Skip to main content Accessibility help

The serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism moderates the continuity of behavioral inhibition in early childhood

  • Victoria C. Johnson (a1), Katie R. Kryski (a1), Haroon I. Sheikh (a1), Heather J. Smith (a1), Shiva M. Singh (a1) and Elizabeth P. Hayden (a1)...


Persistently elevated behavioral inhibition (BI) in children is a marker of vulnerability to psychopathology. However, little research has considered the joint influences of caregiver and child factors that may moderate the continuity of BI in early childhood, particularly genetic variants that may serve as markers of biological plasticity, such as the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). We explored this issue in 371 preschoolers and their caregivers, examining whether parent characteristics (i.e., overinvolvement or anxiety disorder) and child 5-HTTLPR influenced the continuity of BI between ages 3 and 5. Measures were observational ratings of child BI, observational and questionnaire measures of parenting, and parent interviews for anxiety disorder history, and children were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR. Parent factors did not moderate the association between age 3 and age 5 BI; however, child BI at age 3 interacted with children's 5-HTTLPR variants to predict age 5 BI, such that children with at least one copy of the short allele exhibited less continuity of BI over time relative to children without this putative plasticity variant. Findings are consistent with previous work indicating the 5-HTTLPR short variant increases plasticity to contextual influences, thereby serving to decrease the continuity of BI in early childhood.


Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Elizabeth P. Hayden, Westminster Hall, 361 Windermere Road, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada; E-mail:


Hide All
Abramowitz, J. S., Deacon, B. J., & Whiteside, S. P. H. (2010). Exposure therapy for anxiety: Principles and practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Aktar, E., Majdandžić, M., de Vente, W., & Bögels, S. M. (2013). The interplay between expressed parental anxiety and infant behavioral inhibition predicts infant avoidance in a social referencing paradigm. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 144156.
Andreasen, N. C., Endicott, J., Spitzer, R. L., & Winokur, G. (1977). The family history method using diagnostic criteria: Reliability and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 12291235.
Anzman-Frasca, S., Stifter, C. A., & Birch, L. L. (2012). Temperament and childhood obesity risk: A review of the literature. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatric, 33, 732745.
Belsky, J., Jonassain, C., Pluess, M., Stanton, M., Brummett, B., & Williams, R. (2009). Vulnerability genes or plasticity genes? Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 746754.
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 885908.
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2012). Differential susceptibility to long-term effects of quality of child care on externalizing behavior in adolescence? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 36, 210.
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2013). Beyond risk, resilience, and dysregulation: Phenotypic plasticity and human development. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 12431261.
Biederman, J., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Rosenbaum, J. F., Hérot, C., Friedman, D., Snidman, N., et al. (2001). Further evidence of association between behavioral inhibition and social anxiety in children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 58, 16731679.
Boyce, W. T., & Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary–developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271301.
Broberg, A., Lamb, M. E., & Hwang, P. (1990). Inhibition: Its stability and correlates in sixteen- to forty-month-old children. Child Development, 61, 11531163.
Burkhouse, K. L., Gibb, B. E., Coles, M. E., Knopik, V. S., & McGeary, J. E. (2011). Serotonin transporter genotype moderates the link between children's reports of overprotective parenting and their behavioral inhibition. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 783790.
Caspi, A., Harrington, H., Milne, B., Amell, J. W., Theodore, R. F., & Moffit, T. E. (2003). Children's behavioral styles at age 3 are linked to their adult personality traits at age 26. Journal of Personality, 71, 495513.
Chen, X., Chen, H., Li, D., & Wang, L. (2009). Early childhood behavioral inhibition and social and school adjustment in Chinese children: A 5-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 80, 16921704.
Chen, X., Zhang, G., Liang, Z., Zhang, M., Way, N., Yoshikawa, H., et al. (2014). The association between 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism and behavioral inhibition in Chinese toddlers. Developmental Psychobiology, 56, 16011608.
Chronis-Tuscano, A., Degnan, K. A., Pine, D. S., Perez-Edgar, K., Henderson, H. A., Diaz, Y., et al. (2009). Stable early maternal report of behavioral inhibition predicts lifetime social anxiety disorder in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 928935.
Clauss, J. A., & Blackford, J. U. (2012). Behavioral inhibition and risk for developing social anxiety disorder: A meta-analytic study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 10661075.
Coles, M. E., Schofield, C. A., & Pietrefesa, A. S. (2006). Behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20, 11181132.
Cox, M., & Crnic, K. (2003). Qualitative ratings for parent-child interaction at 3–15 months. Unpublished manuscript, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Center for Coding Science.
Dalton, E. D., Hammen, C. L., Najman, J. L., & Brennan, P. A. (2014). Genetic susceptibility to family environment: BDNF Val66met and 5-HTTLPR influence depressive symptoms. Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 947956.
Degnan, K. A., & Fox, N. A. (2007). Behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorders: Multiple levels of a resilience process. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 729746.
Degnan, K. A., Henderson, H. A., Fox, N. A., & Rubin, K. H. (2008). Predicting social wariness in middle childhood: The moderating roles of child care history, maternal personality and maternal behavior. Social Development, 17, 471487.
Dick, D. M., Agrawal, A., Keller, M. C., Adkins, A. A., Aliev, F., Monroe, S., et al. (2015). Candidate gene-environment interaction research: Reflections and recommendations. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 3759.
Doey, L., Coplan, R. J., & Kingsbury, M. (2014). Bashful boys and coy girls: A review of gender differences in childhood shyness. Sex Roles, 70, 255266.
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (3rd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Durbin, C. E., Klein, D. N., Hayden, E. P., Buckley, M. E., & Moerk, K. C. (2005). Temperamental emotionality in preschoolers and parental mood disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 2837.
Egeland, B., Weinfield, N., Hiester, M., Lawrence, C., Pierce, S., & Chippendale, K. (1995). Teaching tasks administration and scoring manual. Unpublished manuscript, University of Minnesota.
Essex, M. J., Klein, M. H., Slattery, M. H. J., Goldsmith, H. H., & Kalin, N. H. (2010). Early risk factors and developmental pathways to chronic high inhibition and social anxiety disorder in adolescence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 4046.
First, M. B., Gibbon, M., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. W. (1996). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders: Non-patient edition (SCID-I, Version 2.0). New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute, Biometrics Research Department.
Ford, B. Q., Mauss, I. B., Troy, A. S., Smolen, A., & Hankin, B. (2014). Emotion regulation moderates the risk associated with the 5-HTT gene and stress in children. Emotion, 14, 930939.
Fox, N. A., Henderson, H. A., Marshall, P. J., Nichols, K. E., & Ghera, M. M. (2005). Behavioral inhibition: Linking biology and behavior within a developmental framework. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 235262.
Fox, N. A., Nichols, K. E., Henderson, H. A., Rubin, K., Schmidt, L., Hamer, D., et al. (2005). Evidence for a gene-environment interaction in predicting behavioral inhibition in middle childhood. Psychological Science, 16, 921926.
Franić, S., Middeldorp, C. M., Dolan, C. V., Ligthart, L., & Boomsma, D. I. (2010). Childhood and adolescent anxiety and depression: Beyond heritability. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 820829.
Garcia, S. E., Tully, E. C., Tarantino, N., South, S., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2013). Changes in genetic and environmental influences on trait anxiety from middle adolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151, 4653.
Garcia-Coll, C., Kagan, J., & Reznick, J. S. (1984). Behavioral inhibition in young children. Child Development, 55, 10051019.
Gest, S. D. (1997). Behavioral inhibition: Stability and associations with adaptation from childhood to early adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 467475.
Gladstone, G. L., Parker, G. B., Mitchell, P. B., Wilhelm, K. A., & Malhi, G. S. (2005). Relationship between self-reported childhood behavioral inhibition and lifetime anxiety disorders in a clinical sample. Depression and Anxiety, 22, 103113.
Goldsmith, H. H., Reilly, J., Lemery, K. S., Longley, S., & Prescott, A. (1995). Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery: Preschool version. Unpublished manuscript.
Graham, A. A., & Coplan, R. J. (2012). Shyness, sibling relationships, and young children's socioemotional adjustment at preschool. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 26, 435449.
Hane, A. A., Cheah, C., Rubin, K. H., & Fox, N. A. (2008). The role of maternal behavior in the relation between shyness and social reticence in early childhood and social withdrawal in middle childhood. Social Development, 17, 795811.
Hayes, A. F., & Matthes, J. (2009). Computational procedures for probing interactions in OLS and logistic regression: SPSS and SAS implementations. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 924936.
Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Kraemer, H. C., & Taylor, C. B. (1998). Linking self-reported childhood behavioral inhibition to adolescent social phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 13081316.
Hirshfeld, D. R., Rosenbaum, J. F., Biederman, J., Bolduc, E. A., Faraone, S. V., Snidman, N., et al. (1992). Stable behavioral inhibition and its association with anxiety disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 103111.
Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Biederman, J., Henin, A., Faraone, S. V, Davis, S., Harrington, K., et al. (2007). Behavioral inhibition in preschool children at risk is a specific predictor of middle childhood social anxiety: A five-year follow-up. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 28, 225233.
Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Micco, J., Henin, A., Bloomfield, A., Biederman, J., & Rosenbaum, J. (2008). Behavioral inhibition. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 357367.
Hubert, N. C., Wachs, T. D., Peters-Martin, P., & Gandour, M. J. (1982). The study of early temperament: Measurement and conceptual issues. Child Development, 53, 571600.
Ipsa, J. M., Fine, M. A., Halgunseth, L. C., Harper, S., Robinson, J., Boyce, L., et al. (2004). Maternal intrusiveness, maternal warmth, and mother-toddler relationship outcomes: Variations across low income ethnic and acculturation groups. Child Development, 75, 16131631.
Izard, C. E., Schultz, D., Fine, S. E., Youngstrom, E., & Ackerman, B. P. (1999). Temperament, cognitive ability, emotion knowledge, and adaptive social behavior. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 19, 305330.
Johnson, P. O., & Fay, L. C. (1950). The Johnson–Neyman technique, its theory and application. Psychometrika, 15, 349367.
Johnson, V. C., Olino, T. M., Klein, D. N., Dyson, M. W., Bufferd, S. J., Durbin, C. E., et al. (2016). A longitudinal investigation of predictors of the stability of behavioral inhibition in early childhood. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Kagan, J. (1997). Temperament and the reactions to unfamiliarity. Child Development, 68, 139143.
Kagan, J. (2003). Behavioral inhibition as a temperamental category. In Davidson, R. J., Scherer, K. R., & Goldsmith, H. H. (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 320331). New York: Oxford University Press.
Kagan, J., & Moss, H. A. (1962). Birth to maturity. New York: Wiley.
Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., Clarke, C., Snidman, N., & Garcia-Coll, C. (1984). Behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar. Child Development, 55, 22122225.
Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Snidman, N. (1988). Biological bases of childhood shyness. Science, 240, 167171.
Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Snidman, N., Gibbons, J., & Johnson, M. O. (1988). Childhood derivatives of inhibition and lack of inhibition to the unfamiliar. Child Development, 59, 15801589.
Kerr, M., Lambert, W. W., Stattin, H., & Klackenberg-Larsson, I. (2014). Stability of inhibition in a Swedish longitudinal Sample. Child Development, 65, 138146.
Kiel, E. J., & Buss, K. A. (2012). Associations among context-specific maternal protective behavior, toddlers’ fearful temperament, and maternal accuracy and goals. Social Development, 21, 742760.
Kochanska, G. (1991). Patterns of inhibition to the unfamiliar in children of normal and affectively ill mothers. Child Development, 62, 250263.
Lahat, A., Hong, M., & Fox, N. A. (2011). Behavioral inhibition: Is it a risk factor for anxiety? International Review of Psychiatry, 23, 248257.
Lamb, D. J., Middeldorp, C. M., van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., Bartels, M., van der Aa, N., Polderman, T. J. C., et al. (2010). Heritability of anxious-depressive and withdrawn behavior: Age-related changes during adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 248255.
Lanzenberger, R. R., Mitterhauser, M., Spindelegger, C., Wadsak, W., Klein, N., Mien, L., et al. (2007). Reduced serotonin-1A receptor binding in social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 10811089.
Laptook, R. S., Klein, D. N., Durbin, C. E., Hayden, E. P., Olino, T. M., & Carlson, G. (2008) Differentiation between low positive affectivity and behavioral inhibition in preschool-age children: A comparison of behavioral approach in novel and non-novel contexts. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 758767.
Laptook, R. S., Klein, D. N., Olino, T. M., Dyson, M. W., & Carlson, G. (2010). Low positive affectivity and behavioral inhibition in preschool-age children: A replication and extension of previous findings. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 547551.
Lewis-Morrarty, E., Degnan, K. A., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Rubin, K. H., Cheah, C. S. L., Pine, D. S., et al. (2012). Maternal over-control moderates the association between early childhood behavioral inhibition and adolescent social anxiety symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 13631373.
Li, J. J., Berk, M. S., & Lee, S. S. (2013). Differential susceptibility in longitudinal models of gene–environment interaction for adolescent depression. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 9911003.
Liu, B., Lavebratt, C., Nordqvist, T., Fandiño-Losada, A., Theorell, T., Forell, Y., et al. (2013). Working conditions, serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety disorders: A prospective cohort study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151, 652659.
Liu, R. T. (2015). A developmentally informed perspective on the relation between stress and psychopathology: When the problem with stress is that there is not enough. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124, 8092.
Mackrell, S. V. M., Sheikh, H. I., Kotelnikova, Y., Kryski, K. R., Jordan, P. L., Singh, S. M., et al. (2014). Child temperament and parental depression predict cortisol reactivity to stress in middle childhood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123, 106116.
McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. T. J., Ostendorf, F., Angleitner, A., Hřebíčková, M., Avia, M. D., et al. (2000). Nature over nurture: Temperament, personality, and life span development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 173186.
Miu, A., Vulturar, R., Chiş, A., Ungureanu, L., & Gross, J. J. (2013). Reappraisal as a mediator in the link between 5-HTTLPR and social anxiety symptoms. Emotion, 13, 10121022.
Moehler, E., Kagan, J., Parzer, P., Brunner, R., Reck, C., Wiebel, A., et al. (2007). Childhood behavioral inhibition and maternal symptoms of depression. Psychopathology, 40, 446452.
Moore, P. S., Whaley, S. E., & Sigman, M. (2004). Interactions between mothers and children: Impacts of maternal and child anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 471476.
Muris, P., Meesters, C., & Spinder, M. (2003). Relationships between child- and parent-reported behavioral inhibition and symptoms of anxiety and depression in normal adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 759771.
Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., Schmidt, H., Gadet, B., & Bogie, N. (2001). Anxiety and depression as correlates of self-reported behavioral inhibition in normal adolescents. Behavior Research and Therapy, 39, 10511061.
Muris, P., van Brakel, A. M. L., Arntz, A., & Schouten, E. (2011). Behavioral inhibition as a risk factor for the development of childhood anxiety disorders: A longitudinal study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 157170.
Murphy, S. E., Norbury, R., Godlewska, B. R., Cowen, P. J., Mannie, Z. M., Harmer, C. J., et al. (2013). The effect of the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on amygdala function: A meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 18, 512520.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network. (1997). The effects of infant child care on infant-mother attachment security: Results of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Child Development, 68, 860879.
Natsuaki, M. N., Leve, L. D., Neiderhiser, J. M., Shaw, D. S., Scarmella, L. V., Ge, X., et al. (2013). Intergenerational transmission of risk for social inhibition: The interplay between parental responsiveness and genetic influences. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 261274.
Ohara, K., Nagai, M., Suzuki, Y., Ochiai, M., & Ohara, K. (1998). Association between anxiety disorders and a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene. Psychiatry Research, 81, 277279.
Olino, T. M., Klein, D. N., Dyson, M. W., Rose, S. A., & Durbin, C. E. (2010). Temperamental emotionality in preschool-aged children and depressive disorders in parents: Associations in a large community sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 468478.
Oppenheimer, C. W., Hankin, B. L., Young, J. F., & Smolen, A. (2013). Youth genetic vulnerability to maternal depressive symptoms: 5-HTTLPR as moderator of intergenerational transmission effects in a multiwave prospective study. Depression and Anxiety, 30, 190196.
Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2009). Differential susceptibility to rearing experience: The case of childcare. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 396404.
Pluess, M., Belsky, J., Way, B. M., & Taylor, S. E. (2010). 5-HTTLPR moderates effects of current life events on neuroticism: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 34, 10701074.
Riley, B. P. (2008). Commentary on “the case for gene-environment interactions in psychiatry.” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 21, 324325.
Robinson, J. L., Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Corley, R. (1992). The heritabliity of inhibited and uninhibited behavior: A twin study. Developmental Psychology, 28, 10301037.
Rogers, J., Shelton, S. E., Shelledy, W., Garcia, R., & Kalin, N. H. (2008). Genetic influences on behavioral inhibition and anxiety in juvenile rhesus macaques. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 7, 463469.
Root, A. K., & Stifter, C. (2010). Temperament and maternal emotion socialization beliefs as predictors of early childhood social behavior in the laboratory and classroom. Parenting: Science and Practice, 10, 241257.
Rosenbaum, J. F., Beiderman, J., Hirshfeld, D. R., Bolduc, E. A., & Chaloff, J. (1991). Behavioral inhibition in children: A possible precursor tor panic disorder or social phobia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 52, 59.
Rosenbaum, J. F., Beiderman, J., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Kagan, J., Snidman, N., Friedman, D., et al. (2000). A controlled study of behavioral inhibition in children of parents with panic disorder and depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 20022010.
Roswell, H. C., & Coplan, R. J. (2013). Exploring links between shyness, romantic relationship quality, and well-being. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 45, 287295.
Rotge, J.-Y., Grabot, D., Aouizerate, B., Pélissolo, A., Lépine, J.-P., & Tignol, J. (2011). Childhood history of behavioral inhibition and comorbidity status in 256 adults with social phobia. Journal of Affective Disorders, 129, 338341.
Rothbart, M. K. (1989). Temperament in childhood: A framework. In Kohnstamm, G. A., Bates, J. A., & Rothbart, M. K. (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp. 5973). New York: Wiley.
Rothbart, M. K., Ahadi, S. A., & Evans, D. E. (2000). Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 122135.
Rothbart, M. K., & Derryberry, D. (1981). Development of individual differences in temperament. Advances in Developmental Psychology, 1, 3746.
Rubin, D. H., Althoff, R. R., Ehli, E. A., Davies, G. E., Rettew, D. C., Crehan, E. T., et al. (2013). Candidate gene associations with withdrawn behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 13371345.
Rubin, K. H., Burgess, K. B., & Hastings, P. D. (2002). Stability and social-behavioral consequences of toddlers’ inhibited temperament and parenting behaviors. Child Development, 73, 483495.
Rubin, K. H., Hastings, P. D., Stewart, S. L., Henderson, H. A., & Chen, X. (1997). The consistency and concomitants of inhibition: Some of the children, all of the time. Child Development, 68, 467483.
Rutter, M. (2012). Resilience as a dynamic concept. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 335344.
Scarpa, A., Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Mednick, S. A. (1995). The stability of inhibited/uninhibited temperament from ages 3 to 11 years in Mauritian children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 607618.
Schinka, J. A., Busch, R. M., & Robichaux-Keene, N. (2004). A meta-analysis of the association between the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and trait anxiety. Molecular Psychiatry, 9, 197202.
Schwartz, C. E., Wright, C. I., Shin, L. M., Kagan, J., & Rauch, S. L. (2003). Inhibited and uninhibited infants “grown up”: Adult amygdalar response to novelty. Science, 300, 19521953.
Sheikh, H. I., Hayden, E. P., Kryski, K. R., Smith, H. J., & Singh, S. M. (2010). Genotyping the BDNF rs6265 (val66met) polymorphism by one-step amplified refractory mutation system PCR. Psychiatric Genetics, 20, 109112.
Van den Akker, A. L., Deković, M., Prinzie, P., & Asscher, J. J. (2010). Toddlers’ temperament profiles: Stability and relations to negative and positive parenting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 485495.
Verhagen, M., van der Meij, A., van Deurzen, P. A. M., Janzing, J. G. E., Arias-Vásquez, A., Buitelaar, J. K., et al. (2009). Effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene on major depressive disorder and related comorbid disorders. Psychiatric Genetics, 19, 3944.
Vreeke, L. J., Muris, P., Mayer, B., Huijding, J., & Rapee, R. (2013). Skittish, shielded, and scared: Relations among behavioral inhibition, overprotective parenting, and anxiety in native and non-native Dutch preschool children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 27, 703710.
Weinfield, N. S., Egeland, B., & Ogawa, J. R. (1998). Promises to keep: Assessing affective and behavioral qualities of mother-child relationships in the New Chance Observational Study. Working Paper: Child Development. Chicago: Northwestern University and University of Chicago, Joint Center for Poverty Research.
Whaley, S. E., Pinto, A., & Sigman, M. (1999). Characterizing interactions between anxious mothers and their children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 826836.
Woodruff-Borden, J., Morrow, C., Bourland, S., & Cambron, S. (2002). The behavior of anxious parents: Examining mechanisms of transmission of anxiety from parent to child. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 364374.
Wu, G., Feder, A., Cohen, H., Kim, J. J., Calderon, S., Charney, D. S., et al. (2013). Understanding resilience. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 115.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism moderates the continuity of behavioral inhibition in early childhood

  • Victoria C. Johnson (a1), Katie R. Kryski (a1), Haroon I. Sheikh (a1), Heather J. Smith (a1), Shiva M. Singh (a1) and Elizabeth P. Hayden (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.