Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Epidemiological and molecular analysis of a waterborne outbreak of norovirus GII.4

  • X. ZHOU (a1) (a2), H. LI (a1), L. SUN (a1), Y. MO (a1), S. CHEN (a3), X. WU (a3), J. LIANG (a3), H. ZHENG (a1), C. KE (a1), J. K. VARMA (a4), J. D. KLENA (a4), Q. CHEN (a1), L. ZOU (a1) and X. YANG (a1)...

Summary

Contaminated water is one of the main sources of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreaks globally. Waterborne NoV outbreaks are infrequently attributed to GII.4 NoV. In September 2009, a NoV outbreak affected a small school in Guangdong Province, China. Epidemiological investigations indicated that household use water, supplied by a well, was the probable source (relative risk 1·9). NoV nucleic acid material in concentrated well-water samples was detected using real-time RT–PCR. Nucleotide sequences of NoV extracted from diarrhoea and well-water specimens were identical and had the greatest sequence identity to corresponding sequences from the epidemic strain GII.4-2006b. Our report documents the first laboratory-confirmed waterborne outbreak caused by GII.4 NoV genotype in China. Our investigations indicate that well water, intended exclusively for household use but not for consumption, caused this outbreak. The results of this report serve as a reminder that private well water intended for household use should be tested for NoV.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Epidemiological and molecular analysis of a waterborne outbreak of norovirus GII.4
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Epidemiological and molecular analysis of a waterborne outbreak of norovirus GII.4
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Epidemiological and molecular analysis of a waterborne outbreak of norovirus GII.4
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence . The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: Dr H. Li or Professor X. Yang, Guangdong Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, China, 510300. (Email: gdcdclihui@163.com) [H. Li] (Email: yangxingfen@cdcp.org.cn) [X. Yang]

References

Hide All
1.Fang, ZY. The strategy for norovirus gastroenteritis prevention and control. Chinese Journal of Epidemiology 2007; 28: 222223.
2.Zheng, DP, et al. Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature. Virology 2006; 346: 312323.
3.Koek, AG, et al. Additional value of typing noroviruses in gastroenteritis outbreaks in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Journal of Clinical Virology 2006; 35: 167172.
4.Dey, SK, et al. Molecular and epidemiological trend of norovirus associated gastroenteritis in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Journal of Clinical Virology 2007; 40: 218223.
5.Wu, J, et al. Study on the epidemiologic characteristics of norovirus infection in Beijing. Chinese Journal of Epidemiology 2007; 28: 671675.
6.Noda, M, Fukuda, S, Nishio, O. Statistical analysis of attack rate in norovirus foodborne outbreaks. International Journal of Food Microbiology 2008; 122: 216220.
7.Reuter, G, Pankovics, P, Szücs, G. Genetic drift of norovirus genotype GII-4 in seven consecutive epidemic seasons in Hungary. Journal of Clinical Virology 2008; 42: 135140.
8.Maunula, L, Miettinen, IT, von Bonsdorff, CH. Norovirus outbreaks from drinking water. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005; 11: 17161721.
9.Hewitt, J, et al. Gastroenteritis outbreak caused by waterborne norovirus at a New Zealand ski resort. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2007; 73: 78537857.
10.Lysén, M, et al. Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2009; 47: 24112418.
11.Kim, SH, et al. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis that occurred during school excursions in Korea were associated with several waterborne strains of norovirus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2005; 43: 48364839.
12.Parshionikar, SU, et al. Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with a norovirus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2003; 69: 52635268.
13.Zhang, CM, et al. Comparison of concentration methods for enteroviruses from environmental waters. China Water and Wastewater 2007; 23: 3639.
14.Kageyama, T, et al. Broadly reactive and highly sensitive assay for Norwalk-like viruses based on real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2003; 41: 15481557.
15.Vennema, H, de Bruin, E, Koopmans, M. Rational optimization of generic primers used for Norwalk-like virus detection by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Clinical Virology 2002; 25: 233235.
16.Kojima, S, et al. Genogroup-specific PCR primers for detection of Norwalk-like viruses. Journal of Virological Methods 2002; 100: 107114.
17.Maunula, L, Von Bonsdorff, CH. Norovirus genotypes causing gastroenteritis outbreaks in Finland 1998–2002. Journal of Clinical Virology 2005; 34: 186194.
18.Katayama, H, et al. One-year monthly quantitative survey of noroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses in wastewater collected from six plants in Japan. Water Research 2008; 42: 14411448.
19.Lee, C, Kim, S-J. The genetic diversity of human noroviruses detected in river water in Korea. Water Research 2008; 42: 44774484.
20.Gutiérrez, MF, et al. Presence of viral proteins in drinkable water- sufficient condition to consider water a vector for viral transmission? Water Research 2007; 41: 373378.
21.Xiaohong, Zh, et al. Concentration and absolute quantitatively detection of the norovirus of the water specimens. Journal of Tropical Medicine 2010; 10: 137140.
22.Victoria, M, et al. Evaluation of an adsorption-elution method for detection of astrovirus and norovirus in environmental waters. Journal of Virological Methods 2009; 156: 7376.
23.Zhang, CM, et al. Study on membrane adsorption-elution method for concentration of enteroviruses from environmental waters. Huan jing ke xue 2007; 28: 15431547.
24.Haramoto, E, et al. Recovery of naked viral genomes in water by virus concentration methods. Journal of Virological Methods 2007; 142: 169173.
25.Yoder, JS, et al. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water use and other aquatic facility-associated health events – United States, 2005–2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2008; 57: 129.
26.Yoder, J, et al. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking – United States, 2005–2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2008; 57: 3962.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed