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English in the European Union

  • Margie Berns


A consideration of the nature and use of the language in the EU in terms of Braj Kachru's model of the inner, outer, and expanding circles of world Englishes



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Ager, Dennis, Muskens, George, & Wright, Sue, eds. 1993. Language Education for International Communication. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Bailey, Richard W. & Görlach, Manfred, eds. 1982. English as a World Language. Cambridge: University Press.
Berns, Margie. 1988. “The cultural and linguistic context of English in West Germany.” World Englishes 7, 3749.
Berns, Margie. 1990. Contexts of Competence: Social and Cultural Considerations in Communicative Language Teaching. New York: Plenum.
Berns, Margie. 1992. “Sociolinguistics and the teaching of English in Europe beyond the 1990s.” World Englishes 11, 314.
Berns, Margie., Uwe, Hasebrink, & Ewart, Skinner. 03 1993. “English language media and young Germans: implications for language policy.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Atlanta.
Carstensen, Broder. 1980. “Euro-English.” In Dieter, Kastovsky & Aleksander, Szwedek, eds., Linguistics Across Historical and Geographical Boundaries. In Honour of Jacek Fisiak on the Occasion of his fiftieth birthday. pp. 827–34. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Cheshire, Jenny, ed. 1991. English Around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Cambridge: University Press.
Commission of the European Communities. 1991. The LINGUA programme in 1990: a report presented by the commission in accordance with Art. 12 of Council Decision 89/489/EEC establishing the LINGUA programme. Brussels.
Cox, Andrew & Paul, Furlong. 1992. A Modern Companion to the European Community. A Guide to Key Facts, Institutions and Terms. Hants, England: Edward Elgar.
Denison, Norman. 1981. “English in Europe, with particular reference to the German-speaking area.” In Pöckl, W., ed., Europäische Mehrsprachigkeit, pp. 218. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
Flaitz, Jeffra. 1988. Ideology of English: French Perceptions of English as a World Language. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Gaffney, J. 1993. “National political cultures and European integration.” Paper presented at the conference of the European Community Studies Association, Washington, D.C.
Greenbaum, Sidney, ed. 1985. The English Language Today. Oxford: Pergamon.
Haarmann, Harald. 1991. “Language politics and the new European identity.” In Florian, Coulmas, ed., A Language Policy for the European Community, pp. 103119. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hasebrink, Uwe. 1992. “Medienangebot und Mediennutzung in Europa – ein Überblick.” In Hans-Bredow-Institut, , ed., Internationales Handbuch für Hörfunk und Fernsehen 1992/93, pp. D27–D43. Baden-Baden/Hamburg: Nomos.
Hopkins, John D. 1991. “Educational mobility in the New Europe: the professionalization of international education.” International Educator 1, 3839.
Kachru, Braj B. 1985. “Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: the English language in the outer circle.” In Randolph, Quirk and Widdowson, H. G., eds. English in the World: Teaching and learning the language and literatures, pp. 1130. Cambridge: University Press.
Kachru, Braj B., ed. 1992. The Other Tongue: English Across Cultures. 2nd edn.Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Leitner, Gerhard. 1992. “Europe 1992: A language perspective.” Language Problems and Language Planning 15, 282296.
Oud-de Glas, Maria et al. 1993. “Languages in the Netherlands: a study of supply and demand.” In Dennis, Ager, George, Muskens, & Sue, Wright, eds., pp. 115130.
Piepho, Hans-Eberhard. 1989. “Englisch als lingua franca in Europa: Ein Appell zur didaktischen Bescheidenheit an das Fach Englisch and seine Vertreter.” In Kleinschmidt, E., ed., Fremdsprachenunterricht zwischen Sprachenpolitik und Praxis, pp. 4149. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.
Tugendhat, Christopher. 1988. Making Sense of Europe. New York: Columbia University Press.
van Els, Theo J. M. & Guus Extra, . 1987. “Foreign and second language teaching in Western Europe: a comparative overview of needs, objectives and policies.” Sociolinguistica 1, 100125.
Zapp, Franz-Josef. 1979. Foreign Language Policy in Europe. Brussels: European Cooperation Fund.
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English Today
  • ISSN: 0266-0784
  • EISSN: 1474-0567
  • URL: /core/journals/english-today
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