Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Are punitive parenting and stressful life events environmental risk factors for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in youth? A longitudinal twin study

  • G.C. Krebs (a1) (a2), L.J. Hannigan (a1) (a3), A.M. Gregory (a4), F.V. Rijsdijk (a1), B. Maughan (a1) and T.C. Eley (a1)...

Abstract

Background:

Punitive parenting and stressful life events are associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). However, the lack of longitudinal, genetically-informative studies means it remains unclear whether these factors represent environmentally-mediated risks for the development of OCS.

Methods:

Twins and siblings from the Genesis1219 study completed self-report questionnaires two years apart (Time 1: N = 2616, mean age = 15.0; Time 2: N = 1579, mean age = 17.0 years) assessing OCS, maternal and paternal punitive parenting, and dependent stressful life events. Multiple regression models tested cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the putative environmental risk factors and obsessive-compulsive symptoms using: (a) individual scores; and (b) monozygotic twin difference scores. The aetiologies of significant phenotypic associations between putative risk factors and OCS were further examined using multivariate genetic models.

Results:

At a phenotypic level, maternal and paternal punitive parenting and stressful life events were all associated with OCS both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. However, only stressful life events predicted the subsequent development of OCS, after controlling for earlier symptoms. Genetic models indicated that the association between life events and change in OCS symptoms was due to both genetic (48%) and environmental (52%) influences. Overall, life events associated with change in OCS accounted for 1.2% of variation in OCS at Time 2.

Conclusions:

Stressful life events, but not punitive parenting, predict OCS change during adolescence at a phenotypic level. This association exists above and beyond genetic confounding, consistent with the hypothesis that stressful life events play a causal role in the development of obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Are punitive parenting and stressful life events environmental risk factors for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in youth? A longitudinal twin study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Are punitive parenting and stressful life events environmental risk factors for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in youth? A longitudinal twin study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Are punitive parenting and stressful life events environmental risk factors for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in youth? A longitudinal twin study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an open access article under the CC BY license

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author at: Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, Box PO80, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK. E-mail address: thalia.eley@kcl.ac.uk (T.C. Eley).

Footnotes

Hide All
1.

Georgina Krebs and Laurie Hannigan are joint first authors.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
[1]van Grootheest, DSCath, DCBeekman, ATBoomsma, DITwin studies on obsessive–compulsive disorder: a review. Twin Res Hum Genet 2005; 8:450-458.
[2]Brander, GPérez-Vigil, ALarsson, HMataix-Cols, DSystematic review of environmental risk factors for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a proposed roadmap from association to causation. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2016; 65:36-62.
[3]Alonso, PMMenchón, JMataix-Cols, DPifarré, JUrretavizcaya, MCrespo, JM et al. Perceived parental rearing style in obsessive–compulsive disorder: relation to symptom dimensions. Psychiatry Res 2004; 127:267-278.
[4]Lennertz, LGrabe, HJRuhrmann, SRampacher, FVogeley, ASchulze-Rauschenbach, S et al. Perceived parental rearing in subjects with obsessive–compulsive disorder and their siblings. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2010; 121:280-288.
[5]Eley, TCNapolitano, MLau, JYGregory, AMDoes childhood anxiety evoke maternal control? A genetically informed study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2010; 51:772-779.
[6]Natsuaki, MNLeve, LDHarold, GTNeiderhiser, JMShaw, DSGaniban, J et al. Transactions between child social wariness and observed structured parenting: evidence from a prospective adoption study. Child Dev 2013; 84:1750-1765.
[7]Kendler, KSBaker, JHGenetic influences on measures of the environment: a systematic review. Psychol Med 2007; 37:615-626.
[8]Hannigan, LJMcAdams, TAPlomin, REley, TCEtiological influences on perceptions of parenting: a longitudinal, multi-informant twin study. J Youth Adolesc 2016; 45:2387-2405.
[9]Avinun, RKnafo, AParenting as a reaction evoked by children’s genotype. Personal Soc Psychol Rev 2014; 18:87-102.
[10]Lau, JYEley, TCDisentangling gene‐environment correlations and interactions on adolescent depressive symptoms. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2008; 49:142-150.
[11]Grisham, JRFullana, MAMataix-Cols, DMoffitt, TECaspi, APoulton, RRisk factors prospectively associated with adult obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychol Med 2011; 41:2495-2506.
[12]Valleni-Basile, LAGarrison, CZWaller, JLAddy, CLMcKeown, REJackson, KL et al. Incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in a community sample of young adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996; 35:898-906.
[13]Vidal-Ribas, PStringaris, ARück, CSerlachius, ELichtenstein, PMataix-Cols, DAre stressful life events causally related to the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms? A monozygotic twin difference study. Eur Psychiatry 2015; 30:309-316.
[14]Cath, DCvan Grootheest, DSWillemsen, Gvan Oppen, PBoomsma, DIEnvironmental factors in obsessive-compulsive behavior: evidence from discordant and concordant monozygotic twins. Behav Genet 2008; 38:108-120.
[15]McAdams, TAGregory, AMRowe, RZavos, HMBarclay, NLLau, JY et al. The Genesis 12-19 (G1219) Study: a twin and sibling study of gene-environment interplay and adolescent development in the UK. Twin Res Hum Genet 2013; 16:134-143.
[16]Price, TSFreeman, BCraig, IPetrill, SAEbersole, LPlomin, RInfant zygosity can be assigned by parental report questionnaire data. Twin Res Hum Genet 2000; 3:129-133.
[17]Spence, SHBarrett, PMTurner, CMPsychometric properties of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale with young adolescents. J Anxiety Disord 2003; 17:605-625.
[18]Whiteside, SPHGryczkowski, MRBiggs, BKFagen, ROwusu, DValidation of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale’s obsessive compulsive subscale in a clinical and community sample. J Anxiety Disord 2012; 26:111-116.
[19]Liang, HEley, TCA monozygotic twin differences study of nonshared environmental influence on adolescent depressive symptoms. Child Dev 2005; 76:1247-1260.
[20]Button, TMMLau, JYFMaughan, BEley, TCParental punitive discipline, negative life events and gene–environment interplay in the development of externalizing behavior. Psychol Med 2007; 38:29-39.
[21]Hetherington, EMClingempeel, WGCoping with marital transitions: a family systems perspective. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 1992; 57:1-14.
[22]Coddington, RDMeasuring the stressfulness of a child’s environment Humphrey, JH Stress in childhood 1984, AMS Press New York97-126.
[23]Rowe, RMaughan, BEley, TCLinks between antisocial behavior and depressed mood: the role of life events and attributional style. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2006; 34:283-292.
[24]Rijsdijk, FVSham, PCAnalytic approaches to twin data using structural equation models. Brief Bioinformatics 2002; 3:119-133.
[25]Boker, SNeale, MMaes, HWilde, MSpiegel, MBrick, T et al. OpenMx: an open source extended structural equation modeling framework. Psychometrika 2011; 76:306-317.
[26]McGue, MBouchard, TJ Jr.Adjustment of twin data for the effects of age and sex. Behav Genet 1984; 14:325-343.
[27]Fedak, KMBernal, ACapshaw, ZAGross, SApplying the Bradford Hill criteria in the 21st century: how data integration has changed causal inference in molecular epidemiology. Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2015; 12:14.
[28]Beck, ATHaigh, EAAdvances in cognitive theory and therapy: the generic cognitive model. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2014; 10:1-24.
[29]Micali, NHeyman, IPerez, MHilton, KNakatani, ETurner, C et al. Long-term outcomes of obsessive–compulsive disorder: follow-up of 142 children and adolescents. Br J Psychiatry 2010; 197:128-134.
[30]Bögels, SPhares, VFathers’ role in the etiology, prevention and treatment of child anxiety: a review and new model. Clin Psychol Rev 2008; 28:539-558.
[31]Abramowitz, JSFabricant, LETaylor, SDeacon, BJMcKay, DStorch, EAThe relevance of analogue studies for understanding obsessions and compulsions. Clin Psychol Rev 2014; 34:206-217.
[32]Wolke, DWaylen, ASamara, MSteer, CGoodman, RFord, T et al. Selective drop-out in longitudinal studies and non-biased prediction of behaviour disorders. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 195:249-256.

Keywords

Are punitive parenting and stressful life events environmental risk factors for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in youth? A longitudinal twin study

  • G.C. Krebs (a1) (a2), L.J. Hannigan (a1) (a3), A.M. Gregory (a4), F.V. Rijsdijk (a1), B. Maughan (a1) and T.C. Eley (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Are punitive parenting and stressful life events environmental risk factors for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in youth? A longitudinal twin study

  • G.C. Krebs (a1) (a2), L.J. Hannigan (a1) (a3), A.M. Gregory (a4), F.V. Rijsdijk (a1), B. Maughan (a1) and T.C. Eley (a1)...
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *