Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Testing a developmental cascade model of adolescent substance use trajectories and young adult adjustment

  • Sarah D. Lynne-Landsman (a1), Catherine P. Bradshaw (a1) and Nicholas S. Ialongo (a1)

Abstract

Developmental models highlight the impact of early risk factors on both the onset and growth of substance use, yet few studies have systematically examined the indirect effects of risk factors across several domains, and at multiple developmental time points, on trajectories of substance use and adult adjustment outcomes (e.g., educational attainment, mental health problems, criminal behavior). The current study used data from a community epidemiologically defined sample of 678 urban, primarily African American youth, followed from first grade through young adulthood (age 21) to test a developmental cascade model of substance use and young adult adjustment outcomes. Drawing upon transactional developmental theories and using growth mixture modeling procedures, we found evidence for a developmental progression from behavioral risk to adjustment problems in the peer context, culminating in a high-risk trajectory of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use during adolescence. Substance use trajectory membership was associated with adjustment in adulthood. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early individual and interpersonal risk factors on subsequent risk for substance use and, in turn, young adult adjustment outcomes.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Sarah D. Lynne-Landsman, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 624 North Broadway, Hampton House, Room 802, Baltimore, MD 21205; E-mail: slynne@jhsph.edu.

References

Hide All
Andrews, J. A. (2005). Substance abuse in girls. In Bell, D. J., Foster, S. L., & Mash, E. J. (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral and emotional problems in girls (pp. 181209). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.
Arbuckle, J. L. (1996). Full information estimation in the presence of incomplete data. In Marcoulides, G. A. & Schumacker, R. E. (Eds.), Advanced structural equation modeling: Issues and techniques. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Archer, J. (2004). Sex differences in aggression in real-world settings: A meta-analytic review. Review of General Psychology, 8, 291322.
Beyers, J. M., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & Dodge, K. A. (2003). Neighborhood structure, parenting processes, and the development of youths' externalizing behaviors: A multilevel analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 3553.
Bradshaw, C. P., Schaeffer, C. M., Petras, H., & Ialongo, N. (in press). Predicting negative life outcomes from early aggressive–disruptive behavior trajectories: Gender differences in maladaptation across life domains. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.
Bradshaw, C. P., Zmuda, J. H., Kellam, S. G., & Ialongo, N. S. (2009). Longitudinal impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on educational outcomes in high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 926937.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University of Press.
Brook, J. S., Nomura, C., & Cohen, P. (1989). A network of influence on adolescent drug involvement: Neighborhood, school, peer, and family. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 115, 125145.
Burt, K. B., Obradović, J., Long, J. D., & Masten, A. S. (2008). The interplay of social competence and psychopathology over 20 years: Testing transactional and cascade models. Child Development, 79, 359374.
Capaldi, D. M., Crosby, L., & Stoolmiller, M. (1996). Predicting the timing of first sexual intercourse for at-risk adolescent males. Child Development, 67, 344359.
Capaldi, D. M., & Patterson, G. R. (1989). Psychometric properties of fourteen latent constructs from the Oregon Youth Study. New York: Springer–Verlag.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 57, 1131.
Cicchetti, D. (2006). Development and psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 123). New York: Wiley.
Dishion, T. J., Capaldi, D., Spracklen, K. M., & Li, F. (1995). Peer ecology of male adolescent drug use. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 803824.
Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. D., & Lynam, D. (2006). Aggression and antisocial behavior in youth. In Eisenberg, N., Damon, W., & Lerner, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 719788). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Dodge, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Malone, P. S., & The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2008). Testing an idealized dynamic cascade model of the development of serious violence in adolescence. Child Development, 79, 19071927.
Dodge, K. A., Lansford, J. E., Burks, V. S., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., Fontaine, R., et al. (2003). Peer rejection and social information-processing factors in the development of aggressive behavior problems in children. Child Development, 74, 374393.
Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Lansford, J. E., Miller, S., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2009). A dynamic cascade model of the development of substance-use onset. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 74, vii119.
Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2003). A biopsychosocial model of the development of chronic conduct problems in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 39, 349371.
Elder, G. (1994). Time, human agency, and social change: Perspectives on the life course. Social Psychological Quarterly, 57, 415.
Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Ialongo, N., Poduska, J., Werthamer, L., & Kellam, S. (2001). The distal impact of two first-grade preventive interventions on conduct problems and disorder in early adolescence. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 9, 146161.
Ialongo, N. S., Rogosch, F. A., Cicchetti, D., Toth, S., Buckley, J. A., Petras, H., et al. (2006). A developmental psychopathology approach to the prevention of mental health disorders. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 9681018). New York: Wiley.
Ialongo, N. S., Werthamer, L., Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Wang, S., & Lin, Y. (1999). Proximal impact of two first-grade preventive interventions on the early risk behaviors for later substance abuse, depression, and antisocial behavior. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 599641.
Jessor, R. (1978). Psychosocial factors in the patterning of drinking behavior. In Fishman, J. (Ed.), The bases of addiction (pp. 6780). Berlin: Dahlem Konferenzen.
Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P., & Bachman, J. G. (1995). National survey results on drug use from the Monitoring the Future study, 1975–1994: Vol. 1. Secondary school students (Technical Report No. 95-4026). Washington, DC: NIH.
Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2006). Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2005 (NIH Report No. 06-5882). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Kaufman, A., & Kaufman, N. (1998). Manual for the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement: Brief form. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.
Kellam, S. G., & Rebok, G. W. (1992). Building developmental and etiological theory through epidemiologically based preventive intervention trials. In McCord, J. & Tremblay, R. E. (Eds.), Preventing antisocial behavior: Interventions from birth through adolescence (pp. 162195). New York: Guilford Press.
Little, R. J. (1995). Modeling the dropout mechanism in repeated-measures studies. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 90, 11121121.
MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Masten, A. S., Long, J. D., Roisman, G. I., Burt, K. B., Obradović, J., Roberts, J. M., et al. (2005). Developmental cascades: Linking academic achievement, externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41, 733746.
Mayes, L. C., & Suchman, N. E. (2006). Developmental pathways to substance abuse. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 3. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (2nd ed., pp. 599619). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674701.
Moffitt, T. E. (2006). Life-course-persistent versus adolescence-limited antisocial behavior. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Ed.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 3. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (2nd ed., pp. 570598). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Muthén, B. (2004). Latent variable analysis: Growth mixture modeling and related techniques for longitudinal data. In Kaplan, D. (Ed.), Handbook of quantitative methodology for the social sciences (pp. 345368). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Muthén, B., & Shedden, K. (1999). Finite mixture modeling with mixture outcomes using the EM algorithm. Biometrics, 6, 463469.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2008). Mplus user's guide (4th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.
Nagin, D. S. (1999). Analyzing developmental trajectories: A semiparametric group-based approach. Psychological Methods, 4, 139157.
Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 535569.
Patterson, G. R. (1982). A social learning approach: Vol. 3. Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
Patterson, G. R. (1986). Performance models for antisocial boys. American Psychologist, 41, 432444.
Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 329335.
Patterson, G. R., Reid, J., & Dishion, T. (1992). A social learning approach: Vol. 4. Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
Petras, H., Schaeffer, C., Ialongo, S., Muthén, B., Lambert, S., Poduska, J., et al. (2004). When the course of aggressive behavior in childhood does not predict antisocial outcomes in adolescence and adulthood: An examination of potential explanatory variables. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 919941.
Robins, L. N., Cottler, L. B., Bucholz, K. K., Compton, W. M., North, C. S., & Rourke, K. M. (2000). Diagnostic Interview Schedule for the DSM-IV (DIS-IV). St. Louis, MO: Washington University.
Rutter, M. (1989). Pathways from childhood to adult life. Journal of Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 2351.
Schaeffer, C., Petras, H., Ialongo, N., Poduska, J., & Kellam, S. (2003). Modeling growth in boys aggressive behavior across elementary school: Links to later criminal involvement, conduct disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Developmental Psychology, 39, 10201035.
Schaeffer, C. M., Petras, H., Ialongo, N., Masyn, K. E., Hubbard, S., Poduska, J., et al. (2006). A comparison of girls' and boys' aggressive–disruptive behavior trajectories across elementary school: Prediction to young adult antisocial outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 500510.
Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147177.
Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C., Dulcan, M., & Schwab-Stone, M. (2000). NIMH diagnostic interview schedule for children version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): Description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 2838.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies (2008). Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings (NSDUH Series H-34, DHHS Publication No. SMA 08-4343). Rockville, MD: Author.
Thornberry, T. P., & Krohn, M. D. (1997). Peers, drug use, and delinquency. In Stoff, D. M., Breiling, J. & Maser, J. D. (Eds.), Handbook of antisocial behavior (pp. 218233). New York: Wiley.
Tolan, P. H., Gorman-Smith, D., & Henry, D. B. (2003). The developmental ecology of urban males' youth violence. Developmental Psychology, 39, 274291.
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Youth violence: A report of the surgeon general. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General.
Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Tremblay, R. E. (2000). Influence of deviant friends on delinquency: Searching for moderator variables. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 313325.
Werthamer-Larsson, L., Kellam, S. G., & Wheeler, L. (1991). Effect of first-grade classroom environment on child shy behavior, aggressive behavior, and concentration problems. American Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 585602.
Westling, E., Andrews, J. A., Hampson, S. E., & Peterson, M. (2008). Pubertal timing and substance use: The effects of gender, parental monitoring and deviant peers. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42, 555563.

Testing a developmental cascade model of adolescent substance use trajectories and young adult adjustment

  • Sarah D. Lynne-Landsman (a1), Catherine P. Bradshaw (a1) and Nicholas S. Ialongo (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed