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Indian English

  • Raj N. Bakshi


Kachru (1965, 1966) has presented a detailed analysis of the idiosyncratic vocabulary items of Indian English (hereafter IE). He observes that “in India an idiom of English has developed which is Indian in the sense that there are formal and contextual exponents of Indianness in such writing, and the defining-context of such idiom is Indian setting” (1965:396). To illustrate how IE has become culture bound in India, he mentions many formations, such as confusion of caste, dung wash, saltgiver, rape-sister, etc., drawn from IE fiction, and calls them Indianisms.



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Daswani, C.J. 1978. ‘Some Theoretical Implications for Investigating Indian English’, in R., Mohan (ed.) Indian Writing in English, Orient Longman, New Delhi. pp. 115–28.
Kachru, B.B. 1965. ‘The Indianness in Indian English’ in Word Vol. 21, No. 3. pp. 391410.
Kachru, B.B. 1966. ‘Indian English: A Study in Contextualisation’, in C.E., Bazell, J.C., Catford, M.A.K., Halliday, and R.H., Robins (ed.) In Memory of J.R. Firth, Longmans, London. pp. 255–87.
Nihalani, P., Tongue, R.K., and Hosali, P. 1979. Indian and British English: A Handbook of Usage and Pronunciation, Oxford University Press, Delhi.
Verma, S.K. 1973. ‘The Systemicness of Indian English’, in ITL, Vol. 22. pp. 19


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