Brown, L. R. 1977. Redefining National Security, Worldwatch Paper 14. Washington, DC Worldwatch Institute. 46.
Burgess, P. J. and Owen, T. 2004. Special section: what is human security? Secur. Dialogue 35:345387.
Buzan, B., Wæver, O., and de Wilde, J. 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. London Lynne Rienner Publishers. 239.
Caffrey, J. M. 1999. Phenology and long-term control of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Hydrobiologia 415:223228.
Callaway, R. M. and Ridenour, W. M. 2004. Novel weapons: invasive success and the evolution of increased competitive ability. Front. Ecol. Environ 2:436443.
Champion, P. D. 2005. Evaluation Criteria for Assessment of Candidate Species for Inclusion in the National Pest Plant Accord. Report for Biosecurity New Zealand. Wellington National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research. 17.
Christensen, N. L., Bartuska, A. M., Brown, J. H., Carpenter, S., D'Antonio, C., Francis, R., Franklin, J. F., MacMahon, J. A., Noss, R. F., Parsons, D. J., Peterson, C. H., Turner, M. G., and Woodmansee, R. G. 1996. The report of the Ecological Society of America Committee on the scientific basis for ecosystem management. Ecol. Appl 6:665691.
Clements, F. E. 1916. Plant Succession: An Analysis of the Development of Vegetation. Washington, DC Carnegie Institute. 512.
Clements, F. E. 1928. Plant Succession and Indicators: A Definitive Edition of Plant Succession and Plant Indicators. New York H. W. Wilson. 453.
Coley, P. D. 1983. Herbivory and defensive characteristics of tree species in a lowland tropical forest. Ecol. Monogr 53:209233.
Coley, P. D., Bryant, J. P., and Chapin, F. S. 1985. Resource availability and plant anti-herbivore defense. Science 230:895899.
Connell, J. H. 1980. Diversity and the coevolution of competitors, or the ghost of competition past. Oikos 35:131138.
Connell, J. H. and Slatyer, R. O. 1977. Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. Am. Nat 111:11191144.
Cooper, W. S. 1913. The climax forest of Isle Royale, Lake Superior and its development. Bot. Gaz 55:144.115–40.189–235.
Curtis, J. T. and McIntosh, R. P. 1951. An upland continuum in the prairie-forest border region of Wisconsin. Ecology 32:476496.
Dalby, S. 2002. Environmental Security. Minneapolis University of Minnesota Press. 239.
Davis, M. A., Grime, J. P., and Thompson, K. 2000. Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J. Ecol 88:528534.
Davis, M. A., Pergl, J., Truscott, A. M., Kollmann, J., Bakker, J. P., Domenech, R., Prach, K., Prieur-Richard, A. H., Veeneklaas, R. M., Pyšek, P., del Moral, R., Hobbs, R. J., Collins, S. L., Pickett, S. T. A., and Reich, P. B. 2005. Vegetation change: a reunifying concept in plant ecology. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst 7:6976.
[DOC] Department of Conservation 2004. Weedbusters Strategic Direction 2003–2008. Wellington Department of Conservation. 20.
Derraik, J. G. B. 2007. Heracleum mantegazzianum and Toxicodendron succedaneum: plants of human health significance in New Zealand and the National Pest Plant Accord. N. Z. Med. J 120:U265.
DiTomaso, J. M. 1998. Impact, biology, and ecology of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in the southwestern United States. Weed Technol 12:326336.
Dodds, F. and Pippard, T. 2005. Human and Environmental Security: An Agenda for Change. London Earthscan. 291.
Egler, F. E. 1954. Vegetation science concepts I. Initial floristic composition, a factor in old-field vegetation development. Vegetatio 4:412417.
Elton, C. E. 1927. Animal Ecology. London Sidgwick and Jackson. 207.
Elton, C. E. 1958. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. London Wiley. 181.
Emery, S. M. and Gross, K. L. 2005. Effects of timing of prescribed fire on the demography of an invasive plant, spotted knapweed Centaurea maculosa. J. Appl. Ecol 42:6069.
Feeny, P. 1976. Plant apparency and chemical defenses. Recent Adv. Phytochem 10:141.
Fierke, K. M. 2007. Critical Approaches to International Security. Cambridge Polity. 245.
Foster, G. D. 2001. Environmental security: The search for strategic legitimacy. Armed Forces Soc 27:373395.
Fridley, J. D., Stachowicz, J. J., Naeem, S., Sax, D. F., Seabloom, E. W., Smith, M. D., Stohlgren, T. J., Tilman, D., and Von Holle, B. 2007. The invasion paradox: reconciling patterns and process in species invasions. Ecology 88:317.
Galindo-Leal, C. and Bunnell, F. L. 1995. Ecosystem management: implications and opportunities of a new paradigm. For. Chron 71:601606.
Gleason, H. A. 1926. The individualistic concept of the plant association. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 53:120.
Gleditsch, N. P. 1997. Conflict and the Environment. Dordrecht Kluwer. 612.
Glenn, E., Tanner, R., Mendez, S., Kehret, T., Moore, D., Garcia, J., and Valdes, C. 1998. Growth rates, salt tolerance and water use characteristics of native and invasive riparian plants from the delta of the Colorado River, Mexico. J. Arid. Environ 40:281294.
Glenn, H. C. and Gordon, T. J. 2007. 2007 State of the Future. Washington, DC World Federation of UN Associations. 98.
Gordon, D. R. 1998. Effects of invasive, non-indigenous plant species on ecosystem processes: lessons from Florida. Ecol. Appl 8:975989.
Grime, J. P. 1974. Vegetation classification by reference to strategies. Nature 250:2631.
Grime, J. P. 1977. Evidence for existence of 3 primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. Am. Nat 111:11691194.
Grime, J. P. 1979. Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes. Chichester Wiley. 222.
Grinnell, J. 1914. An account of the mammals and birds of the lower Colorado Valley with special reference to the distributional problems presented. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool 12:51294.
Grinnell, J. 1917. The niche-relations of the California thrasher. Auk 34:427433.
Grubb, P. J. 1977. The maintenance of species-richness in plant communities: the importance of the regeneration niche. Biol. Rev 52:107114.
Grumbine, R. E. 1994. What is ecosystem management? Conserv. Biol 8:2738.
Grumbine, R. E. 1997. Reflections on what is ecosystem management? Conserv. Biol 11:4147.
Heher, A. D. 2006. Return on investment in innovation: implications for institutions and national agencies. J. Technol. Transfer 31:403414.
Higgs, E. S. 1997. What is good ecological restoration? Conserv. Biol 11:338348.
Hobbs, R. J. and Norton, D. A. 1996. Towards a conceptual framework for restoration ecology. Restor. Ecol 4:93110.
Hobbs, R. J., Davis, M. A., Slobodkin, L. B., Lackey, R. T., Halvorson, W., and Throop, W. 2004. Restoration ecology: the challenge of social values and expectations. Front. Ecol. Environ 2:4348.
Homer-Dixon, T. F. 1999. Environment, Scarcity, and Violence. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press. 272.
Hoogensen, G. 2008. Olje, gass, sikkerhet – og deg (Oil, Gas, Security – and you) Ottar. 4:2227.
Hoogensen, G. 2009. Security in the Arctic and Antarctic. In Brauch, H. G., Spring, ÚO., Grin, J., Mesjasz, C., Kameri-Mbote, P., Behera, N. C., Chourou, B., and Krummenacher, H. Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concept. Berlin Springer-Verlag.
Hoogensen, G. 2008. Identity, security and terrorism. Pages 439448. In Brauch, H. G., Grin, J., Mesjasz, C., Behera, N. C., Chourou, B., Oswald Spring, U., Liotta, P. H., and Kameri-Mbote, P. Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualising Security in the 21st Century. Berlin Springer-Verlag.
Hough, P. 2004. Understanding Global Security. London Routledge. 271.
Hutchinson, G. E. 1944. Limnological studies in Connecticut. VII. A critical examination of the supposed relation between phytoplankton periodicity and chemical changes in lake waters. Ecology 25:326.
Hutchinson, G. E. 1957. Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol 22:415427.
Jay, M., Morad, M., and Bell, A. 2003. Biosecurity, a policy dilemma for New Zealand. Land Use Policy 20:121129.
Kerr, S. J., Brousseau, C. S., and Muschett, M. 2005. Invasive aquatic species in Ontario: a review and analysis of potential pathways for introduction. Fisheries 30:2130.
King, G. and Murray, C. 2002. Rethinking human security. Polit. Sci. Q 116:585610.
Lagey, K., Duinslaeger, L., and Vanderkelen, A. 1995. Burns induced by plants. Burns 21:542543.
Lodge, D. M. and Shrader-Frechette, K. 2003. Nonindigenous species: ecological explanation, environmental ethics, and public policy. Conserv. Biol 17:3137.
Lounibos, L. P. 2002. Invasions by insect vectors of human disease. Annu. Rev. Entomol 47:233266.
Ludwig, D., Mangel, M., and Haddad, B. 2001. Ecology, conservation, and public policy. Annu. Rev Ecol. Syst 32:481517.
MacArthur, R. H. and Levins, R. 1967. The limiting similarity, convergence and divergence of coexisting species. Am. Nat 101:377385.
Meyerson, L. A. and Reaser, J. K. 2002. Biosecurity: moving toward a comprehensive approach. Bioscience 52:593600.
Mooney, H. A. and Hobbs, R. J. 2000. Invasive Species in a Changing World. Washington, DC Island Press. 457.
Myers, J. H. and Bazely, D. R. 2003. Ecology and Control of Introduced Plants. Cambridge Cambridge University Press. 328.
Myers, N. 1986. The environmental dimension to security issues. Environmentalist 6:251257.
[NISC] National Invasive Species Council 2005. Guidelines for Ranking Invasive Species Control Projects. Version 1. Washington, DC Department of the Interior. 13.
[NISC] National Invasive Species Council 2008. 2008–2012 National Invasive Species Management Plan. Washington, DC Department of the Interior. 36.
Owen, S. J. 1998. Department of Conservation Strategic Plan for Managing Invasive Weeds. Wellington Department of Conservation. 102.
Page, N., Wall, R., Darbyshire, S., and Mulligan, G. 2006. The biology of invasive alien plants in Canada. 4. Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier. Can. J. Plant Sci 86:569589.
Palmer, M. A., Ambrose, R. F., and Poff, N. L. 2003. Ecological theory and community restoration ecology. Restor. Ecol 5:291300.
Paris, R. 2001. Human security: paradigm shift or hot air? Int. Security 26:87102.
Parliament of New Zealand 1996. Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996. Wellington, New Zealand New Zealand Government. 312.
Parliament of New Zealand 1993. Biosecurity Act 1993. Wellington, New Zealand New Zealand Government. 228.
Perrings, C., Williamson, M., Barbier, E. B., Delfino, D., Dalmazzone, S., Shogren, J., Simmons, P., and Watkinson, A. 2002. Biological invasion risks and the public good: an economic perspective. Conserv. Ecol 6:1.
Perrings, C., Williamson, M., and Dalmazzone, S. 2000. The Economics of Biological Invasions. Cheltenham, UK Edward Elgar. 249.
Petrosillo, I., Müller, F., Jones, K. B., Zurlini, G., Krauze, K., Victorov, S., Li, B. L., and Kepner, W. G. 2008. Use of Landscape Sciences for the Assessment of Environmental Security. Dordrecht, Netherlands Springer. 497.
Pimentel, D., Lach, L., Zuniga, R., and Morrison, D. 2000. Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. Bioscience 50:5365.
Pound, R. and Clements, F. C. 1898. Phytogeography of Nebraska. Lincoln, NE Botanical Seminar, University of Nebraska. 329.
Pyšek, P. and Pyšek, A. 1995. Invasion by Heracleum mantegazzianum in different habitats in the Czech Republic. J. Veg. Sci 6:711718.
Pyšek, P., Jarosik, V., Mullerova, J., Pergl, J., and Wild, J. 2008. Comparing the rate of invasion by Heracleum mantegazzianum at continental, regional, and local scales. Divers. Distrib 14:355363.
Reichard, S., Schmitz, D. C., Simberloff, D., Morrison, D., Lehtonen, P. P., Windle, P. N., Chavarria, G., and Mezitt, R. W. 2005. The tragedy of the commons revisited: invasive species. Front. Ecol. Environ 3:109115.
Reinhardt, F., Herle, M., Bastiansen, F., and Streit, B. 2003. Ökonomische Folgen der Ausbreitung von Neobiota. Berlin Umweltbundesamt. 248.
Rhoades, D. F. and Cates, R. G. 1976. Toward a general theory of plant antiherbivore chemistry. Recent Adv. Phytochem 10:168213.
Rice, P. M., Tonye, J. C., Bedunah, D. J., and Carlson, C. E. 1997. Plant community diversity and growth form responses to herbicide applications for control of Centaurea maculosa. J. Appl. Ecol 34:13971412.
Rosenstrom, U. and Lyytimaki, J. 2006. The role of indicators in improving timeliness of international environmental reports. Eur. Environ 16:3244.
Sheley, R. L., Duncan, C. A., Halstvedt, M. B., and Jacobs, J. S. 2000. Spotted knapweed and grass response to herbicide treatments. J. Range Manag 53:176182.
Sheley, R. L., Jacobs, J. S., and Carpinelli, M. F. 1998. Distribution, biology, and management of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) and spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa). Weed Technol 12:353362.
Sheley, R. L. and Krueger-Mangold, J. 2003. Principles for restoring invasive plant infested rangeland. Weed Sci 51:260265.
Shellenberger, M. and Nordhaus, T. 2004. The Death of Environmentalism: Global Warming Politics in a Post-environmental World. http://thebreakthrough.org/images/Death_of_Environmentalism.pdf. Accessed: October 27, 2008.
Simberloff, D. 1998. Flagships, umbrellas and keystones: is single-species management passe in the landscape era? Biol. Conserv 83:247257.
Simberloff, D. 2004. A rising tide of species and literature: A review of some recent books on biological invasions. Bioscience 54:247254.
Simberloff, D., Parker, I. M., and Windle, P. N. 2005. Introduced species policy, management, and future research needs. Front. Ecol. Environ 3:1220.
Simberloff, D. and Von Holle, B. 1999. Positive interactions of nonindigenous species: invasional meltdown? Biol. Invasions 1:2132.
Soule, M. E. 1990. The onslaught of alien species, and other challenges in the coming decades. Conserv. Biol 4:233239.
Standish, R. J., Sparrow, A. D., Williams, P. A., and Hobbs, R. J. 2008. A state-and-transition model for the recovery of abandoned farmland in New Zealand. Pages 189205. In Hobbs, R. J. and Suding, K. N. New Models for Ecosystem Dynamics and Restoration. Washington, DC Island Press.
Stevens, H. 2001. Declining biodiversity and unsustainable agricultural production: common cause, common solution? Research Paper No. 2 2001–02. Canberra, Australia Department of the Parliamentary Library. 50.
Symon, C., Arris, L., and Heal, B. 2005. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge, UK Cambridge University Press. 1042.
Tadjbakhsh, S. and Chenoy, A. M. 2006. Human Security: Concepts and Implications. London Routledge. 272.
Thiele, J. and Otte, A. 2006. Analysis of habitats and communities invaded by Heracleum mantegazzianum Somm. et Lev. (Giant Hogweed) in Germany. Phytocoenologia 36:281320.
Tilman, D. 1985. The resource-ratio hypothesis of plant succession. Am. Nat 125:827852.
[UNDP] United Nations Development Programme 1994. Human Development Report: Annual Report. New York Oxford University Press. 226.
Vandersande, M. W., Glenn, E. P., and Walworth, J. L. 2001. Tolerance of five riparian plants from the lower Colorado River to salinity drought and inundation. J. Arid Environ 49:147159.
Walker, L. R. and Smith, S. D. 1997. Impacts of invasive plants on community and ecosystem properties. Pages 6986. In Luken, J. O. and Thieret, J. W. Assessment and Management of Plant Invasions. New York Springer.
Walt, S. 1991. The renaissance of security studies. Int. Stud. Q 35:211239.
Watt, A. S. 1924. On the ecology of British beechwoods with special reference to their regeneration. II. The development and structure of beech communities on the Sussex Downs. J. Ecol 12:145204.
Westbrook, C., Ramos, K., and La, M. 2005. Under Siege: Invasive Species on Military Bases. Reston, VA National Wildlife Federation. 50.
Whittaker, R. H. 1967. Gradient analysis of vegetation. Biol. Rev 42:207264.
Williams, J. A. and West, C. J. 2000. Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to management. Aust. Ecol 25:425444.
Williams, P. A. 1997. Ecology and Management of Invasive Weeds. Wellington Department of Conservation. 67.
Williamson, M. 1996. Biological Invasions. London Chapman and Hall. 244.
Zavaleta, E. S., Hobbs, R. J., and Mooney, H. A. 2001. Viewing invasive species removal in whole-ecosystem context. Trends Ecol. Evol 16:454459.

Keywords

A Human Security Framework for the Management of Invasive Nonindigenous Plants

  • Andrew J. Tanentzap (a1), Dawn R. Bazely (a2), Peter A. Williams (a3) and Gunhild Hoogensen (a4)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed