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A 20 GHz microwave heater for digital microfluidic

  • Tomislav Markovic (a1), Song Liu (a2), Ilja Ocket (a1) (a3) and Bart K. J. C. Nauwelaers (a1)


This paper reports on a microwave heater at 20 GHz for digital microfluidics. It allows rapid heating of nanoliter fluid samples and simultaneous temperature monitoring by correlating the reflection coefficient of the heater with the temperature dependency of the relative permittivity of the lossy fluid under consideration, in this case demineralized water. Microwave heating was performed with power levels of 20 and 23 dBm at the on-wafer probe tips on samples of 500 nL. Temperature measurements were carried out with a miniaturized type K thermocouple, and a platinum resistor to monitor the reference temperature. Microwave and thermal performances have been characterized using multi-physics software, and measurements obtained with a large signal vector network analyzer showed good agreement with simulated data. An average heating rate of 20 °C/s was observed during the first 4 s of the heating process.


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Corresponding author: T. Markovic Email:


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