Skip to main content Accessibility help

A reappraisal of the Dinantian floras at Oxroad Bay, East Lothian, Scotland. 2. Volcanicity, palaeoenvironments and palaeoecology

  • Richard M. Bateman (a1) and Andrew C. Scott (a2)


The classic late Tournaisian plant-bearing locality at Oxroad Bay was investigated by detailed field mapping, lithological logging, studies of clast orientation, thin-section petrography and analyses of bulk geochemistry. The lithologically and structurally complex, c. 45 m-thick succession includes eight plant-bearing exposures (each consisting of up to 16 phytofossiliferous horizons) that have yielded 43 anatomically-preserved organ-species and 19 adpressed organ-species. All floral assemblages are allochthonous s.l. and demonstrate a wide range of preservation states. They occur in five successive facies (braided flood-plain, shallow volcanigenic lacustrine, terrestrial mass-flow/base-surge, shallow biogenic lacustrine, dominantly terrestrial reworked ashes) that reflect increasing influence of several basaltic tuff-ring volcanoes on an ocean-marginal lowland bordering the Southern Uplands Massif. The variable local climate reflected proximity to the proto-North Sea and eruptive seeding of the atmosphere with ash particles. Base-surges, seismically-initiated mass-flows and volcanically-induced wildfires restricted the development of mature soils and of edaphic climax communities. These disturbances created a sequence of mosaic palaeocatenas that supported a wide range of sub-communities at any one moment in time. At least some of the relatively k-selected species that occupied the preceding, fluvially-dominated terrain were extirpated by the persistent volcanism, yielding to immigrants that were better pre-adapted to the unstable environment. Low levels of competition allowed non-adaptive n-selection, enhancing the establishment potential of evolutionary innovations.



Hide All
Alvin, K. L. 1965. A new fertile lycopod from the Lower Carboniferous of Scotland. PALAEONTOLOGY 8, 281–93.
Alvin, K. L. 1966. Two cristate megaspores from the Lower Carboniferous of Scotland. PALAEONTOLOGY 9, 488–91.
Arthur, A. 1984. Mechanisms of Morphological Evolution. New York: Wiley.
Bakker, J. G. M. & Salomons, J. B. 1989. A palaeoecological record of a volcanic soil sequence in the Nevado del Ruiz area, Colombia. REV PALAEOBOT PALYNOL 60, 149–63.
Bambach, R., Scotese, C. R. & Ziegler, A. M. 1980. Before Pangaea: the geographies of the Paleozoic world. AM SCIENT 68, 2638.
Barnard, P. D. W. 1960. Studies on some Lower Carboniferous plants from East Lothian. PhD thesis, London University.
Bartram, K. M. 1987. The palynology and petrology of the Barnsley Seam, Westphalian B, Yorkshire, England. PhD thesis, London University.
Bartram, K. M., Jeram, A. J. & Selden, P. A. 1987. Arthropod cuticles in coal. Q JL GEOL SOC LOND 144, 513–7.
Bascomb, C. L. 1961. A calcimeter for routine use on soil samples. Chemy Ind, 1826-7.
Bascomb, C. L. 1974. Physical and chemical analyses of <2mm samples. In Avery, B. W. & Bascomb, C. L. (eds) Soil Survey Laboratory Methods, 1440. Harpenden: Soil Survey technical monograph 6.
Bateman, R. M. 1988. Palaeobotany and palaeoenvironments of Lower Carboniferous floras from two volcanigenic terrains in the Scottish Midland Valley. PhD thesis, London University.
Bateman, R. M. & Catt, J. A. 1985. Modification of heavy mineral assemblages in English coversands by acid pedochemical weathering. CATENA 12, 121.
Bateman, R. M. & Rothwell, G. W. 1990. A reappraisal of the Dinantian floras at Oxroad Bay, East Lothian, Scotland. 1. Floristics and the development of whole-plant concepts. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 81, 127159.
Bateman, R. M. & Scott, A. C. 1987. Palaeoecology of early seed plants: approaches and general conclusions (Symposium 5·29: Evolution of early seed plants). In Greuter, W., Zimmer, B. & Behnke, H.-D. (eds) Abstracts of the 14th International Botanical Congress (Berlin, 1987), 283.
Besley, B. M. 1987. Sedimentological evidence for Carboniferous and early Permian palaeoclimates of Europe. ANN SOC GEOL NORD 151, 131–43.
Birks, H. J. B. 1987. Multivariate analysis in geology and geochemistry: an introduction. CHEM INT SYSTEMS 2, 1528.
Birks, H. J. B. & Birks, H. H. 1980. Quaternary Palaeoecology. London: Edward Arnold.
Bless, M. J. M., Bouckaert, J. & Paproth, E. 1984. Migration of facies belts as a response to continental drift during the late Devonian and Carboniferous. GÉOLOGIE BULL SOC BELGE GEOL 93, 189–95.
Bless, M. J. M., Bouckaert, J. & Paproth, E. 1987. Fossil assemblages and depositional environments: limits to stratigraphical correlations. In Miller, J., Adams, A. E. & Wright, V. P. (eds) European Dinantian Environments, 6173. New York: Wiley.
Bott, M. H. P. 1987. Subsidence mechanisms of Carboniferous basins in northern England. In Miller, J., Adams, A. E. & Wright, V. P. (eds) European Dinantian Environments, 2132. New York: Wiley.
Briggs, D. J. 1977. Sources and Methods in Geography: Sediments. London: Butterworths.
Brown, R. W. 1956. Composition of Scientific Words, 2nd edn. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Caldas, E. F. & Yaalon, D. H. (eds) 1986. Volcanic soils: weathering and landscape relations of soils on tephra and basalt. CATENA: supplement 7.
Cameron, I. & McAdam, A. D. 1978. The oil-shales of the Lothians, Scotland: present resources and former workings. REP INST GEOL SCI 78, 28.
Cheeney, R. F. 1983. Statistical Methods in Geology for Field and Laboratory Decisions. London: Allen & Unwin.
Chyi, L. L., Elizalde, L., Smith, G. E. & Ehmann, W. D. 1978. Multivariate analysis of characterisation of limestone units based on minor and trace element contents. In Merriam, D. F. (ed) Recent Advances in Geomathematics, 3550. Oxford:; Pergamon.
Clayton, G. 1985. Dinantian miospores and inter-continental; correlation. In Escobedo, J. L., Granados, L. F., Menendez, B., Pignatelli, R., Rey, R. & Wagner, R. H. (eds) C R 10me CONG INT STRAT GÉOL CARB (Madrid, 1983) 4, 923.
Clayton, G., Coquel, R., Doubinger, J., Gueinn, K. J., Loboziak, S., Owens, B. & Streel, M. 1977. Carboniferous miospores of western Europe: illustration and zonation. MEDED RIJKS GEOL DIENST 29, 171.
Clayton, G., Higgs, K., Keegan, J. B. & Sevastopulo, G. D. 1978. Correlation of the palynological zonation of the Dinantian of the British Isles. PALINOLOGIA, Mem. Extraord. 1, 137–47.
Clough, C. T., Barrow, G., Crampton, C. B., Maufe, H. B., Bailey, E. B. & Anderson, E. M. 1910. The Geology of East Lothian, 2nd edn. Mem. Geol. Surv. Gt. Br.
Collinson, M. E. & Scott, A. C. 1987a. Implications of vegetational change through the geological record on models for coal-forming environments. In Scott, A. C. (ed) Coal and Coal-bearing Strata: Recent Advances, 6785. Geol. Soc. Spec. Pub. 32.
Collinson, M. E. & Scott, A. C. 1987b. Factors controlling the organisation and evolution of ancient plant communities. In Gee, J. H. R. & Giller, P. S. (eds) Organisation of Communities Past and Present, 399420. Oxford: Blackwell.
Cope, M. J. & Chaloner, W. G. 1980. Fossil charcoal as evidence of: past atmospheric composition. NATURE 283, 647–9.
Cope, M. J. & Chaloner, W. G. 1985. Wildfire: an interaction of biological and physical processes. In Tiffney, B. H. (ed) Geological Factors and the Evolution of Plants, 257–77. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Creber, G. T. & Chaloner, W. G. 1984. Influence of environmental factors on the wood structure of living and fossil trees. BOT REV 50, 357448.
Dahlquist, R. L. & Knoll, J. W. 1978. Inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry analysis of biological materials and soils for major, trace and ultra-trace elements. APPL SPECTROSC 32, 130.
Davies, A. 1974. The Lower Carboniferous (Dinantian) sequence at Spilmersford, East Lothian, Scotland. BULL GEOL SURV GT BR 45, 138.
Davies, A., McAdam, A. D. & Cameron, I. B. 1986. Geology of the Dunbar District. Mem. Geol. Surv. Gr. Br. London: H.M.S.O.
Day, T. C. 1928. The volcanic vents on the shore between North Berwick and Tantallon Castle. TRANS EDINB GEOL SOC 12, 4152.
DiMichele, W. A. & Phillips, T. L. 1985. Arborescent lycopod reproduction and paleoecology in a coal-swamp environment of late Middle Pennsylvanian age (Herrin Coal, Illinois U.S.A.). REV PALAEOBOT PALYNOL 44, 126.
DiMichele, W. A. & Phillips, T. L. 1988. Paleoecology of the Middle Pennsylvanian-age Herrin Coal swamp (Illinois) near a contemporaneous river system, the Walshville paleochannel. REV PALAEOBOT PALYNOL 56, 151–76.
DiMichele, W. A., Phillips, T. L. & Olmstead, R. G. 1987. Opportunistic evolution: abiotic environmental stress and the fossil record of plants. REV PALAEOBOT PALYNOL 50, 151–78.
Duff, B. 1980. The palaeomagnetism of Jersey volcanics and dykes, and the Lower Palaeozoic apparent polar wander path for Europe. GEOPHYS J R ASTR SOC 60, 355–75.
Fisher, R. V. 1977. Erosion by volcanic base-surge density currents: U-shaped channels. BULL GEOL SOC AM 88, 1287–97.
Fisher, R. V. & Schmincke, H.-U. 1984. Pyroclastic Rocks. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Fisher, R. V. & Waters, A. C. 1970. Base-surge bedforms in maar volcanoes. AM J SCI 268, 157–80.
Flenley, J. R. 1979. The Equatorial Rain Forest: A Geological History. London: Butterworths.
Flenley, J. R. & Richards, K. 1982. The Krakatoa Centenary Expedition Final Report. Miscellaneous Series 25, Hull Univ. Dept. Geography.
Flenley, J. R., Richards, K., Whittaker, R. & Wiriadinata, H. 1984. The flora and vegetation of Krakatau. PROG PHYS GEOG 8, 6181.
Francis, E. H. 1970. Bedding in Scottish (Fifeshire) tuff pipes and its relevance to maars and calderas. BULL VOLCANOL 34, 697712.
Francis, E. H. 1983a. Carboniferous. In Craig, G. Y. (ed) Geology of Scotland, 2nd edn, 253–96. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.
Francis, E. H. 1983b. Carboniferous-Permian igneous rocks. In Craig, G. Y. (ed) Geology of Scotland, 2nd edn, 297326. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.
Fritz, W. J. 1980. Stumps transported and deposited upright by Mount Saint Helens ash flows. GEOLOGY 8, 583–8.
Fritz, W. J. 1986. Plant taphonomy in areas of explosive volcanism. In Broadhead, T. W. (ed) Land Plants: Notes for a Short Course, 19. Univ. Tennessee Dept. Geol. Sci. Stud. Geol. 15.
Fritz, W. J. & Harrison, S. 1985. Transported trees from the 1982 Mount St. Helens sediment flows: their use as paleocurrent indicators. SEDIMENT GEOL 42, 4964.
Geikie, A. 1897. The Ancient Volcanoes of Great Britain. London.
George, T. N., Johnson, G. A. L., Mitchell, M., Prentice, J. E., Ramsbottom, W. H. C., Sevastopulo, G. D. & Wilson, R. B. 1976. A Correlation of the Dinantian Rocks in the British Isles. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Rep. 7.
Goldberg, E. D. 1985. Black Carbon in the Environment: Properties and Distribution. New York: Wiley.
Gordon, W. T. 1927. The coastal strip between North Berwick and Cheese Bay, Gullane. PROC GEOL ASS 38, 441–6.
Gordon, W. T. 1938. On Tetrastichia bupatides—a Carboniferous pteridosperm from East Lothian. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 59, 351–70.
Gordon, W. T. 1941. On Salpingostoma dasu: a new Carboniferous seed from East Lothian. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 60, 427–64.
Gould, S. J. 1985. The paradox of the first tier: an agenda for paleobiology. PALEOBIOLOGY 11, 212.
Gould, S. J. & Eldredge, N. 1977. Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. PALEOBIOLOGY 3, 115–51.
Gower, J. C. 1966. Some distance properties of latent root and vector methods used in multivariate analysis. BIOMETRIKA 52, 325–38.
Gower, J. C. 1971. A general coefficient of similarity and some of its properties. BIOMETRICS 27, 857–72.
Gower, J. C. & Digby, P. G. N. 1981. Expressing complex relationships in two dimensions. In Barnett, V. (ed) Interpreting Multivariate Data, 83118. New York: Wiley.
Gower, J. C. & Ross, G. J. S. 1969. Minimum spanning trees and single linkage cluster analysis. JL R STATIST SOC C 18, 5464.
Grayson, R. F. & Oldham, L. 1987. A new structural framework for the northern British Dinantian as a basis for oil, gas and mineral exploration. In Miller, J., Adams, A. E. & Wright, V. P. (eds) European Dinantian Environments, 3359. New York: Wiley.
Grieves, I. 1981. Aspects of the geology of some of the Lower Carboniferous volcanic pipes of North Berwick, Scotland. BSc thesis, Leeds University.
Grime, J. P. 1977. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. AM NAT 111, 1169–94.
Harland, W. B., Cox, A. V., Llewellyn, P. G., Pickton, C. A. G., Smith, A. G. & Walters, R. 1982. A Geologic Time-scale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harris, T. M. 1958. Forest fire in the Mesozoic. J ECOL 46, 447–53.
Harris, T. M. 1981. Burnt ferns in the English Wealden. PROC GEOL ASS 92, 4758.
Harrison, S. & Fritz, W. J. 1982. Depositional features of March 1982 Mount St. Helens sediment flows. NATURE 299, 720–2.
Haszeldine, R. S. 1984. Carboniferous North Atlantic palaeogeography: stratigraphic evidence for rifting, not megashear or subduction. GEOL MAG 121, 443–63.
Hickman, A. H. & Wright, A. E. 1983. Geochemistry and stratigraphical correlation of slates, limestones and quartzites of the Appin Group, Argyll. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 73, 251–78.
Higgs, K. T., McPhilemy, B., Keegan, J. B. & Clayton, G. 1988. New data on palynological boundaries within the Irish Dinantian. REV PALAEOBOT PALYNOL 56, 61–8.
Howie, R. D. 1985. Carboniferous evaporites in Atlantic Canada. C R 9me CONG INT STRAT GÉOL CARB (Urbana, 1979), 93–4.
Hurley, N. F. & Voo, R. van der. 1987. Palaeomagnetism of Upper Devonian reefal limestones, Cannarig Basin, Western Australia. GEOL SOC AMER BULL 98, 138–46.
Johnson, G. A. L. & Tarling, D. H. 1985. Continental convergence and closing seas during the Carboniferous. In Escobedo, J. L. et al. (eds) C R 10me CONG INT STRAT GÉOL CARB (Madrid, 1983), 163–8.
Joy, K. W., Willis, A. J.,& Lacey, W. S. 1956. A rapid cellulose peel technique in palaeobotany. ANN BOT (NS) 20, 635–7.
Karowe, A. L. & Jefferson, T. H. 1987. Burial of trees by eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington: implications for the interpretation of fossil forests. GEOL MAG 124, 191204.
Kelling, G. 1960. North Berwick. In Mitchell, G. H., Walton, E. K. & Grant, D. (eds) Edinburgh Geology: An Excursion Guide, 7080. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.
Knoll, A. H. 1984. Patterns of extinction in the fossil record of vascular plants. In Nitecki, M. (ed) Extinctions, 2168. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Kokelaar, P. 1986. Magma-water interactions in subaqueous and emergent basaltic volcanism. BULL VOLCANOL 48, 275–90.
Leahy, G. D., Spoon, M. D. & Retallack, G. J. 1985. Linking impacts and plant extinctions. NATURE 318, 318.
Leeder, M. R. 1982. Upper Palaeozoic basins of the British Isles — Caledonide inheritance versus Hercynian plate margin processes. Q JL GEOL SOC LOND 139, 479–91.
Leeder, M. R. 1987. Plate tectonics, palaeogeography and sedimentation in Lower Carboniferous Europe. In Miller, J., Adams, A. E. & Wright, V. P. (eds) European Dinantian Environments, 120. New York: Wiley.
Leeder, M. R. 1988. Recent developments in Carboniferous geology: a critical review with implications for the British Isles and N.W. Europe. PROC GEOL ASS 99, 73100.
Leys, C. A. 1982. Volcanic and sedimentary processes in phreatomagmatic volcanoes. PhD thesis, Leeds University.
Leys, C. A. 1983. Volcanic and sedimentary processes during formation of the Saefell tuff-ring, Iceland. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 74, 1522.
Loftus, G. W. F. 1985. The petrology and depositional environments of the Dinantian Burdiehouse Limestone Formation of Scotland: their relevance to the accumulation of the Oil-Shale Group. PhD thesis, London University.
Loftus, G. W. F. & Greensmith, J. T. 1988. The lacustrine Burdiehouse Limestone Formation—a key to the deposition of the Dinantian oil shales of Scotland. In Fleet, A. J., Kelts, K. & Talbot, M. R. (eds) Lacustrine Petroleum Source Rocks, 219–34. Oxford: Blackwell.
Long, A. G. 1976. Calathopteris heterophylla gen. et spec, nov., a Lower Carboniferous pteridosperm bearing two kinds of petioles. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 69, 329–36.
Long, A. G. 1977a. Some Lower Carboniferous pteridosperm cupules bearing ovules and microsporangia. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 70, 111.
Long, A. G. 1977b. Lower Carboniferous pteridosperm cupules and the origin of the angiosperms. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 70, 1335.
Long, A. G. 1979. The resemblance between the Lower Carboniferous cupules Hydrasperma cf. tenuis Long and Sphenopteris bifida Lindley & Hutton. Trans R Soc Edinburgh 70, 129–37.
Long, A. G. 1984. Oxroadopteris parvus gen. et spec, nov.: a protostelic Lower Carboniferous pteridosperm from Oxroad Bay, East Lothian, Scotland. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 75, 383–9.
Long, A. G. 1986. Observations on the Lower Carboniferous lycopod Oxroadia gracilis Alvin. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 77, 127–42.
Long, A. G. 1987. Observations on Eristophyton Zalessky, Lyginorachis waltoni Calder, and Cladoxylon edromense sp. nov. from the Lower Carboniferous Cementstone Group of Scotland. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 78, 7384.
Lorenz, V. 1973. On the formation of maars. BULL VOLCANOL 37, 183204.
Lorenz, V. 1986. On the growth of maars and diatremes and its relevance to the formation of tuff-rings. BULL VOLCANOL 48, 265–74.
MacDonald, R., Thomas, J. E. & Rizzello, S. A. 1977. Variations in basalt chemistry with time in the Midland Valley province during the Carboniferous and Permian. SCOTT J GEOL 13, 1122.
MacDonald, R., Gass, K. N., Thorpe, R. S. & Gass, I. G. 1984. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Derbyshire Carboniferous basalts. Q JL GEOL SOC LOND 141, 147–60.
MacGregor, M. & MacGregor, A. G. 1948. The Midland Valley of Scotland, 2nd edn. British Regional Geology Series. Edinburgh: Geological Survey.
Martin, N. R. 1955. Lower Carboniferous volcanism near North Berwick, Scotland. BULL GEOL SURV GT BR 7, 90–9.
Matte, P. 1986. La cha ἶne Varisque parmi les chaἶnes Paléozoique péri-Atlantiques, modèle d'évolution et position des grands blocs continentaux au Permo-Carbonifère. BULL SOC GÉOL FRANCE 8, 924.
McAdam, A. D. 1975. North Berwick. In Craig, G. Y. & Duff, P. M. D. (eds), The Geology of the Lothians and South-East Scotland, 7992. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.
McAdam, A. D. & Tulloch, W. 1985. Geology of the Haddington District. Mem. Geol. Surv. Gr. Br. London: H.M.S.O.
Mitchell, G. H. & Mykura, W. 1962. The Geology of the Neighbourhood of Edinburgh, 3rd edn. Mem. Geol. Surv. Gr. Br. Edinburgh: Geological Survey.
Moore, J. G. 1967. Base-surge in recent volcanic eruptions. BULL VOLCANOL 30, 337–63.
Moral, R. del & Clampitt, C. A. 1985. Growth of native plant species on recent volcanic substrates from Mount St. Helens. AM MIDL NAT 114, 374–83.
Neves, R., Gueinn, K. J., Clayton, G., Ioannides, N. S. & Neville, R. S. W. 1972. A scheme of miospore zones for the British Dinantian. C R 6me CONGR INT STRAT GÉOL CARB (Krefeld, 1971) 7, 347–53.
Neves, R., Gueinn, K. J., Clayton, G., Ioannides, N. S., Neville, R. S. W. & Kruszewska, K. 1973. Palynological correlations within the Lower Carboniferous of Scotland and northern England. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 69, 2370.
Oilier, C. D. 1967. Maars: their characteristics, varieties and definition. BULL VOLCANOL 31, 4573.
Payne, A. W. et al. 1987. Genstat 5 Reference Manual. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pettitt, J. M. 1969. Pteridophytic features in some Lower Carboniferous seed megaspores. BOT J LINN SOC 62, 233–9.
Phillips, T. L., Peppers, R. A. & DiMichele, W. A. 1985. Stratigraphic and inter-regional changes in Pennsylvanian coal-swamp vegetation: environmental inferences. INT J COAL GEOL 5, 43109.
Pianka, E. R. 1970. On r- and k-selection. AM NAT 104, 592–7.
Raymond, A. 1985. Floral diversity, phytogeography and climatic amelioration during the Early Carboniferous (Dinantian) PALEOBIOLOGY 11, 293309.
Raymond, A., Kelley, P. H. & Lutken, C. B. 1989. Polar glaciers and life at the equator: the history of Dinantian and Namurian (Carboniferous) climate. GEOLOGY 17, 408–11.
Raymond, A., Parker, W. C. & Parrish, J. T. 1985. Phytogeography and paleoclimate of the Early Carboniferous. In Tiffney, B. (ed) Geologic Factors and the Evolution of Plants, 169222. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Read, W. A. & Johnson, S. R. H. 1967. The sedimentology of sandstone formations within the Upper Old Red Sandstone and lowest Calciferous Sandstone Measures west of Stirling. SCOTT J GEOL 3, 247–67.
Retallack, G. J. 1981. Fossil soils: indicators of ancient terrestrial environments. In Niklas, K. J. (ed) Paleobotany, Paleoecology and Evolution 1, 55102. New York: Praeger.
Retallack, G. J. 1985a. Fossil soils as grounds for interpreting the advent of large plants and animals on land. PHIL TRANS R SOC LOND B 309, 105–42.
Retallack, G. J. 1985b. Reconstructions of Scottish Early Carboniferous seed ferns. AM J BOT 72, 898.
Retallack, G. J. & Dilcher, D. L. 1988. Reconstructions of selected seed ferns. ANN MO BOT GDN 75, 1010–57.
Rex, G. M. 1986. The preservation and palaeoecology of the Lower Carboniferous silicified plant deposits at Esnost, near Autun, France. GEOBIOS 19, 773800.
Rex, G. M. & Scott, A. C. 1987. The sedimentology, palaeoecology and preservation of the Lower Carboniferous plant deposits at Pettycur, Fife, Scotland. GEOL MAG 124, 4366.
Robinson, J. M. 1989. Phanerozoic O2 variation, fire, and terrestrial ecology. GLOBAL PLANET CH 75, 223–40.
Rock, N. M. S. 1985. Value of chemostratigraphical correlation in metamorphic terrains: an illustration from the Colonsay Limestone, Inner Hebrides, Scotland. Trans R Soc Edinburgh 76, 515–7.
Rock, N. M. S. 1986. The geochemistry of Lewisian marbles. In Tarney, J. & Park, R. G. (eds), Spec. Pub. Geol. Soc. Lond.
Rock, N. M. S. & Waterhouse, K. 1986. Value of chemostratigraphical correlation in metamorphic terrains: an illustration from the Shinness and Armadale marbles, Sutherland, Scotland. PROC GEOL ASS 97, 347–56.
Rolfe, W. D. I., Durant, G. P., Fallick, A. E., Hall, A. J., Large, D. J., Scott, A.,Smithson, I. R. & Walkden, G. M. in press. An early terrestrial biota preserved by Visean vulcanicity in Scotland. In Lockley, M. (ed.) Volcanism and Fossil Biotas: mplications for Preservation, Evolution and Extinction. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper no. 244.
Rothwell, G. W. & Scott, A. C. 1985. Ecology of Lower Carboniferous plant remains from Oxroad Bay, East Lothian, Scotland. AM J BOT 72, 899.
Rowley, D. B., Raymond, A.Parrish, J. T., Lottes, A. L., Scotese, C. R. & Ziegler, A. M. 1985. Carboniferous paleogeographic, phytogeographic and paleoclimatic reconstructions. INT J COAL GEOL 5, 742.
Scheckler, S. E. 1986. Geology, floristics and paleoecology of Late Devonian coal-swamps from Appalachian Laurentia (U.S.A.). ANN SOC GÉOL BELG 109, 209–22.
Schmid, R. 1981. Descriptive nomenclature and classification of pyroclastic deposits and fragments: recommendations of the IUGS Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks. Geology 9, 41–3.
Scotese, C. R. 1986. Phanerozoic Reconstructions: A New Look at the Assembly of Asia. Univ. Texas Inst. Geophys. Tech. Rep. 66.
Scott, A. C. 1989. Preservation, evolution and extinction of plants in Lower Carboniferous volcanic sequences in Scotland. In Lockley, M. (ed.) Volcanism and Fossil Biotas. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper No. 244.
Scott, A. C. & Galtier, J. 1985. Distribution and ecology of early ferns. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 86, 141–9.
Scott, A. C. & Galtier, J. 1988. A new Lower Carboniferous flora from East Lothian, Scotland. PROC GEOL ASS 99, 141–51.
Scott, A.C., Galtier, J. & Clayton, G. 1984. Distribution of anatomically-preserved floras in the Lower Carboniferous in western Europe. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 75, 311–40.
Scott, A. C. & Rex, G. M. 1987. The accumulation and preservation of Dinantian plants from Scotland and its borders. In Miller, J., Adams, A. E. & Wright, V. P. (eds) European Dinantian Environments, 329–44. New York: Wiley.
Smith, A. G., Hurley, A. M. & Briden, J. C. 1981. Phanerozoic Palaeocontinental World Maps. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Spicer, R. A., Burnham, R. J., Grant, P. & Glicken, H. 1985. Pityrogramma calomelanos, the primary, post-eruption colonizer of Volcán Chichonal, Chiapas, Mexico. AM FERN J 75, 15.
Tourtelot, H. A. 1979. Black shale—its deposition and diagenesis CLAYS CLAY MINER 27, 313–21.
Upton, B. G. J. 1982. Carboniferous volcanism. In Sutherland, D. A. (ed) The Igneous Rocks of the British Isles. New York: Wiley.
Valentine, K. W. G. & Dalrymple, J. B. 1976. Quaternary buried palaeosols: a critical review. QUAT RES 6, 209–22.
Whittaker, R. J., Bush, M. B. & Richards, K. 1989. Plant recolonization and vegetation succession on the Krakatau Islands, Indonesia. ECOL MONOGR 59, 59123.
Wilson, P. & Bateman, R. M. 1986. Nature and palaeoenvironmental significance of a buried soil sequence at Magilligan Foreland, Northern Ireland. BOREAS 15, 137–53.
Wilson, P. & Bateman, R. M. 1987. Pedogenic and geomorphic evolution of a buried dune palaeocatena at Magilligan Foreland, Northern Ireland. CATENA 14, 501–17.
Wright, V. P. 1987. The ecology of two early Carboniferous paleosols. In Miller, J., Adams, A. E. & Wright, V. P. (eds) European Dinantian Environments, 345–58. New York: Wiley.
Zwan, C. J. van der. 1981. Palynology, phytogeography and climate of the Lower Carboniferous. PALAEOGEOG PALAEOCLIM PALAEOECOL 33, 279310.
Zwan, C. J. van der, Boulter, M. C. & Hubbard, R. N. L. B. 1985. Climatic change during the Lower Carboniferous in Euramerica, based on multivariate statistical analysis of palynological data. PALAEOGEOG PALAEOCLIM PALAEOECOL 52, 120.


A reappraisal of the Dinantian floras at Oxroad Bay, East Lothian, Scotland. 2. Volcanicity, palaeoenvironments and palaeoecology

  • Richard M. Bateman (a1) and Andrew C. Scott (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed