American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders (DSM-IV). Washington (DC): APA; 1994.
Angst, JKupfer, DJRosenbaum, JF.Recovery from depression: risk or reality? Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996;93:413–9.
Bakish, D.New standard of depression treatment: remission and full recovery. J Clin Psychiatry 2001;62(Suppl 26):5–9.
Barlow, DHCampbell, LA.Mixed anxiety-depression and its implications for models of mood and anxiety disorders. Compr Psychiatry 2000;41(Suppl 1):55–60.
Boulenger, JPLavallée, YJ.Mixed anxiety and depression: diagnostic issues. J Clin Psychiatry 1993;5(Suppl 1):3–8.
Boulenger, JPFournier, MRosales, DLavallée, YJ.Mixed anxiety and depression: from theory to practice. J Clin Psychiatry 1997;58(Suppl 8):27–34.
Brodaty, HHarris, LPeters, KWilhelm, KHickie, IBoyce, Pet al. Prognosis of depression in the elderly: a comparison with younger patients. Br J Psychiatry 1993;163:589–96.
Cornwall, PLScott, J.Partial remission in depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997;95:265–71.
Escande, MFabre, S.Symptômes résiduels et rémissions incomplètes. Encéphale 1994;20:269–75.
Evans, MDHollon, SDDe Rubeis, RJPiasecki, JMGrove, WMGarvey, MJet al. Differential relapse following cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992;49:802–8.
Ezquiaga, EGarcia, ABravo, FPallarés, T.Factors associated with outcome in major depression: a 6-month prospective study. Soc Psy chiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 1998;33:552–7.
Faravelli, CAmbonetti, APallanti, SPazzagli, A.Depressive relapses and incomplete recovery from index episode. Am J Psychiatry 1986; 143:888–91.
Fava, GA.Subclinical symptoms in mood disorders: pathophysiologi-cal and therapeutic implications. Psychol Med 1999;29:47–61.
Fava, GAGrandi, SZielezny, MCanestrari, RMorphy, MA.Cognitive behavioral treatment of residual symptoms in primary major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1994;151:1295–9.
Fava, GAGrandi, SZielezny, MRafanelli, CCanestrari, R.Four-year outcome for cognitive behavioral treatment of residual symptoms in major depression. Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:945–7.
Fava, GARafanelli, CCazzaro, MConti, SGrandi, S.Well-being therapy. A novel psychotherapeutic approach for residual symptoms of affective disorders. Psychol Med 1998;28:475–80.
Fava, GARafanelli, CGrandi, SCanestrari, RMorphy, MA.Six-year outcome for cognitive behavioral treatment of residual symptoms in major depression. Am J Psychiatry 1998;155:1443–5.
Fava, GARafanelli, COttolini, FRuini, CCazzaro, MGrandi, S.Psychological well-being and residual symptoms in remitted patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. J Affect Disord 2001;65:185–90.
Ferrier, IN.Treatment of major depression: is improvement enough? J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60(Suppl 6):10–4.
Frank, EPrien, REJarrett, RBKeller, MBKupfer, DJLavoir, PNet al. Conceptualisation and rationale for consensus definitions of terms in major depressive disorder. Remission, recovery, relapse and recurrence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1991;48:287–97.
Georgotas, AMcCue, RECooper, TBHagachandran, NChang, I.How effective and safe is continuation therapy in elderly depressed patients: factors affecting relapse rate. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988;45: 929–32.
Helmchen, HLinden, M.Subthreshold disorders in psychiatry: clinical reality, methodological artefact, and the double-threshold problem. Compr Psychiatry 2000;41(Suppl 1):1–7.
Johnson, JWeissman, MMKlerman, GL.Service utilization and social morbidity associated with depressive symptoms in the community. J Am Med Assoc 1992;267:1478–83.
Judd, LLAskikal, HSMaser, JDZeller, PJEndicott, J CoryellW, et al. Major depressive disorder: a prospective study of residual subthresh-old depressive symptoms as predictor of rapid relapse. J Affect Disord 1998;50:97–108.
Judd, LLPaulus, MJSchettler, PJAkiskal, HSEndicott, JLeon, ACet al. Does incomplete recovery from first lifetime major depressive episode herald a chronic course of illness? Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:1501–4.
Kupfer, DJSpiker, DG.Refractory depression: prediction of nonre-sponse by clinical indicators. J Clin Psychiatry 1981;42:307–12.
MacEwan, GWRemick, RA.Treatment resistant depression: a clinical perspective. J Clin Psychiatry 1988;33:788–92.
Mintz, JMintz, LIArruda, MJHwang, SS.Treatment of depression and functional capacity to work. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992;49:761–8.
Mojtabai, R.Residual symptoms and impairment in major depression in the community. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158:1645–51.
Nierenberg, AADeCecco, LM.Definitions of antidepressant treatment response, remission, nonresponse, partial response and other relevant outcomes: a focus on treatment-resistant depression. J Clin Psychiatry 2001;62(suppl 16):5–9.
Paykel, ES.Remission and residual symptomatology in major depression. Psychopathology 1998;31:5–14.
Paykel, ESRamana, RCooper, ZHayhurst, HKerr, JBarocka, A.Residual symptoms after partial remission: an important outcome in depression. Psychol Med 1995;25:1171–80.
Paykel, ESScott, JTeasdale, JDJohnson, ALGarland, AMoore, Ret al. Prevention of relapse in residual depression by cognitive therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56:829–35.
Ramana, RPaykel, ESCooper, ZHayhurst, HSaxty, MSurtees, PG.Remission and relapse in major depression: a two-year prospective follow-up study. Psychol Med 1995;25:1161–70.
Rouillon, FMarkabi, SFebvre, NPhillips, RVaillant, J.Etude contrôlée du traitement des dépressions résiduelles par la clomipramine versus placebo. Encéphale 1994;20:139–45.
Scott, JTeasdale, JDPaykel, ESJohnson, ALAbbott, RHayhurst, Het al. Effects of cognitive therapy on psychological symptoms and social functioning in residual depression. Br J Psychiatry 2000; 177:440–6.
Shea, MTElkin, IImber, SDSotsky, SMWatkins, JTCollins, JFet al. Course of depressive symptoms over follow-up. Findings from the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992;49:782–7.
Shea, MTLeon, ACMueller, TISolomon, DAWarshaw, MGKeller, MB.Does major depression result in lasting personality change? Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:1404–10.
Simons, ADMurphy, GELevine, JLWetzel, RD.Cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy of depression: sustained improvement at one year. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1986;43:43–50.
Taylor, SMcLean, P.Outcome profiles in the treatment of unipolar depression. Behav Res Ther 1993;31:325–30.
Teasdale, JDScott, JMoore, RGHayhurst, HPope, MPaykel, ES.How does cognitive therapy prevent relapse in residual depression? Evidence from a controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 2001;69: 347–57.
Thase, MESimons, ADMcGreary, JCahalane, JFHughes, CHarden, Tet al. Relapse after cognitive therapy of depression: potential implications for longer courses of treatment. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:1046–52.
Thase, MEEntsuah, ARRudolph, RL.Remission rates during treatment with venlafaxine or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Br J Psychiatry 2001;178:234–41.
Van Londen, LMolenaar, RPGGoekoop, JGZwinderman, AHRooijmans, HGM.Three-to 5-year prospective follow-up of outcome in major depression. Psychol Med 1998;28:731–5.
Wittchen, HUKessler, RCPfhister, HLieb, M.Why do people with anxiety disorders become depressed? A prospective-longitudinal community study. Acta Psychiatr Scan 2000;120(suppl 406):14–23.