In the context of ‘ecology’ and ‘development’, both these terms are usually ill-defined. Development, a finite process, is nevertheless conceived as sustainable, while ecology is only used in a qualitative way in this context. Development concerns resources—renewable and nonrenewable—both of which are finite in their exploitability. Ecology in land-use concerns the interference of Man as a biological species in ecological processes.
Integration of ‘ecology’ in ‘development’ requires the following steps:
1. Quantify the resources, both renewable and non-renewable, to be developed in terms of carrying capacity and inputs available.
2. Determine the regulating ecological factors in both the natural ecosystem and the land-use system.
3. Assess the interventions needed to counter limiting factors, their effectiveness, and their (side-)effects.
4. Define measures to be taken in such a way that they can be integrated with cultural, social, and economic, data, in order to arrive at a balanced approach to development.