Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Flexible biomedical RF sensors to quantify the purity of medical grade glycerol and glucose concentrations

  • N. K. Tiwari (a1), S. P. Singh (a1) (a2), D. Mondal (a1) and M. Jaleel Akhtar (a1)

Abstract

A novel flexible radio frequency (RF) sensor is designed to facilitate the accurate testing of various samples used in the biomedical industry at the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) frequency band. The proposed RF biosensor comprises a liquid channel-loaded interdigitated capacitor, which is integrated on a coplanar waveguide structure. The prototype of the sensor is fabricated on a 0.13 mm thin biodegradable polyethylene terephthalate polyester film to perform the testing of various bio-graded samples by recording the corresponding resonant frequency. It is observed that there is a noticeable change between the measured resonant frequencies of these samples, which primarily occurs due to the difference in their dielectric properties. The designed sensor was used to monitor and investigate the quality of glycerol, which is the most commonly used raw ingredient in the biomedical and food industry. The determination of glucose concentration in base fluids is considered to ease the challenges faced by doctors and biochemists regarding the monitoring of glucose concentration. It is found that the proposed sensor can quantify the glycerol purity up to the minimum specified adulteration level of 2 and 1% corresponding to toxic contaminants diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol, respectively, and the glucose concentration of 0.5 mg/ml.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Nilesh Kumar Tiwari, E-mail: nileshkt85@gmail.com

References

Hide All
1.Robertson, I (2014) Detection of Adulteration of Glycerol with Diethylene Glycol by Infrared Spectroscopy- Application Notes. Shelton, CT: PerkinElmer Inc., pp. 13.
2.Molever, K (2010) Simplified assay of diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol in various raw materials by capillary gas chromatography. International Journal of Cosmetic Science 32, 470473.
3.L´opez-S´anchez, M (2008) Assessment of dentifrice adulteration with diethylene glycol by means of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics. Analytica Chimica Acta 620, 113119.
4.Chan, M (2016) Global Report on Diabetes. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
5.Awang, RA, Tovar-Lopez, FJ, Baum, T, Sriram, S and Rowe, WST (2017) Meta-atom microfluidic sensor for measurement of dielectric properties of liquids. Journal of Applied Physics 121, 094506.
6.Chen, LF, Ong, CK, Neo, CP, Varadan, VV and Varadan, VK (2004) Microwave Electronics: Measurement and Materials Characterization. West Sussex, UK: Wiley.
7.Chen, LG, Ong, CK and Tan, BTG (1999) Amendment of cavity perturbation method for permittivity measurement of extremely low-loss dielectrics. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 48, 10311037.
8.Krupka, J (2005) Frequency domain complex permittivity at microwave frequencies. Measurement Science & Technology 17, 5570.
9.Kim, J, Babajanyan, A, Hovsepyan, A, Lee, K and Friedman, B (2008) Microwave dielectric resonator biosensor for aqueous glucose solution. Review of Scientific Instruments 79, 086107.
10.Tiwari, NK, Jha, AK, Singh, SP, Akhter, Z, Varshney, PK and Akhtar, MJ (2018) Generalized multimode SIW cavity-based sensor for retrieval of complex permittivity of materials. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 66, 30633072.
11.Chretiennot, T, Dubuc, D and Grenier, K (2016) Microwave-based microfluidic sensor for non-destructive and quantitative glucose monitoring in aqueous solution. Sensors 16, 1733.
12.Ebrahimi, A, Withayachumnankul, W, Sarawi, SA and Abbott, D (2014) High-sensitivity metamaterial-inspired sensor for microfluidic dielectric characterization. IEEE Sensors Journal 14, 13451351.
13.Camli, B, Kusakci, E, Lafci, B, Salman, S, Torun, H and Yalcinkaya, AD (2017) Cost-effective, microstrip antenna driven ring resonator microwave biosensor for biospecific detection of glucose. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 23, 6900706.
14.Bait-Suwailam Al Busaidi, MM, Shahimi, O and Al, A (2018) A low-cost microwave sensing platform for water accumulation abnormality detection in lungs. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 60, 12951300.
15.Boybay, MS and Ramahi, OM (2012) Material characterization using complementary split-ring resonators. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 61, 30393046.
16.Chen, T, Li, S and Sun, H (2012) Metamaterials application in sensing. Sensors 12, 27422765.
17.Schueler, M, Mandel, C, Puentes, M and Jakoby, R (2012) Metamaterial inspired microwave sensors. IEEE Microwave Magazine 13, 5768.
18.Adhikari, KK and Kim, NY (2016) Ultrahigh-Sensitivity mediator-free biosensor based on a microfabricated microwave resonator for the detection of micromolar glucose concentrations. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 64, 319327.
19.Tiwari, NK, Singh, SP and Akhtar, MJ (2018) Near field planar microwave probe sensor for nondestructive condition assessment of wood products. Journal of Applied Physics 123, 224502.
20.Yang, JJ, Huang, M, Lan, Y and Li, Y (2012) Microwave sensor based on a single stereo-complementary asymmetric split resonator. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering 22, 545551.
21.Sun, H, Tang, T and Du, G (2018) Improved approach using symmetric microstrip sensor for accurate measurement of complex permittivity. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering 28, 21258.
22.Lee, HJ, Lee, HS, Yoo, KH and Yook, JG (2010) DNA sensing using split-ring resonator alone at microwave regime. Journal of Applied Physics 108, 14908.
23.Hofmann, M, Fischer, G, Weigel, R and Kissinger, D (2013) Microwave-based noninvasive concentration measurements for biomedical applications. Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on 61, 21952204.
24.Gennarelli, G, Romeo, S, Scarfì, MR and Soldovieri, F (2017) A microwave resonant sensor for concentration measurements of liquid solutions. IEEE Sensors Journal, 13, 18571864.
25.Harnsoongnoen, S and Wanthong, A (2016) Coplanar waveguides loaded with a split ring resonator-based microwave sensor for aqueous sucrose solutions. Measurement Science & Technology 27, 015103.
26.Kim, NY, Adhikari, KK, Dhakal, R, Chuluunbaatar, Z, Wang, C and Kim, ES (2015) Rapid, sensitive, and reusable detection of glucose by a robust radiofrequency integrated passive device biosensor chip. Scientific Reports 5, 7807.
27.Ebrahimi, A, Withayachumnankul, W, Al-Sarawi, SF and Abbott, D (2015) Microwave microfluidic sensor for determination of glucose concentration in water, IEEE 15th Mediterranean Microwave Symposium (MMS), Lecce.
28.Harnsoongnoen, S and Wanthong, A (2017) Coplanar waveguide transmission line loaded with electric-LC resonator for determination of glucose concentration sensing. IEEE Sensors Journal 17, 16351640.
29.Kim, S, Kim, J, Babajanyan, A, Lee, K and Friedman, B (2009) Noncontact characterization of glucose by a waveguide microwave probe. Current Applied Physics 9, 856860.
30.McDuffie, GE, Quinn, RG and Litovitz, TA (1962) Dielectric properties of glycerol–water mixtures. Journal of Chemical Physics 37, 239242.
31.Brady, MM and Stuchly, SS (1981) Dielectric dispersion of glycerol from 2.0 to 4.0 GHz. Journal of Chemical Physics 74, 3632.
32.Dionex Corporation (2016) Determination of Ethylene Glycol and Diethylene Glycol in A Sorbitol Solution, Application Note. Sunnyvale, CA: Dionex Corporation, p. 246.
33.Sorby, DL, Bitter, RG and Webb, JG (1963) Dielectric constants of complex pharmaceutical solvent systems. I: water-ethanol-glycerin and water-ethanol-propylene glycol. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 52, 11491153.
34.Davidson, DW and Cole, RH (1951) Dielectric relaxation in glycerol, propylene glycol, and n-propanol. Journal of Chemical Physics 19, 1484.
35.Salim, A, Ghosh, S and Lim, S (2018) Low-Cost and lightweight 3D-printed split-ring resonator for chemical sensing applications. Sensors 18, 3049.
36.Nelson, SO (2005) Density-permittivity relationships for powdered and granular materials. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 54, 20332040.
37.Pozar, DM (2012) Microwave Engineering. Hoboken, New Jersey: Hamilton Printing, Wiley & Sons.
38.Keysight (2014) 85070E Dielectric Probe Kit, 200 MHz to 50 GHz – Technical Overview. USA: Keysight Technologies.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed