Published online by Cambridge University Press: 24 July 2020
In mathematical definition, a fractal is a self-similar subset of Euclidean space whose fractal dimension strictly exceeds its topological dimension which in turn involves a recursive generating methodology that results in contours with infinitely intricate fine structures. Fractal geometry has been used to model complex natural objects such as clouds coastlines, etc., that has space-filling properties. In the past years, several groups of scientists around the globe tried to implement the structure of fractal geometry for applications in the field of electromagnetism, which led to the development of new innovative antenna configurations called “fractal antennas” which is primarily focused in fractal antenna elements, and fractal antenna arrays. It has been demonstrated that by exploiting the recursive nature of fractals, several marvellous kinds of properties can be observed in antennas and arrays. The primary focus of this article is to provide a compressed overview of the developments in fractal-shaped antennas as well as arrays over the last few decades where the most prominent contributions mostly from IEEE journals have been highlighted. The open intention of this review work is to show an encouraging path to antenna researchers for its advancement using fractal geometries.
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