Fayyad, JDe Graaf, RKessler, RAlonso, JAngermeyer, MDemyttenaere, KDe Girolamo, GHaro, JMKaram, EGLara, CLepine, JPOrmel, JPosada-Villa, JZaslavsky, AMJin, RCross-national prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Br J Psychiatry 2007; 190:402–9.
Polanczyk, Gde Lima, MSHorta, BLBiederman, JRohde, LAThe worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164(6):942–8.
Faraone, SVAsherson, PBanaschewski, TBiederman, JBuitelaar, JKRamos-Quiroga, JARohde, LASonuga-Barke, EJTannock, RFranke, BAttentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2015; 1:15020.
APA, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®) 2013, American Psychiatric Pub.
Kessler, RCAdler, LBarkley, RBiederman, JConners, CKDemler, OFaraone, SVGreenhill, LLHowes, MJSecnik, KThe prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163(4):716–23.
Moukhtarian, TRMintah, RSMoran, PAsherson, PEmotion dysregulation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder. Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation 2018;5(1):9.
Asherson, PBuitelaar, JFaraone, SVRohde, LAAdult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues. Lancet Psychiatry 2016;3(6):568–78.
Skirrow, CAsherson, PEmotional lability, comorbidity and impairment in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Affect Disord 147(1-3)2013; 80–6.
Skirrow, CMcLoughlin, GKuntsi, JAsherson, PBehavioral, neurocognitive and treatment overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and mood instability. Expert Rev Neurother 2009;9(4):489–503.
Moukhtarian, TCooper, RVassos, EMoran, PAsherson, PEffects of stimulants and atomoxetine on emotional lability in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Psychiatry 2017; 44:198–207.
Barkley, RAFischer, MThe unique contribution of emotional impulsiveness to impairment in major life activities in hyperactive children as adults. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010;49(5):503–13.
Merwood, AChen, WRijsdijk, FSkirrow, CLarsson, HThapar, AKuntsi, JAsherson, PGenetic associations between the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and emotional lability in child and adolescent twins. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014;53(2):209–20e204.
Stawarczyk, DMajerus, SMaquet, PD’Argembeau, ANeural correlates of ongoing conscious experience: both task-unrelatedness and stimulus-independence are related to default network activity. PLoS One 2011;6(2): e16997.
Smallwood, JSchooler, JWThe science of mind wandering: empirically navigating the stream of consciousness. Annu Rev Psychol 2015; 66:487–518.
Kane, MJBrown, LHMcVay, JCSilvia, PJMyin-Germeys, IKwapil, TRFor whom the mind wanders, and when: an experience-sampling study of working memory and executive control in daily life. Psychol Sci 2007;18(7):614–21.
Killingsworth, MAGilbert, DTA wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science 2010;330(6006):932.
Seli, PRisko, EFSmilek, DOn the necessity of distinguishing between unintentional and intentional mind wandering. Psychol Sci 2016;27(5):685–91.
Seli, PSmallwood, JCheyne, JASmilek, DOn the relation of mind wandering and ADHD symptomatology. Psychon Bull Rev 2015;22(3):629–36.
Mowlem, FDSkirrow, CReid, PMaltezos, SNijjar, SKMerwood, ABarker, ECooper, RKuntsi, JAsherson, PValidation of the mind excessively wandering scale and the relationship of mind wandering to impairment in adult ADHD. J Atten Disord 2016 1087054716651927.
Franklin, MSMrazek, MDAnderson, CLJohnston, CSmallwood, JKingstone, A et al. Tracking distraction. J Atten Disord 2017;21(6):475–86.
Bozhilova, NMichelini, GKuntsi, JAsherson, PMind wandering perspective on ADHD. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018.
McKiernan, KAD’Angelo, BRKaufman, JNBinder, JRInterrupting the "stream of consciousness": an fMRI investigation. Neuroimage 2006;29(4):1185–91.
Mason, MFNorton, MIVan Horn, JDWegner, DMGrafton, STMacrae, CNWandering minds: the default network and stimulus-independent thought. Science 2007;315(5810):393–5.
Fox, KCSpreng, RNEllamil, MAndrews-Hanna, JRChristoff, KThe wandering brain: meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of mind-wandering and related spontaneous thought processes. Neuroimage 2015; 111:611–21.
Shaw, GAGiambra, LTask-unrelated thoughts of college-students diagnosed as hyperactive in childhood. Dev Neuropsychol 1993;9(1):17–30.
Jonkman, LMMarkus, CRFranklin, MSvan Dalfsen, JHMind wandering during attention performance: effects of ADHD-inattention symptomatology, negative mood, ruminative response style and working memory capacity. PLoS One 2017;12(7): e0181213.
Krause, AJSimon, EBMander, BAGreer, SMSaletin, JMGoldstein-Piekarski, AN et al. The sleep-deprived human brain. Nat Rev Neurosci 2017;18(7):404–18.
Pilcher, JJHuffcutt, AIEffects of sleep deprivation on performance: a metaanalysis. Sleep 1996;19(4):318–26.
Dinges, DFPack, FWilliams, KGillen, KAPowell, JWOtt, GEAptowicz, CPack, AICumulative sleepiness, mood disturbance, and psychomotor vigilance performance decrements during a week of sleep restricted to 4-5 hours per night. Sleep 1997;20(4):267–77.
Durmer, JSDinges, DFNeurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Semin Neurol 2005;25(1):117–29.
Lund, HGReider, BDWhiting, ABPrichard, JRSleep patterns and predictors of disturbed sleep in a large population of college students. J Adolesc Health 2010;46(2):124–32.
Cortese, SFaraone, SVKonofal, ELecendreux, MSleep in children with attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis of subjective and objective studies. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009;48(9):894–908.
Hvolby, AAssociations of sleep disturbance with ADHD: implications for treatment. Attent Deficit Hyperactiv Disorders 2015;7(1):1–18.
Bjorvatn, BBrevik, EJLundervold, AJHalmoy, APosserud, MBInstanes, JT et al. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder report high symptom levels of troubled sleep, restless legs, and cataplexy. Front Psychol 2017; 8:1621.
Konofal, ELecendreux, MCortese, SSleep and ADHD. Sleep Med 2010;11(7):652–8.
Yoon, SYJain, UShapiro, CSleep in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adults: past, present, and future. Sleep Med Rev 2012;16(4):371–88.
Kooij, JSBijlenga, DThe circadian rhythm in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: current state of affairs. Expert Rev Neurother 2013;13(10):1107–16.
Boonstra, AMKooij, JJOosterlaan, JSergeant, JABuitelaar, JKVan Someren, EJHyperactive night and day? Actigraphy studies in adult ADHD: a baseline comparison and the effect of methylphenidate. Sleep 2007;30(4):433–42.
Schredl, MAlm, BSobanski, ESleep quality in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2007;257(3):164–8.
Sobanski, ESchredl, MKettler, NAlm, BSleep in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) before and during treatment with methylphenidate: a controlled polysomnographic study. Sleep 2008;31(3):375–81.
Surman, CBAdamson, JJPetty, CBiederman, JKenealy, DCLevine, MMick, EFaraone, SVAssociation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep impairment in adulthood: evidence from a large controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry 2009;70(11):1523–9.
Um, YHHong, SCJeong, JHSleep problems as predictors in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: causal mechanisms, consequences and treatment. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2017;15(1):9–18.
Oosterloo, MLammers, GJOvereem, Sde Noord, IKooij, JJPossible confusion between primary hypersomnia and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Res 143(2-3)2006; 293–7.
Bioulac, SMicoulaud-Franchi, JAPhilip, PExcessive daytime sleepiness in patients with ADHD--diagnostic and management strategies. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2015;17(8):608.
Ottaviani, CCouyoumdjian, APros and cons of a wandering mind: a prospective study. Front Psychol 2013; 4:524.
Gruber, RCassoff, JThe interplay between sleep and emotion regulation: conceptual framework empirical evidence and future directions. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2014;16(11):500.
Gobin, CMBanks, JBFins, AITartar, JLPoor sleep quality is associated with a negative cognitive bias and decreased sustained attention. J Sleep Res 2015;24(5):535–42.
Palmer, CAAlfano, CASleep and emotion regulation: an organizing, integrative review. Sleep Med Rev 2017; 31:6–16.
Buckner, RLAndrews-Hanna, JRSchacter, DLThe brain’s default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008; 1124:1–38.
Christakou, AMurphy, CMChantiluke, KCubillo, AISmith, ABGiampietro, VDaly, EEcker, CRobertson, DMurphy, DGRubia, KDisorder-specific functional abnormalities during sustained attention in youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and with autism. Mol Psychiatry 2013;18(2):236–44.
Horovitz, SGBraun, ARCarr, WSPicchioni, DBalkin, TJFukunaga, M et al. Decoupling of the brain’s default mode network during deep sleep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009;106(27):11376–81.
Gujar, NYoo, SSHu, PWalker, MPThe unrested resting brain: sleep deprivation alters activity within the default-mode network. J Cogn Neurosci 2010;22(8):1637–48.
De Havas, JAParimal, SSoon, CSChee, MWSleep deprivation reduces default mode network connectivity and anti-correlation during rest and task performance. Neuroimage 2012;59(2):1745–51.
Dai, XJLiu, CLZhou, RLGong, HHWu, BGao, L et al. Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2015; 11:761–72.
Andrews-Hanna, JRThe brain’s default network and its adaptive role in internal mentation. The Neuroscientist 2012;18(3):251–70.
Andrews-Hanna, JRSmallwood, JSpreng, RNThe default network and selfgenerated thought: component processes, dynamic control, and clinical relevance. Ann NY Acad Sci 2014;1316(1):29–52.
Pan, JZhan, LHu, CYang, JWang, CGu, LZhong, SHuang, YWu, QXie, XChen, QZhou, HHuang, MWu, XEmotion regulation and complex brain networks: association between expressive suppression and efficiency in the fronto-parietal network and default-mode network. Front Hum Neurosci 2018;12(70):.
Sheline, YIBarch, DMPrice, JLRundle, MMVaishnavi, SNSnyder, AZMintun, MAWang, SCoalson, RSRaichle, METhe default mode network and selfreferential processes in depression. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2009;106(6):1942–7.
Lyznicki, JMDoege, TCDavis, RMWilliams, MAA. Am Med, Sleepiness, driving, and motor vehicle crashes. Jama-J Am Med Assoc 1998;279(23):1908–13.
Connor, JNorton, RAmeratunga, SRobinson, ECivil, IDunn, RBailey, JJackson, RDriver sleepiness and risk of serious injury to car occupants: population based case control study. Br Med J 2002;324(7346):1125–28A.
Cowley, JAOff task thinking types and performance decrements during simulated automobile driving. Proc Hum Factors Ergonom Soc Annu Meet 2013;57(1):1214–8.
Yanko, MRSpalek, TMDriving with the wandering mind: the effect that mindwandering has on driving performance. Hum Factors 2014;56(2):260–9.
Doi, YMinowa, MTango, TImpact and correlates of poor sleep quality in Japanese white-collar employees. Sleep 2003;26(4):467–71.
Dewald, JFMeijer, AMOort, FJKerkhof, GABogels, SMThe influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review. Sleep Med Rev 2010;14(3):179–89.
Carciofo, RDu, FSong, NZhang, KMind wandering, sleep quality, affect and chronotype: an exploratory study. PLoS One 2014;9(3): e91285.
Poh, J-HChong, PLChee, MWSleepless night, restless mind: effects of sleep deprivation on mind wandering. J Exp Psychol Gen 2016;145(10):1312.
Conners, CKErhardt, DSparrow, EPConners’ adult ADHD rating scales (CAARS). North Tonawanda, multi-health systems 1999.
Oliver, MNISimons, JSThe affective lability scales: development of a short-form measure. Personal Individ Diff 2004;37(6):1279–88.
Buysse, DJReynolds, C.F. 3rd, Monk, THBerman, SRKupfer, DJThe Pittsburgh sleep quality index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res 1989;28(2):193–213.
Carpenter, JSAndrykowski, MAPsychometric evaluation of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. J Psychosom Res 1998;45(1):5–13.
Mollayeva, TThurairajah, PBurton, KMollayeva, SShapiro, CMColantonio, AThe Pittsburgh sleep quality index as a screening tool for sleep dysfunction in clinical and non-clinical samples: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev 2016; 25:52–73.
Mulraney, MSciberras, ELecendreux, MADHD and sleep Oxford textbook of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 2018 280.
Hayes, AIntroduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach 2013, Guilford Press New York.
Winer, ESCervone, DBryant, JMcKinney, CLiu, RTNadorff, MRDistinguishing mediational models and analyses in clinical psychology: atemporal associations Do not imply causation. J Clin Psychol 2016;72(9):947–55.
Axelrod, VRees, GLavidor, MBar, MIncreasing propensity to mind-wander with transcranial direct current stimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015;112(11):3314–9.
Gallo, EFPosner, JMoving towards causality in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: overview of neural and genetic mechanisms. Lancet Psychiatry 2016;3(6):555–67.
Smallwood, JFitzgerald, AMiles, LKPhillips, LHShifting moods, wandering minds: negative moods lead the mind to wander. Emotion 2009;9(2):271.
Shaw, PStringaris, ANigg, JLeibenluft, EEmotion dysregulation in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2014;171(3):276–93.
Cairncross, MMiller, CJThe effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapies for ADHD: a meta-analytic review. J Atten Disord 2016 1087054715625301.
Mitchell, JTZylowska, LKollins, SHMindfulness meditation training for attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder in adulthood: current empirical support, treatment overview, and future directions. Cognit Behav Pract 2015;22(2):172–91.
Braboszcz, CDelorme, ALost in thoughts: neural markers of low alertness during mind wandering. Neuroimage 2011;54(4):3040–7.
McVay, JCKane, MJKwapil, TRTracking the train of thought from the laboratory into everyday life: an experience-sampling study of mind wandering across controlled and ecological contexts. Psychonom Bull Rev 2009;16(5):857–63.