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Anticommunism and Academic Freedom: Walter C. Eells and the “Red Purge” in Occupied Japan

  • Ruriko Kumano (a1) (a2)

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In August 1945, Imperial Japan surrendered to the Allied Powers. From September 1945 to April 1952, the United States–the most dominant power among the victorious nations–occupied the defeated country.

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1 Myojin, IsaoReddo paji kenkyu no igi–Shiso ryosin no jiyu o meguru genkyo kara [Special Significance of the Study on the Red Purge in the Postwar Period of Japan: In Relation to the Present Condition of ‘Freedom of Thought and Conscience'],Kusbiro Ronshu 38 (2006): 72, 81.

2 Henceforward, the controversy over Eells's speeches is referred to as “the Eells case.”

3 For example, Ienaga, Saburo Daigaku no jiyu no rekishi [History of University Freedom], 2nd ed. (1962; repr., Tokyo: Hanawa shobo, 1965), 111–12; Ikazaki, Akio Daigaku no jichi no rekishi [History of University Autonomy] (1965; repr., Tokyo: Shin nihon shuppansha 1968), 114–17; Tokiomi, Kaigo and Terasaki, Masao, Daigaku kyoiku [Higher Education] (Tokyo: Tokyo daigaku shuppankai, 1969), 29; Suzuki, Eiichi Kyoiku Gyosei [Educational Administration] (Tokyo: Tokyo daigaku shuppankai, 1970), 80–85.

4 Ienaga, Daigaku no jiyu no rekishi; Ikazaki, Daigaku no jichi no rekishi; Kaigo, Tokiomi and Terasaki, Masao, Daigaku kyoiku; Isao Myojin, “Senryoka nihon no daigaku to reddo paji: Iwayuru ‘Iruzu senpu’ ni tsuite [Japanese Universities and the Red Purge During the Occupation: The So-Called ‘Eells Typhoon'],” Hokkaido kyoiku daigaku kiyo 47, no. 2 (1997): 33–45.

5 Krämer, Hans MartinJust Who Reversed the Course? The Red Purge in Higher Education during the Occupation of Japan,Social Science Japan Journal 8, no. 1 (2005): 4–7.

6 Henceforward, vol. 20, Communism in Education in Japan is referred to as the “Walter C Eells Papers.”

7 SCAPIN-93 “Removal of Restrictions on Political, Civil, and Religious Liberties,” 4 October 1945 in Supreme Commander for the Allied Power, Government Section. Political Reorientation of Japan, September 1945 to September 1948, vol. 2 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1949): 463–65.

8 The Peace Preservation Law, which outlawed political organizations that advocated changes in either kokutai (the imperial order) or capitalism, aimed to suppress communists and anarchists. The 1928 revision of the law included the possibility of the death penalty for leaders of organizations that encouraged the alteration of kokutai.

9 Scalapino, Robert The Japanese Communist Movement, 19201966 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967), 48–49.

10 Carlile, Lonny Divisions of Labor: Globality, Ideology, and War in the Shaping of the Japanese Labor Movement (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2005), 145.

11 Eells, Salter C.Preface,15 May 1954, Walter C. Eells Papers, Whitman College Manuscript Collection, Penrose Library, Whitman College.

12 States, United Department of State, Report of the United States Education Mission to Japan, Department of State Publication 2579, Far Eastern Series 11 (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1946), 2.

13 Orr, Mark T. Senryoka nihon no kyoiku kaikaku seisaku [Educational Reform Policies Under the Occupation of Japan], trans. Gary G. Tsuchimochi (Machida-shi: Tamagawa gakuen shuppanbu, 1993), 14. (The text here is this authors translation into English of Tsuchimochi's Japanese translation.)

14 Ibid., 36.

15 Bishop, CurtisWalter C. Eells,Junior College Journal 33, no. 6 (1963): 3; Hollis, Ernest V. “Walter Crosby Eells, 1886–1962,” School and Society 91 (1963): 242.

16 Vice Minister of Education, Hatsu Gaku no. 106, 17 January 1946, “Political Movement and Electoral Campaigns on the Part of Students, Teachers, and School Officials,” in Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, Civil Information and Education Section. Education in the New Japan, vol. 1 (Tokyo: GHQ, SCAP, CIE, 1948): 162.

17 Dower, John W. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War Two (New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 1999), 233–34; Tamamoto, Masaru “Unwanted Peace: Japanese Intellectual Thought in American Occupied Japan, 1948–1952” (PhD diss., The Johns Hopkins University, 1988), 68–76.

18 Oinas-Kukkonen, Henry Tolerance, Suspicion and Hostility: Chanting U.S. Attitudes Toward the Japanese Communist Movement, 1944–194 7 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003), 134.

19 Tamamoto, Unwanted Peace,76; Koschmann, J. VictorIntellectuals and Politics,“ in Postwar Japan as History, ed. Gordon, Andrew (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 397.

20 Oinas-Kukkonen, Tolerance, Suspicion and Hostility, 130–33.

21 Tamamoto, Unwanted Peace,149.

22 Department of State, Division of Research for the Far East, Office of Intelligence Research (OIR), “Political Activities in Japanese Universities and Colleges,” 21 September 1949, 4.

23 Eells, Walter C.Preface,15 May 1954, Walter C. Eells Papers, Whitman College Manuscript Collection, Penrose Library, Whitman College.

24 Eells, Walter C. Chairman, “Plans for Higher Education in 1949,” no pagination, Walter C. Eells Papers.

25 Taken from the Official Communist Party Membership figures cited in Scalapino, The Japanese Communist Movement, 1920–1966, 67.

26 Ordinance for Controlling Association and Others (Ordinance no. 64, 1949); Department of State, Division of Research for the Far East, Office of Intelligence Research (OIR), “Political Activities in Japanese Universities and Colleges,” 21 September 1949, 6; Finn, Richard B. Winners in Peace: MacArthur, Yoshida, and Postwar Japan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), 228–32.

27 Kyosanto Chuo Iinkai, Nihon [Japan Communist Party Central Committee], Nihon Kyosanto no 65-nen [Japan Communist Party's 65 Years], vol. 1 (Tokyo: Nihon Kyosanto Chuo Iinkai Shuppankyoku, 1988), 128.

28 Article Vin Law for Certification of Educational Personnel (Law no. 147, 31 May 1949) in GHQ, SCAP, the CIE, Education Division, Post-War Developments in Japanese Education, vol. 2: 270; Office of Intelligence Research (OIR), “The Campaign Against Communist Teachers in Japan,” 14 November 1949, 5; Office of Intelligence Research (OIR), “Political Activities in Japanese Universities and Colleges,” 21 September 1949, 1–2.

29 Eells, Walter C. to the Chief, Education Division, Memorandum “Student Strikes in Higher Educational Institutions,” 21 May 1949, in “Aftermath of Niigata Address,” Walter C. Eells Papers.

30 Frank Kawamoto to Dr. Eells, “Report on the Second National Conference of the Federation of All Japan Student Self Governments (Zengakuren),” 6 June 1949, in “Aftermath of Niigata Address,” Walter C. Eells Papers.

31 Parrotts, LindesayYoshida Appeals to Public on Reds,The New York Times, 17 July 1949.

32 Nugent to the Education Division, a note, 23 April 1949, in “Niigata University,” Walter C. Eells Papers. Emphasis is the author's.

33 CIE, “Intra section routing slip,” 8 July 1949, in “Niigata University,” Walter C. Eells Papers.

34 Trainor, Joseph C. Educational Reform in Occupied Japan: Trainor's Memoir (Tokyo: Meisei University Press, 1983), 345–56.

35 Eells, Walter C. Adviser on Higher Education, “Convocation Address: Opening of Niigata University,” 19 July 1949, 5 in “Niigata University,” Walter C. Eells Papers.

36 Sanders, Jane Cold War on the Campus: Academic Freedom at the University of Washington, 1946-64 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1979), 15; Schrecker, Ellen W. No Ivory Tower: McCarthyism and the Universities (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 94–105.

37 Allen's, Raymond B. comments quoted in “Academic Freedom and Communists,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 11 June 1949.

38 Schrecker, No Ivory Tower, 105.

39 Kurtz, Paul Sidney Hook: Philosopher of Democracy and Humanism (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1983), vii, http://www.questia.com (accessed 13 September 2010).

40 Postel, DannySidney Hook, an Intellectual Street Fighter Reconsidered,The Chronicle of Higher Education 49, no. 11 (November 2002), Research & Publishing section, A18. http://chronicle.com/free/v49/il 1/11a01801.htm (accessed 27 May 2009).

41 Ibid.

42 Phelps, Christropher Young Sidney Hook: Marxist and Pragmatist (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997), 14.

43 Schrecker, No Ivory Tower, 105.

44 Hook, SidneyAcademic Freedom and ‘The Trojan Horse’ in American Education,AAUP Bulletin 25, no. 5 (December 1939: 551–55); Schrecker, No Ivory Tower, 74, 373, n. 22.

45 Hook, SidneyShould Communists Be Permitted to Teach?,New York Times Magazine, 27 February 1949, 24, quoted in Lionel S. Lewis, Cold War on Campus: A Study of the Politics of Organizational Control (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1988), 16.

46 Schrecker, No Ivory Tower, 106.

47 Ibid., 73–74.

48 Fine, BenjaminN.E.A. Adopts Red-Teachers Ban; 3,000 Delegates Shout Approval,New York Times, 7 July 1949, 1; Illson, Murray, “Educators Warn On Loyalty Oaths,” New York Times, 9 October 1949, 1.

49 Other members included Professor John K. Norton of Columbia University's Teachers College, Dr. Mabel Studebaker, president of the N.E.A., Dr. William Jansen, superintendent of schools in New York City, Dr. John L. Bracken, President of the American Association of School Administrators, and Dean T. R. McConnell of the University of Minnesota. Benjamin Fine, “Education in Review,” New York Times, 12 June 1949, E7.

50 “The Role of Education,” New York Times, 9 June 1949, 30.

51 Educational Policies Commission, American Education and International Tensions (Washington DC: National Education Association of the United States and the American Association of School Administrators, 1949), 37–40.

52 Furman, BessTruman Says Reds Should Not Teach,New York Times, 10 June 1949, 11.

53 Ibid.

54 Schrecker, No Ivory Tower, 112.

55 “Academic Freedom and Communists,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 11 June 1949.

56 “Sanity versus Jitters,” Christian Science Monitor, 11 October 1949, 18.

57 “The Role of Education,” New York Times, 9 June 1949.

58 Hook, Sidney quoted in “It's the Teachers, Not the Books,” Los Angeles Times, 19 June 1949, A4.

59 Ibid.

60 Lewis, Cold War on Campus, 19.

61 “Akai kyoju no jogai [Elimination of Red Professors],” Asabi Shinbun, 24 July 1949; “Shiso-teki tsuiho okonawazu [No Purge on Thought],” Tokyo daigaku gakusei shinbun [Tokyo University Student Newspaper], 17–28 July 1949 (unified issue), 1.

62 “Report of Conference Held with Mr. Eells from Educational Information Daily,” 18 August 1949 [English translation of Nikkan Kyoiku Joho (Daily Educational Information) by CIE staff], in “Niigata University,” Walter C. Eells Papers.

63 Eells, Walter C. and Donald M. Typer to the Chief, Education Division, Memorandum “Program for Activities in Universities” 2 September 1949, in “Aftermath of Niigata Address,” Walter C. Eells Papers.

64 Chief, CIE (Nugent) to the Chief, Education Division, Memorandum “Program for Activities in Universities” 7 September 1949, in “Aftermath of Niigata Address,” Walter C. Eells Papers.

65 Office of Intelligence Research (OIR), “The Campaign against Communist Teachers in Japan,” 14 November 1949, 8; “‘Akai kyoin’ seiri susumu [Ousting ‘Red Teachers’ in Progress],” Asahi Shinbun, 4 October 1949; “Leftists in Japan Lose School Jobs,” New York Times, 14 October 1949.

66 “‘Akai kyoin'seiri susumu [Ousting ‘Red Teachers’ in Progress],” Asahi Shinbun, 4 October 1949.

67 Office of Intelligence Research (OIR), “The Campaign against Communist Teachers in Japan,” 14 November 1949, 1–3.

68 Article VIII of Fundamental Law of Education, in SCAP, the CIE, Post-War Development in Japanese Education, vol. 2, 128.

69 “University Head Clarifies Stand on Red Teachers,” Nippon Times, 22 October 1949, in “Aftermath of Niigata Address,” Walter C. Eells Papers; “Akai kyoju tsuiho to todai no taido [Ousting Red Professors and Tokyo University's Attitude],” Asahi Shinbun, 18 October 1949.

70 Office of Intelligence Research (OIR), “Political Rights in the Japanese National Public Service,” 6 February 1950, 3–4.

71 Mainichi Shinbun, 23 October 1949, quoted in OIR, “Political Rights in the Japanese National Public Service,” 6 February 1950, 5.

72 Office of Intelligence Research (OIR), “The Campaign against Communist Teachers in Japan,” 14 November 1949, 8.

73 Eells, Walter C. and Donald M. Typer to Chief, Education Division, Memorandum “Program for Activities in Universities,” 2 September 1949, in “Aftermath of Niigata Address,” Walter C. Eells Papers.

74 Eells, Walter C.Communism and Education: Dr. Eells Clarifies His Niigata Speech,Nippon Times, 4 November 1949.

75 “Zenkoku Daigaku Kyoju Rengo ga seimsei [Statement of the Japanese Association of University Professors],” Asabi Sbinbun, 23 October 1949.

76 Office of Intelligence Research (OIR), “The Campaign against Communist Teachers in Japan,” 14 November 1949, 9.

77 Eells, Walter C.Communism and Education: Dr. Eells Clarifies His Niigata Speech,Nippon Times, 4 November 1949.

78 Eells, Walter C.Communism and Education: Dr. Eells Clarifies His Niigata Speech,Nippon Times, 4 November 1949.

79 Office of Intelligence Research (OIR), “The Campaign against Communist Teachers in Japan,” 14 November 1949, i–ii, 9.

80 Nanbara to Orr, a letter, 15 August 1949, quoted in Orr, Senryoka nitron no kyoiku kaikaku seisaku [Educational Reform Policies Under the Occupation of Japan], 34.

81 “Denies ‘Witch Hunt’ in Education Circles” by Peter Kalischer, United Press Staff Correspondent, no source or date, Walter C. Eells Papers; “Kyoju tsuiho shirei wa sezu [No Order to Oust Professors],” Asabi Shinbun, 9 November 1949.

82 “U.S. Virtually Ends Civil Affairs Role throughout Japan,” New York Times, 29 July 1949.

83 Hirata, Tetsuo Reddo paji no shiteki kyumei [Historical Analysis of Red Purge] (Tokyo: Shin nihon shuppansha, 2002), 81.

84 Eells, Walter C. Communism in Education in Asia, Africa, and the Far Pacific (Washington, DC: American Council on Education, 1954), 30.

85 “Rito kyoju wa nokosu [Permit Dismembered Red Professors to Remain],” Asahi Shinbun, 3 December 1949; “The Statement Is GHQ Recommended—Dr. Eells, Questions and Answers about Red Professors” Asahi Shinbun, 3 December 1949, Walter C. Eells Papers.

86 Scalapino, The Japanese Communist Movement, 1920–1966, 60; Carlile, Divisions of Labor: Globality, Ideology, and War in the Shaping of the Japanese Labor Movement, 151.

87 “Expulsion of Red Professors Who Disturb Education,” Jiji Shinbun, 27 January 1950 (English translation); box 4, Ronald S. Anderson Papers, Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

88 Eells, Walter C.Academic Freedom and Communism,“ a speech manuscript, n.d., box 4, no pagination, Ronald Stone Anderson Papers, Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

89 Eells, Communism in Education in Asia, Africa and the Far Pacific, 30.

90 Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Student Government Organization, “To the Entire Students upon Meeting Dr. Eells,” 10 April 1950 (English translation by GHQ staff) in “Kyushu University,” Walter C. Eells Papers.

91 Clerical Bureau of Kyushu District Federation of Student Government Organizations, “About Kyushu Universities, Struggle against War and Imperialism,” 19 April 1950, (English translation by GHQ staff) in “Kumamoto University,” Walter C. Eells Papers.

92 Trainor, Joseph C. Educational Reform in Occupied Japan: Trainor's Memoir, 349.

93 Hirata, Tetsuo ed., Daigaku jichi no kiki—Kobe daigaku reddo paji jiken no kaimei [Threat on University Autonomy: Analysis on the Red Purge at Kobe University] (Tokyo: Shiraishi shoten, 1993), 360–61.

94 “Two Reds Who Shouted Down Eells Nabbed; Three Others Flee,” Nippon Times, 4 May 1950.

95 Eells, Walter C.Disorders at Hokkaido University,3 in “Hokkaido University,” Walter C. Eells Papers; “Question and answer session between Dr. Eells and Moriya and Miyahara, Professors of Hokkaido University,” Akahata, 24 May 1950 (English translation).

96 Daigaku, Hokkaido Hokkaido daigaku soki 80-nen shi [Hokkaido University History of 80 Years] (Sapporo-shi: Hokkaido daigaku, 1965), 284–85.

97 Homufu Tokubetsu Shinsakyoku (Attorney's General Office, Special Investigation Bureau) “Showa 25-nen 8-gatsu iwayuru Tokushu Kancho Gurupu ni kansuru hokoku [August 1950 Report on Special Government Office Groups]” cited by Tetsuo Hirata, “Iruzu mondai to daigaku kyoin reddo paji no shiteki kyumei [Historical Analysis on the Eells Issue and the Red Purge],” in Daigaku jichi no kiki—Kobe daigaku reddo paji jiken no kaimei [Threats on University Autonomy: An Analysis on the Red Purge at Kobe University], ed. Tetsuo Hirata (Tokyo: Shiraishi shoten, 1993), 359.

98 Hirata, Iruzu mondai to daigaku kyoin reddo paji no shiteki kyumei,“ 360–62; Isao Myojin, “Dai niji kyoshokuin reddo paji keikaku to zasetsu no keii [The Second Red Purge and the Process of Its Failure],” Kyoiku shi gakkai kiyo 31 (1988): 72, n. 34.

99 “Monbu Jikan Loomis kaidan yoshi” [Minutes of the Meeting Between the Vice Minister and Loomis], 22 August 1950, Sengo kyoiku shiryo VI, Kokuritsu Kyoiku Seisaku Kenkyujo.

100 Eells, Typer, and Neufeld to the Chief, the CIE, “Report of Field Trip to Yamanashi, Ibaraki, Fukushima and Utsunomiya Universities,” 3 April 1950, 6, in “Yamanashi University,” Walter C. Eells Paper.

The author wishes to thank the anonymous reviewers of the History of Education Quarterly for their helpful suggestions. Special thanks to Dr. Eileen H. Tamura of the University of Hawaii for her constructive comments on a draft of this article

Anticommunism and Academic Freedom: Walter C. Eells and the “Red Purge” in Occupied Japan

  • Ruriko Kumano (a1) (a2)

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