Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Il Trionfo? The Untold Story of Its Development and Pope Gregory XVI's Struggle to Attain Orthodoxy

  • Christopher Korten (a1)

Extract

For all of the criticism that Pope Gregory XVI (1831–1846) has attracted in the historiography for his severe, backward-thinking papal policies, such as condemning freedoms of speech and the press (Mirari vos; 1832) or his refusal to grant the construction of railroads, his reputation as a gifted theologian has remained untainted. Owen Chadwick called him “the best educated pope for nearly three-quarters of a century.” At the bottom of this assessment lies Gregory's only monograph, Il trionfo della Santa Sede (The triumph of the Holy See; 1799). Many have attempted to use this work to provide continuity or an appropriate backdrop to Gregory's later (papal) career. His order's own biographer has suggested that Il trionfo was responsible for his becoming cardinal. Alan Reinerman has claimed that the work's “fervor and erudition won him the esteem of the Curia” since it was written “at one of the darkest moments in Papal history.” Il trionfo acquired for Mauro Cappellari (later Gregory XVI) “an honored name among apologists,” claimed lifelong doting barber-turned-assistant Gaetano Moroni. Regarding its more immediate impact, Jean Leflon believed that Il trionfo caused Cappellari to be expelled from Rome.

Copyright

References

Hide All

1 Chadwick, Owen, A History of the Popes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002) 3.

2 Capellari, Mauro, Il trionfo della Santa Sede contro gli assalti dei novatori combattuti e respinti colle stesse loro armi (Rome: Zempel, 1799).

3 Federici, Domenico, “Carteggio Cappellari (Gregorio XVI)—Mandelli,” Archivio storico di Belluno, Feltre, e Cadore 51 (1980) 132, at 11 n. 3.

4 Reinerman, Alan, Austria and the Papacy in the Age of Metternich: Revolution and Reaction, 1830–1838 (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1989) 11.

5 Moroni, Gaetano, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastico da S. Pietro ai nostri giorni (109 vols.; Venice: Emiliana, 1840–1879) 91:531. All translations are mine.

6 Leflon, Jean, La crise révolutionnaire 1789–1846 (ed. Fliche, Augustin and Martin, Victor; vol. 20 of Histoire de l'Eglise depuis les origines jusqu’à nos jours; Paris: Bloud et Gay, 1949) 430.

7 The best works on “Italian Jansenism” are by the prolific Mario Rosa: “Riformismo religioso e giansenismo in Italia alla fine del settecento,” in Pietro Tamburini e il giansenismo lombardo (ed. Paolo Corsini and Daniele Montanari; Brescia: Morcelliana, 1993) 1–30; and “The Catholic Aufklärung in Italy,” in A Companion to the Catholic Enlightenment in Europe (ed. Ulrich L. Lehner and Michael Printy; Leiden: Brill, 2010) 215–50. See also the work of the rather obscure Ettore Passerin d'Entrèves, whose articles are found in various Italian academic journals and include “Giansenisti e illuministi,” in La cultura illuministica in Italia (ed. Mario Fubini; Turin: Radio Italia, 1966) 189–207.

8 Mauro Cappellari to Federico Mandelli, February 16, 1797 (copy), Fondo Piancastelli, 694.82/6, Biblioteca Comunale “A. Saffi,” Forli; Nachi autobiography, Fondo S. Gregorio [S. Greg.], busta [b.] 63, letter 89, Biblioteca Nazionale, Rome [BNR] (on the condemnation of the synod); Gibelli, Alberto, L'antico monastero dei santi Andrea e Gregorio al Clivo di Scauro sul Monte Celio (Faenza: Conti, 1892) 179.

9 Entitled Difesa delle dottrine del Concilio di Trento sulle indulgenze and responding to the anonymous Jansenist work Trattato storico-critico-dogmatico sulle indulgenze (Giuseppe Cernitori, Biblioteca polemica degli scrittori [Rome: Salomoni, 1793] 63).

10 Jemolo, Arturo Carlo, Il giansenismo in Italia prima della rivoluzione (Bari: Laterza, 1928) 220, 280.

11 Meneghin, Vittorino, S. Michele in Isola di Venezia (2 vols.; Venice: Stamperia di Venezia, 1962) 1:250 (for Soldani); Federici, “Carteggio Cappellari,” 7 n. 1 (for Bianchi).

12 Meneghin, S. Michele, 1:250.

13 Gross, Hans, Rome in the Age of Enlightenment (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1990) 284.

14 Pignatelli, Giuseppe, Aspetti della propaganda cattolica a Roma da Pio VI a Leone XII (Rome: Istituto per la storia del Risorgimento italiano, 1974) 4748.

15 On Nachi, read S. Greg., b. 89, letters 21–30, BNR. For Clemente Biagi's ideas on infallibility, read S. Greg., b. 89, letter 38, BNR and those near to it.

16 Biagi to Mandelli, January 19, 1793, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 95, BNR.

17 Biagi to Mandelli, October 10, 1793, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 101, BNR.

18 Bruno Bruni to Mandelli, March 29, 1794, S. Greg., b. 70, letter 70, BNR.

19 Pignatelli, Propaganda cattolica, 50.

20 Biagi to Mandelli, February 2, 1793, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 96, BNR. The work is entitled Il sistema del patto sociale sostenuto dal ch. Ab. Spedalieri confutato coi suoi principii dall’ Abbate A.C. Idropolita (Assisi, 1793).

21 Biagi to Mandelli, May 23, 1794, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 103, BNR.

22 Mauro Cappellari to Placido Zurla, August 29, 1795, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 4, and July 16, 1796, b. 55, letter 106, BNR.

23 Cappellari to Zurla, November 5, 1795, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 9, BNR.

24 Cappellari to Mandelli, n.d., S. Greg., b. 55, letter 151, BNR.

25 Antonio Fiammazzo, Raccolte di lettere inedite (n.p.: Domenico del Bianco, 1891) 116.

26 Maria Severina Chiarlo, “Il trionfo della Santa Sede. Opera di Mauro Cappellari” (PhD diss., University of Pisa, 1978–1979) 132–40.

27 Ferrini, Nella, “L'abate Luigi Cuccagni da Città di Castello polemista cattolico del secolo XVIII,” Bollettino della Regia Deputazione di Storia patria per l'Umbria 40 (1943) 5139, at 56.

28 On Biagi's views see, for example, Biagi to Mandelli, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 104, BNR. On Biagi's centrality to this debate, see S. Greg., b. 54, letters 225–314, and S. Greg., b. 56, 57 and 70, BNR.

29 Cernitori, Biblioteca polemica, 22. The full title of Bolgeni's work is L'episcopato ossia della potesta di governare la Chiesa (Rome, 1789).

30 On publishing and Biagi, see Cappellari to Zurla, April 5, 1795, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 2, BNR, and Biagi to Mandelli, June 8, 1793, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 97, BNR. On Cuccagni, see Federici, “Carteggio Cappellari,” 8 n. 1. See also S. Greg., b. 70, letters 98–185 (to Giovanni Nani), and b. 71, letters 191–319, BNR. On founding members, see Pignatelli, Giuseppe, “Le origini settecentesche del cattolicesimo reazionario. La polemica antigiansenista del ‘Giornale ecclesiastico di Roma,’Studi storici 4 (1970) 755–82, at 763.

31 Cappellari to Mandelli, September 19, 1795, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 134, and b. 56, letter 255, BNR; Bishop Antonio Maria Gardini to Mandelli, February 18, 1796, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 140, BNR; and Cappellari to Mandelli, July 2, 1796, on Pius's acceptance. See also Fiammazzo, Lettere inedite, 113 (Cappellari to Alessandro Stagni, March 27, 1796) on the supposed date of presentation.

32 Cuccagni, Luigi, Vita di S. Pietro. Principe degli apostoli (Venice: Simone Occhi, 1782) title page.

33 Stagni to Nani, October 7, 1795, S. Greg., b. 70, letters 222 and 223, BNR; assisting Scipione Bonfacio, November 5, 1795, S. Greg., b. 70, letter 303, BNR. On Cuccagni's close relationship with Pius VI, see Cuccagni to Nani, March 26, 1796, S. Greg., b. 70, letter 173, and January 23, 1796, letter 177, BNR.

34 Cappellari to Zurla, April 5, 1795, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 2, BNR.

35 Cappellari to Zurla, October 10, 1795, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 5, BNR.

36 Cappellari to Zurla, January 16, 1796, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 13, BNR.

37 Mandelli to unknown, February 8, 1796, S. Ippolito, b. 7, letter 94, Archivio di Camaldoli [AC]; Meneghin, S. Michele, 1:251 n. 117.

38 Cappellari to Mandelli, February 27, 1796, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 137, BNR.

39 Cappellari to Mandelli, June 18, 1796, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 139, BNR.

40 Stagni to Nani, September 9, 1795, S. Greg., b. 70, letter 221, BNR.

41 Giacomo Morelli to Nani, August 1, 1795 (from Venice), S. Greg., b. 70, letter 363, BNR.

42 Mandelli letter, January 9, 1796, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 237, BNR.

43 Cappellari's work with the Holy Office, Gardini to Mandelli, May 25, 1792, S. Greg., b. 56, letter 249, BNR. See also Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm, “Gregor XVI,” in Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (33 vols.; Herzberg: Traugot Bautz, 1975–2012) 13:327 (on his beginning in 1790 with the Holy Office).

44 Castranova, Valerio and Tranfaglia, Nicola, La stampa italiana dal ’500 al ’800 (Rome: Laterza, 1976) 405–6.

45 Sala, Giuseppe Antonio, Diario romano degli anni 1798–99 (2 vols.; Rome: La Società, 1882) 1:86.

46 Fiammazzo, Lettere inedite, 113 (Cappellari to Stagni, February 20, 1796).

47 Cappellari letter, January 8, 1797, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 147, BNR; Meneghin, S. Michele, 1:251 n. 117.

48 Biagi to Mandelli, n.d. (though prior to February 1797 and Mandelli's death), S. Greg., b. 55, letter 110, BNR.

49 Dizionario biografico degli Italiani, s.v. “Cuccagni, Luigi,” by Giuseppe Pignatelli, http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/luigi-cuccagni.

50 Ibid.; see also Jemolo, Il giansenismo in Italia, 38.

51 Bolton, Charles A., Church Reform in 18th Century Italy (the Synod of Pistoia, 1786) (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1969) 155.

52 Sala, Diario romano, 1:196 (May 11, 1798).

53 Fontana, Giovanni L. and Sandal, Ennio, Cartai e stampatori in Veneto (Brescia: Grafo, 2001) 49.

54 Gross, Rome in the Age of Enlightenment, 186.

55 Cappellari to Mandelli, n.d., S. Greg., b. 55, letter 151, BNR.

56 Cappellari letter, August 27, 1796, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 143, BNR.

57 Cappellari letter, January 8, 1797, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 147, BNR. There are eight printed pages per sheet.

58 Cappellari to Zurla, November 4, 1797, S. Greg, b. 110, letter 27, BNR.

59 On unprofitability, see Marino Berengo, La società Veneta alla fine del settecento (Florence: Sansoni, 1956) 145, 148.

60 Mandelli to Nani, March 27, 1793, S. Greg., b. 54, letter 227, BNR.

61 Bruni to Nani, February 1, 1794, S. Greg., b. 70, letter 67, BNR.

62 Cappellari letter, August 27, 1796, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 143, BNR.

63 Cappellari to Mandelli, January 8, 1797, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 147, BNR.

64 Cappellari to Zurla, June 24, 1797, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 23, BNR.

65 Cappellari to Zurla, n.d., S. Greg., b. 110, letter 91, BNR.

66 Cappellari to Zurla, October 1, 1803, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 95, BNR.

67 Cappellari to Zurla, May 25, 1804, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 126, BNR.

68 Cappellari to Zurla, June 29, 1805, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 128, BNR.

69 Cuccagni to Nani, September 18, 1790, S. Greg., b. 70, letter 402, BNR.

70 Meneghin, S. Michele, 1:248–49 (for the claim that he was a genius but strange); Nachi autobiography, S. Greg., b. 63, letters 77–81, BNR (for the claim that he was a famous orator); Mandelli insert, found in S. Greg., b. 48, f. 212, Archivio di Stato di Roma [ASR] (on the thesis defense in general).

71 Meneghin, S. Michele, 1:248–49.

72 S. Greg., b. 65, letter 3, BNR; Giambenedetto Pagani, July 23, 1795, S. Greg., b. 48, f. 241, ASR.

73 Nachi autobiography, S. Greg., b. 63, letter 77, BNR.

74 Mandelli to Nani, November 6, 1790, S. Greg., b. 54, letter 198, BNR.

75 Mandelli to Nani, July 21, 1792, S. Greg., b. 54, letter 220, BNR.

76 Gardini to Nani, March 18, 1795, S. Greg., b. 54, letter 151, BNR. Cappellari was often spelled “Capellari” prior to 1826.

77 Mandelli to unknown, February, 8 1796, S. Ippolito, b. 7, letter 94, AC.

78 Cappellari to Zurla, January 16, 1796, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 13, BNR.

79 Anon. to bishop of Brescia [Nani], n.d., S. Greg., b. 70, letter 80, BNR.

80 Meneghin, S. Michele, 250; Moroni, Dizionario (Indici), 3:455; Cacciamani, Giuseppe M., Storia del conclave di Papa Gregorio XVI (Camaldoli: Camaldoli, 1960) 6162.

81 Anon. to bishop of Brescia [Nani], n.d., S. Greg., b. 70, letter 80, BNR.

82 Cappellari to Mandelli, February 27, 1796, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 137, BNR.

83 Fiammazzo, Lettere inedite, 113 (Cappellari to Stagni, February 20, 1796).

84 Ibid.

85 Ibid. (see also Cappellari to Stagni, March 27, 1796).

86 Vanysacker, Dries, Cardinal Giuseppe Garampi (1725–1792): An Enlightened Ultramontane (Rome: Institut historique belge de Rome, 1995) 272.

87 See S. Greg., b. 71, letters 1–510 and b. 54, letters 1–314, BNR.

88 Cuccagni letters to Nani, S. Greg., b. 71, letters 191–369 and Cuccagni letters to Mandelli, S. Greg., b. 70, letters 1–176, BNR.

89 Epistolario Gerdil, vols. 43–45, Archivio Storico dei Barnabiti, Rome.

90 Biagi letters, S. Greg., b. 89 and 55, letters 94–112, BNR; for Gardini letters see S. Greg., b. 54, letters 126–224; b. 70, letters 177–341; and b. 71, letters 190–369, BNR.

91 Federici, Domenico, Gregorio XVI tra favola e realtà (Rovigo: Istituto padano di arti grafiche, 1948) 73.

92 The work by Le Gros was Tractatus dogmaticus et scholasticus de ecclesia (Rome: 1784).

93 Alberigo, Giuseppe, Lo sviluppo della dottrina dei poteri nella chiesa universale (Rome: Herder, 1964) 360.

94 Capellari, Il trionfo (1799), xx–xxii.

95 Ibid., x.

96 Ibid., xiv (table of contents). He begins the section on page 100: “La Monarchia adunque Pontificia, io mi lusingo d'averla dimostrata . . . ”

97 Cappellari, Mauro, Il trionfo della Santa Sede contro gli assalti dei novatori combattuti e respinti colle stesse loro armi (Venice: Battaggia, 1837) 329–31.

98 Yves Marie-Joseph Congar, “Affirmation de l'autorité,” in L'ecclésiologie au XIXe siècle (ed. Maurice Nédoncelle; Paris: Cerf, 1960) 77–114, at 93.

99 Mandelli to Nani?, July 14, 1792, S. Greg., b. 70, letter 368, BNR.

100 Alberigo, Lo sviluppo della dottrina, 361.

101 Facchini, Tarcisio, Il papato principio di unità e Pietro Ballerini di Verona. Dal concetto di unità ecclesiastica al concetto di monarchia infallibile (Padua: Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1950) 7074; compare to Cappellari, Il trionfo (1837), 90–91.

102 Chiarlo, “Il trionfo della Santa Sede,” 132–40.

103 See nn. 28 and 29 above.

104 Alberigo, Lo sviluppo della dottrina, 361 n. 25.

105 So argues Alberigo, ibid., 364, in point 68 of his preliminary discourse.

106 Meneghin, S. Michele, 1:252–53 and Federici, “Carteggio Cappellari,” 11 n. 3.

107 Meneghin, S. Michele, 1:253–54 and Luigi Alpago-Novello, “Il conclave di Gregorio XVI,” Archivio Veneto-Tridentino (1924) 67–114, at 74.

108 Mauro Capellari, Il trionfo della Santa Sede (1799), Fondi 160, Istituto per la Storia del Risorgimento Italiano, Rome. The data for the 1832 edition is the same as the 1837 edition and found in n. 97.

109 Alberigo, Lo sviluppo della dottrina, 361.

110 Cappellari to Mandelli, September 19, 1795, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 134, BNR.

111 Fiammazzo, Lettere inedite, 113 (Cappellari to Stagni, February 20, 1796).

112 Cuccagni to Nani, December 26, 1789, S. Greg., b. 71, letter 288, BNR.

113 Cuccagni to Nani, February 7, 1789, S. Greg., b. 71, letter 268, BNR.

114 Fiammazzo, Lettere inedite, 113 (Cappellari to Stagni, February 20, 1796).

115 Chadwick, History of the Popes, 2; Meneghin, S. Michele, 1:252–53; and Eamon Duffy, Saints and Sinners (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997) 218.

116 Meneghin, S. Michele, 1:253.

117 Chiarlo, “Il trionfo della Santa Sede,” 141. Though that is not strictly true, Moschini, Giannantonio, Della letteratura veneziana del secolo XVIII (4 vols.; Venice: Palese, 1806–1808) 1:199, makes mention of it.

118 Berti, Giampietro, Censura e circolazione delle idee nel Veneto della Restaurazione (Venice: Deputazione editrice, 1989) 97 n. 107.

119 Cappellari to Zurla, January 10, 1801, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 46, BNR.

120 Cappellari to Zurla, November 7, 1801, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 65, BNR.

121 Cappellari to Zurla, March 6, 1803, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 85, (many books) and Bovari's request, March 16, 1805, letter 120, BNR.

122 Brandaglia to Nachi, July 15, 1806, S. Greg., b. 10, ASR.

123 It was given on May 7, 1823 and can be found in the Rosmini museum in Rovereto.

124 Against Cuccagni and Stagni, Cuccagni to Nani, March 5, 1796, S. Greg., b. 70, letter 175, BNR.

125 Peter Savio, Devozione a Mgr. Turchi alla Santa Sede (n.p.: L'Italia Francescana, 1938), whose title is misleading.

126 Fantini, Antonella, “L'epistolario di Pietro Tamburini in biblioteche e archivi italiani,” in Pietro Tamburini e il giansenismo lombardo (ed. Corsini, Paolo and Montanari, Daniele; Brescia: Morcelliana, 1993) 403–54, at 407.

127 Pietro Stella, “Pietro Tamburini nel quadro del giansenismo italiano,” in ibid., 151–204, at 151.

128 Cappellari to Zurla, January 10, 1801, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 46, BNR.

129 Moroni, Dizionario, 91:531; Meneghin, S. Michele, 1:254.

130 Visconti, Pietro Ercole, Biografia di Stefano Borgia (Rome: Tipografia delle Belle Arti, 1836) 7, links Borgia's promotion to the cardinalate in 1789 to the publication of his Breve istoria del dominio temporale della sede apostolica nelle due Sicilie (Rome: 1788).

131 Piolanti, Antonio, L'Accademia di Religione Cattolica (Vatican City: Vatican Library, 1977) 3.

132 San Romualdo, manuscript 53, AC.

133 Piolanti, L'Accademia, 3–4 (on Lazzarini), 7 (on Stagni).

134 Fiammazzo, Lettere inedite, 116 (Cappellari to Stagni, September 19, 1801); Giuseppe Zamboni, “Atti dell'Accademia Pontificia di Religione,” folio 10r., b. 316, Biblioteca, ASR.

135 Piolanti, L'Accademia, 60–61, from the Academy's charter, canons 22 and 28.

136 Ibid., 21.

137 Stagni to Cappellari, February 27, 1817, Fondo La Congregazione degli Affari Ecclesiastici Straordinari [AES], Lombardo-Veneto, folder 28, letter 74, Archivio Segreto Vaticano [ASV].

138 Cappellari to Zurla, August 19, 1795, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 4, BNR.

139 Cappellari to Mandelli, December 12, 1795, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 135, BNR.

140 Cappellari to Zurla, March 19, 1796, S. Greg., b. 110, letters 12 and 14, BNR.

141 See n. 107 above.

142 Germania, AES, folder 61, letter 93, ASV.

143 Bozzetti, Giuseppe, “Cappellari e Rosmini,” in Gregorio XVI. Miscellanea commemorativa (Miscellanea historiae pontificiae 13; Rome: Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1948) 99–111, at 101.

144 Hayward, Fernand, Le dernier siècle de la Rome pontificale (2 vols.; Paris: Payot, 1928) 2:180.

145 Wiseman, Nicholas, Recollections of the Last Four Popes and of Rome in Their Times (London: Hurst and Blacket, 1858) 422.

146 de Tipaldo, Emilio, Biografia degli italiani illustri (10 vols.; Venice: Giovanni Cecchini, 1845) 10:87 (on Biagi), 10:144–45 (on Mittarelli), and 10:61–62 (on Costadoni); Sanseverino, Faustino, Notizie sulla vita e le opere di Placido Zurla (Milan: 1857).

147 Joanne Baptista Castellani, Oratorio, June 7, 1831, 5–6, section J, b. V, folder 4, AC.

148 Wiseman, Recollections, 421.

149 D'Alessandria, Carme (n.p., n.d.) vi (“immortal”); Cappellari, Il trionfo (1832), preface (“celebrated”).

150 Meneghin, S. Michele, 1:253.

151 Ibid.; Moroni, Dizionario, 91:531, states that it was reprinted only because of Battaggia's repeated and persistent pleadings.

152 Meneghin, S. Michele, 1:253.

153 Chadwick, History of the Popes, 2. Reinerman makes a similar argument in Austria and the Papacy, 11.

154 Federici, “Carteggio Cappellari,” 11 n. 3. A similar statement is made in Paolo Dalla Torre, “Gregorio XVI,” in Enciclopedia Cattolica (12 vols.; Vatican City: Vatican, 1948–1954) 6:1148–1156, at 1148.

155 Alberigo, Lo sviluppo della dottrina, 361.

156 Pignatelli, Propaganda cattolica, 12 and Giacomo Martina, Enciclopedia dei papi (3 vols.; Rome: Treccani, 2000) 3:546–60 are virtually alone in understanding the proper chronology.

157 Cappellari to Mandelli, July 2, 1796, S. Greg., b. 55, letter 140, BNR.

158 See n. 154 above.

159 See Gardini to Mandelli, February 18, 1796, S. Greg., b. 56, letter 255, BNR.

160 Mandelli to unknown, February 8, 1796, S. Ippolito, b. 7, letter 94, AC.

161 Capellari, Il trionfo (1799), iii.

162 Ibid., vii.

163 See section F, b. I, folder 2, AC.

164 Moroni, Dizionario, 91:531; Cappellari testimony, April 21, 1803, S. Ippolito, b. 8, letter 174, AC.

165 Cappellari to Zurla, November 21, 1801, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 66, BNR.

166 Cappellari to Zurla, January 22, 1803, S. Greg., b. 80, letter 4, BNR.

167 For example, Mariano Cordovani, “Gregorio XVI difensore della fede,” in Gregorio XVI. Miscellanea commemorativa (Miscellanea historiae pontificiae 13; Rome: Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1948) 123–34, at 123–25.

168 Cappellari to Zurla, October 28, 1795, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 7, BNR.

169 Cappellari to Zurla, August 27, 1796, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 16, BNR.

170 Cappellari to Zurla, March 2, 1797, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 21, BNR.

171 Cappellari to unknown, October 13, 1797, section F, b. I, folder 1, AC.

172 Ibid., August 11, 1797.

173 Pagnani, Alberico, Storia dei benedettini camaldolesi (Sassoferrato: Garofoli, 1949) 236; Croce, Giuseppe M., “Monaci ed eremiti camaldolesi in Italia dal settecento all’ ottocento,” in Il monachesimo italiano (ed. Francesco Giovanni Trolese; Cesena: Badia di Santa Maria del Monte, 1992) 198306, at 226–27.

174 Sala, Diario romano, 1:32 (on the screams), 44 (on the troop buildup), and 45 (on Berthier).

175 Cappellari to Zurla, October 16, 1798, S. Greg., b. 110, letter 32, BNR. The ellipsis is Cappellari's.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Harvard Theological Review
  • ISSN: 0017-8160
  • EISSN: 1475-4517
  • URL: /core/journals/harvard-theological-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed