Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The role of prenatal maternal stress in the development of childhood anxiety symptomatology: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study

  • Mia A. McLean (a1) (a2), Vanessa E. Cobham (a1) (a2), Gabrielle Simcock (a1) (a2), Guillaume Elgbeili (a3), Sue Kildea (a1) (a2) and Suzanne King (a3) (a4)...

Abstract

It is possible that findings suggesting a link between prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) and anxiety symptoms in offspring are confounded by postnatal and/or shared mother–child heritability effects. Following exposure to a natural disaster, the Queensland Flood Study investigated the unique and additive effects of various types of disaster-related PNMS (objective hardship, cognitive appraisal, and subjective distress) on childhood anxiety symptomatology (internalizing and/or anxiety symptom measures). Timing of flood exposure during pregnancy and child sex were examined as potential moderators. After controlling for maternal psychosocial factors, greater objective hardship as a result of the floods was significantly associated with greater anxiety symptoms (N = 114) and marginally associated with greater internalizing behaviors (N = 115). Earlier timing of the flood in pregnancy was associated with greater anxiety symptoms. No such associations were found between any PNMS measure and teacher-rated child internalizing behaviors (N = 90). Sex and timing did not moderate associations. Our findings suggest that, in isolation, increased maternal hardship due to exposure to an independent stressor, during pregnancy, may have a programming effect on childhood anxiety symptoms.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Suzanne King, Professor of Psychiatry, McGill University, Principal Investigator, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Verdun, Quebec, H4H 1R3, Canada; E-mail: Suzanne.king@mcgill.ca.

Footnotes

Hide All

Many thanks to the QF2011 families for their participation in this study, and members of the QF2011 team, notably, Helen Stapleton, Laura Shoo, Donna Amaraddio, Ash-lee Heather, and Stacey Lynch.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Achenbach, T., McConaughy, S., Howell, C., & Masters, J. C. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 213232. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.213
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.
Almond, S., & Healey, A. (2003). Mental health and absence from work: New evidence from the UK quarterly labour force survey. Work, Employment & Society, 17, 731742. doi:10.1177/0950017003174007
Apter-Levi, Y., Pratt, M., Vakart, A., Feldman, M., Zagoory-Sharon, O., & Feldman, R. (2016). Maternal depression across the first years of life compromises child psychosocial adjustment; relations to child HPA-axis functioning. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 64, 4756. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.11.006
Barker, E., Jaffee, S., Uher, R., & Maughan, B. (2011). The contribution of prenatal and postnatal maternal anxiety and depression to child maladjustment. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 696702. doi:10.1002/da.20856
Beesdo, K., Knappe, S., & Pine, D. S. (2009). Anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Developmental issues and implications for DSM-V. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 32, 483524. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2009.06.002
Bergman, K., Sarkar, P., O'Connor, T. G., Modi, N., & Glover, V. (2007). Maternal stress during pregnancy predicts cognitive ability and fearfulness in infancy. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 14541463. doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e31814a62f6
Brock, R., O'Hara, M., Hart, K., McCabe, J., Williamson, J., Laplante, D., … Kaslow, N. J. (2014). Partner support and maternal depression in the context of the Iowa floods. Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 832843. doi:10.1037/fam0000027.
Bromet, E., Havenaar, J. M., & Guey, L. T. (2011). A 25 year retrospective review of the psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Clinical Oncology, 23, 297305. doi:10.1016/j.clon.2011.01.501.
Brown, A. S., Susser, E. S., Lin, S. P., Neugebauer, R., & Gorman, J. M. (1995). Increased risk of affective disorders in males after second trimester prenatal exposure to the Dutch hunger winter of 1944-45. British Journal of Psychiatry: Journal of Mental Science, 166, 601.
Brown, A. S., van Os, J., Driessens, C., Hoek, H. W., & Susser, E. S. (2000). Further evidence of relation between prenatal famine and major affective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 190. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.157.2.190.
Brunet, A., Weiss, D. S., Metzler, T. J., Best, S. R., Neylan, T. C., Rogers, C. R., … Marmar, C. R. (2001). The Peritraumatic Distress Inventory: A proposed measure of PTSD criterion A2. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 14801485. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.9.1480.
Cagnacci, A., Pansini, F. S., Bacchi-Modena, A., Volpe, A., & Emilia-Romagna Operative Group for Menopause. (2006). The relation of season of birth to severity of menopausal symptoms. Menopause, 13, 700705. doi:10.1097/01.gme.0000196594.82452.83.
Cao, X., Laplante, D. P., Brunet, A., Ciampi, A., & King, S. (2014). Prenatal maternal stress affects motor function in 5(1/2)-year-old children: Project Ice Storm. Developmental Psychobiology, 56, 117125. doi:10.1002/dev.21085.
Cao-Lei, L., Dancause, K. N., Elgbeili, G., Massart, R., Szyf, M., Liu, A., … King, S. (2015). DNA methylation mediates the impact of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on BMI and central adiposity in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm. Epigenetics, 10, 749761. doi:10.1080/15592294.2015.1063771.
Cao-Lei, L., Veru, F., Elgbeili, G., Szyf, M., Laplante, D. P., & King, S. (2016). DNA methylation mediates the effect of exposure to prenatal maternal stress on cytokine production in children at age 13½ years: Project Ice Storm. Clinical Epigenetics, 8, 54. doi:10.1186/s13148-016-0219-0.
Capron, L. E., Glover, V., Pearson, R. M., Evans, J., O'Connor, T. G., Stein, A., … Ramchandani, P. G. (2015). Associations of maternal and paternal antenatal mood with offspring anxiety disorder at age 18 years. Journal of Affective Disorders, 187, 2026. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.08.012.
Charil, A., Laplante, D. P., Vaillancourt, C., & King, S. (2010). Prenatal stress and brain development. Brain Research Reviews, 65, 5679. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2010.06.002.
Conrod, P. J., & Stewart, S. H. (2008). Anxiety and substance use disorders: The vicious cycle of comorbidity. New York: Springer.
Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry: Journal of Mental Science, 150, 782.
Creamer, M., Bell, R., & Failla, S. (2003). Psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale—Revised. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 14891496. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2003.07.010.
Dancause, K. N., Laplante, D. P., Fraser, S., Brunet, A., Ciampi, A., Schmitz, N., & King, S. (2012). Prenatal exposure to a natural disaster increases risk for obesity in 5(1/2)-year-old children. Pediatric Research, 71, 126131. doi:10.1038/pr.2011.18.
Dancause, K. N., Mutran, D., Elgbeili, G., Laplante, D. P., Kildea, S., Stapleton, H., … King, S. (2016). Dietary change mediates relationships between stress during pregnancy and infant head circumference measures: The QF2011 study. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 13, e12359. doi:10.1111/mcn.12359.
Dancause, K. N., Veru, F., Andersen, R. E., Laplante, D. P., & King, S. (2013). Prenatal stress due to a natural disaster predicts insulin secretion in adolescence. Early Human Development, 89, 773776. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.06.006.
Davis, E. P., Glynn, L. M., Waffarn, F., & Sandman, C. A. (2011). Prenatal maternal stress programs infant stress regulation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 119129. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02314.x.
Davis, E. P., & Sandman, C. A. (2012). Prenatal psychobiological predictors of anxiety risk in preadolescent children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37, 12241233. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.12.016.
de Bruijn, A. T. C. E., van Bakel, H. J. A., & van Baar, A. L. (2009). Sex differences in the relation between prenatal maternal emotional complaints and child outcome. Early Human Development, 85, 319324. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2008.12.009.
Dipietro, J. A. (2012). Maternal stress in pregnancy: Considerations for fetal development. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(2 Suppl.), S3–S8. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.04.008.
Edwards, S. L., Rapee, R. M., Kennedy, S. J., & Spence, S. H. (2010). The assessment of anxiety symptoms in preschool-aged children: The revised Preschool Anxiety Scale. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39, 400409. doi:10.1080/15374411003691701.
Faravelli, C., Lo Sauro, C., Godini, L., Lelli, L., Benni, L., Pietrini, F., … Ricca, V. (2012). Childhood stressful events, HPA axis and anxiety disorders. World Journal of Psychiatry, 2, 13. doi:10.5498/wjp.v2.i1.13.
Ferdinand, R. F., Huizink, A. C., Ormel, J., Verhulst, F. C., van der Toorn, S. L. M., & Utens, E. M. W. J. (2010). Maternal depressive symptoms, and not anxiety symptoms, are associated with positive mother-child reporting discrepancies of internalizing problems in children: A report on the TRAILS Study. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 379388. doi:10.1007/s00787-009-0062-3.
Field, A. P. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics: And sex and drugs and rock ‘n’ roll / Andy Field (4th ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.
Gartstein, M., Putnam, S., & Rothbart, M. (2012). Etiology of preschool behavior problems: Contributions of temperament attributes in early childhood. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33, 197211.
Gerardin, P., Wendland, J., Bodeau, N., Galin, A., Bialobos, S., Tordjman, S., … Cohen, D. (2011). Depression during pregnancy: Is the developmental impact earlier in boys? A prospective case-control study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72, 378387. doi:10.4088/JCP.09m05724blu.
Glover, V. (2014). Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome; what needs to be done. Best Practice & Research: Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 28, 2535. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.08.017.
Glover, V., & Hill, J. (2012). Sex differences in the programming effects of prenatal stress on psychopathology and stress responses: An evolutionary perspective. Physiology & Behavior, 106, 736740. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.02.011.
Glover, V., O'Connor, T. G., & O'Donnell, K. (2010). Prenatal stress and the programming of the HPA axis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1722. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.11.008.
Gluckman, P. D., & Hanson, M. (Eds.). (2006). Developmental origins of health and disease. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gortmaker, S. L., Kagan, J., Caspi, A., & Silva, P. A. (1997). Daylength during pregnancy and shyness in children: Results from Northern and Southern hemispheres. Developmental Psychobiology, 31, 107114. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199709)31:2<107::AID-DEV3>3.0.CO;2-O.
Greer, F. W. (2005). The association of season of birth with child internalizing problems (Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia).
Grimm, A., Hulse, L., Preiss, M., & Schmidt, S. (2012). Post- and peritraumatic stress in disaster survivors: An explorative study about the influence of individual and event characteristics across different types of disasters. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 3, 19. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v3i0.7382.
Guardia, D., Brunet, A., Duhamel, A., Ducrocq, F., Demarty, A.-L., & Vaiva, G. (2013). Prediction of trauma-related disorders: A proposed cutoff score for the peritraumatic distress inventory. Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, 15, 12I01406. doi:10.4088/PCC.12l01406.
Havenaar, J. M., Bromet, E. J., & Cwikel, J. G. (2002). Toxic turmoil psychological and societal consequences of ecological disasters. Boston: Springer.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Hilmert, C. J., Kvasnicka-Gates, L., Teoh, A. N., Bresin, K., & Fiebiger, S. (2016). Major flood related strains and pregnancy outcomes. Health Psychology, 35, 11891196. doi:10.1037/hea0000386.
Huizink, A. C., De Medina, P. G. R., Mulder, E. J., Visser, G. H., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2002). Psychological measures of prenatal stress as predictors of infant temperament. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 10781085. doi:10.1087/01.CHI.00000 20276.43550.4B
Huizink, A. C., Dick, D. M., Sihvola, E., Pulkkinen, L., Rose, R. J., & Kaprio, J. (2007). Chernobyl exposure as stressor during pregnancy and behaviour in adolescent offspring. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 116, 438446. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2007.01050.x.
Huizink, A. C., Mulder, E. J., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2004). Prenatal stress and risk for psychopathology: Specific effects or induction of general susceptibility? Psychological Bulletin, 130, 115142. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.130.1.115.
Jacka, F. N., Ystrom, E., Brantsaeter, A. L., Karevold, E., Roth, C., Haugen, M., … Berk, M. (2013). Maternal and early postnatal nutrition and mental health of offspring by age 5 years: A prospective cohort study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52, 10381047. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2013.07.002.
Janssens, A., & Deboutte, D. (2009). Screening for psychopathology in child welfare: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) compared with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 18, 691700. doi:10.1007/s00787-009-0030-y.
King, S., Dancause, K., Turcotte-Tremblay, A.-M., Veru, F., & Laplante, D. P. (2012). Using natural disasters to study the effects of prenatal maternal stress on child health and development. Birth Defects Research Part C–Embryo Today: Reviews, 96, 273288. doi:10.1002/bdrc.21026.
King, S., Kildea, S., Austin, M. P., Brunet, A., Cobham, V. E., Dawson, P. A., … Ping, E. Y. (2015). QF2011: A protocol to study the effects of the Queensland flood on pregnant women, their pregnancies, and their children's early development. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 15, 109.2–109.47. doi:10.1186/s12884-015-0539-7.
Kingsbury, M., Weeks, M., Mackinnon, N., Evans, J., Mahedy, L., Dykxhoorn, J., & Colman, I. (2016). Stressful life events during pregnancy and offspring depression: Evidence from a prospective cohort study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55, 709716. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.05.014.
Laplante, D. P., Barr, R. G., Brunet, A., Galbaud du Fort, G., Meaney, M. L., Saucier, J. F., … King, S. (2004). Stress during pregnancy affects general intellectual and language functioning in human toddlers. Pediatric Research, 56, 400410. doi:10.1203/01.PDR.0000136281.34035.44.
Laplante, D. P., Brunet, A., & King, S. (2016). The effects of maternal stress and illness during pregnancy on infant temperament: Project Ice Storm. Pediatric Research, 79, 107113. doi:10.1038/pr.2015.177.
Laplante, D. P., Brunet, A., Schmitz, N., Ciampi, A., & King, S. (2008). Project Ice Storm: Prenatal maternal stress affects cognitive and linguistic functioning in 5 1/2-year-old children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 10631072. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e31817eec80.
Leis, J. A., Heron, J., Stuart, E. A., & Mendelson, T. (2014). Associations between maternal mental health and child emotional and behavioral problems: Does prenatal mental health matter? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 161171. doi:10.1007/s10802-013-9766-4.
Lewis, S. J., Relton, C., Zammit, S., & Smith, G. D. (2013). Approaches for strengthening causal inference regarding prenatal risk factors for childhood behavioural and psychiatric disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 10951108. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12127.
Liu, G. T., Dancause, K. N., Elgbeili, G., Laplante, D. P., & King, S. (2016). Disaster-related prenatal maternal stress explains increasing amounts of variance in body composition through childhood and adolescence: Project Ice Storm. Environmental Research, 150, 17. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2016.04.039.
Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335343. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U.
Lowry-Webster, H., Barrett, P., & Lock, S. (2003). A universal prevention trial of anxiety symptomology during childhood: Results at 1-year follow-up. Behaviour Change, 20, 2543. doi:10.1375/bech.20.1.25.24843.
Lupien, S. J., McEwen, B. S., Gunnar, M. R., & Heim, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 434445. doi:10.1038/nrn2639.
Marmar, C. R., Weiss, D. D., & Metzler, T. J. (1997). The Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire. In Wilson, J. P. & Keane, T. M. (Eds.), Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 412428). New York: Guilford Press.
Merikangas, K. R., He, J.-P., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., … Swendsen, J. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication—Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 980989. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.05.017.
Mian, N. D., Carter, A. S., Pine, D. S., Wakschlag, L. S., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2015). Development of a novel observational measure for anxiety in young children: The Anxiety Dimensional Observation Scale. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56, 10171025. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12407.
Middeldorp, C. M., Wesseldijk, L. W., Hudziak, J. J., Verhulst, F. C., Lindauer, R. J. L., & Dieleman, G. C. (2016). Parents of children with psychopathology: Psychiatric problems and the association with their child's problems. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 25, 919. doi:10.1007/s00787-015-0813-2.
Monk, C., Georgieff, M. K., & Osterholm, E. A. (2013). Research Review: Maternal prenatal distress and poor nutrition—Mutually influencing risk factors affecting infant neurocognitive development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 115130. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12000.
Moss, K., Simcock, G., Cobham, V., Kildea, S., Elgbeili, G., Laplante, D., … Dubow, E. F. (2017). A potential psychological mechanism linking disaster-related prenatal maternal stress with child cognitive and motor development at 16 months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study. Developmental Psychology, 53, 629641. doi:10.1037/dev0000272.
Muris, P., & Ollendick, T. (2005). The role of temperament in the etiology of child psychopathology. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 8, 271289. doi:10.1007/s10567-005-8809-y.
Najman, J. M., Williams, G. M., Nikles, J., Spence, S., Bor, W., O'Callaghan, M., … Shuttlewood, G. J. (2001). Bias influencing maternal reports of child behaviour and emotional state. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36, 186194. doi:10.1007/s001270170062.
Nauta, M. H., Scholing, A., Rapee, R. M., Abbott, M., Spence, S. H., & Waters, A. (2004). A parent-report measure of children's anxiety: Psychometric properties and comparison with child-report in a clinic and normal sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 813839. doi:10.1016/s0005-7967(03)00200-6.
Nelemans, S. A., Hale, W. W. III, Branje, S. J., Hawk, S. T., & Meeus, W. H. (2014). Maternal criticism and adolescent depressive and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms: A 6-year longitudinal community study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 755766. doi:10.1007/s10802-013-9817-x.
Neria, Y., Nandi, A., & Galea, S. (2008). Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: A systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 38, 467480. doi:10.1017/S0033291707001353.
O'Connor, T. G., Heron, J., Golding, J., Beveridge, M., & Glover, V. (2002). Maternal antenatal anxiety and children's behavioural/emotional problems at 4 years—Report from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 502508. doi:10.1192/bjp.180.6.502.
O'Connor, T. G., Heron, J., Golding, J., & Glover, V. (2003). Maternal antenatal anxiety and behavioural/emotional problems in children: A test of a programming hypothesis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 10251036. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00187.
O'Donnell, K. J., Glover, V., Barker, E. D., & O'Connor, T. G. (2014). The persisting effect of maternal mood in pregnancy on childhood psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 393403. doi:10.1017/S0954579414000029.
Ollendick, T. H., & Grills, A. E. (2016). Perceived control, family environment, and the etiology of child anxiety—Revisited. Behavior Therapy, 47, 633. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2016.01.007.
Park, S., Kim, B. N., Kim, J. W., Shin, M. S., Yoo, H. J., Lee, J., & Cho, S. C. (2014). Associations between maternal stress during pregnancy and offspring internalizing and externalizing problems in childhood. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 8, 44. doi:10.1186/1752-4458-8-44.
Parker, G., & Neilson, M. (1976). Mental disorder and season of birth—A southern hemisphere study. British Journal of Psychiatry: Journal of Mental Science, 129, 355361.
Petty, C. R., Rosenbaum, J. F., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Henin, A., Hubley, S., Lacasse, S., … Biederman, J. (2008). The Child Behavior Checklist broad-band scales predict subsequent psychopathology: A 5-year follow-up. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 532539. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.04.003.
Polizzi, N., Martin, R. P., & Dombrowski, S. C. (2007). Season of birth of students receiving special education services under a diagnosis of emotional and behavioral disorder. School Psychology Quarterly, 22, 4457. doi:10.1037/1045-3830.22.1.44.
Queensland Floods Commission of Inquiry. (2012). Final report Queensland floods commission of inquiry. Retrieved from http://www.floodcommission.qld.gov.au/publications/final-report/
Ramchandani, P. G., Richter, L. M., Norris, S. A., & Stein, A. (2010). Maternal prenatal stress and later child behavioral problems in an urban South African setting. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 239247. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2009.11.013.
Rescorla, L. A., Bochicchio, L., Achenbach, T. M., Ivanova, M. Y., Almqvist, F., Begovac, I., … Verhulst, F. C. (2014). Parent–teacher agreement on children's problems in 21 societies. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 43, 627642. doi:10.1080/15374416.2014.900719.
Rice, F., Harold, G. T., Boivin, J., van den Bree, M., Hay, D. F., & Thapar, A. (2010). The links between prenatal stress and offspring development and psychopathology: Disentangling environmental and inherited influences. Psychological Medicine, 40, 335345. doi:10.1017/S0033291709005911.
Sandman, C., & Davis, E. P. (2012). Neurobehavioral risk is associated with gestational exposure to stress hormones. Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism, 7, 445459. doi:10.1586/eem.12.33.
Sarason, I. G., Johnson, J. H., & Siegel, J. M. (1978). Assessing the impact of life changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 932946. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.46.5.932.
Schafer, J., Graham, J., & West, S. G. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147177. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.7.2.147.
Simcock, G., Elgbeili, G., Laplante, D. P., Kildea, S., Cobham, V., Stapelton, H., … King, S. (2017). The effects of prenatal maternal stress on early temperament: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 38, 310321. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000444.
Simcock, G., Kildea, S., Elgbeili, G., Laplante, D. P., Stapleton, H., Cobham, V., & King, S. (2016). Age-related changes in the effects of stress in pregnancy on infant motor development by maternal report: The Queensland Flood Study. Developmental Psychobiology, 58, 640659. doi:10.1002/dev.21407.
Simcock, G., Laplante, D. P., Elgbeili, G., Kildea, S., Cobham, V., Stapleton, H., & King, S. (2016). Infant neurodevelopment is affected by prenatal maternal stress: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study. Infancy, 22, 282302, doi:10.1111/infa.12166.
Spence, S. H., Rapee, R., McDonald, C., & Ingram, M. (2001). The structure of anxiety symptoms among preschoolers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 12931316. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(00)00098-X.
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Szymanski, L. M., & Satin, A. J. (2012). Strenuous exercise during pregnancy: Is there a limit? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 207, 179.e1179.e176. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2012.07.021.
van den Bergh, B. R. H., & Marcoen, A. (2004). High antenatal maternal anxiety is related to ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and anxiety in 8- and 9-year-olds. Child Development, 75, 10851097. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00727.x.
Wei, C., & Kendall, P. C. (2014). Parental involvement: Contribution to childhood anxiety and its treatment. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17, 319339. doi:10.1007/s10567-014-0170-6.
Weinstock, M. (2008). The long-term behavioural consequences of prenatal stress. Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 10731086. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.03.002.
Weiss, D. S., & Marmar, C. R. (1997). The Impact of Events Scale—Revised. New York: Guilford Press.
Welberg, L. A. M., & Seckl, J. R. (2001). Prenatal stress, glucocorticoids and the programming of the brain. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 13, 113128. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2826.2001.00601.x.
Woodward, L. J., & Fergusson, D. M. (2001). Life course outcomes of young people with anxiety disorders in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 10861093. doi:10.1097/00004583-200109000-00018.
Yong Ping, E., Laplante, D. P., Elgbeili, G., Hillerer, K. M., Brunet, A., O'Hara, M. W., & King, S. (2015). Prenatal maternal stress predicts stress reactivity at 2½ years of age: The Iowa Flood Study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 56, 6278. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.02.015.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The role of prenatal maternal stress in the development of childhood anxiety symptomatology: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study

  • Mia A. McLean (a1) (a2), Vanessa E. Cobham (a1) (a2), Gabrielle Simcock (a1) (a2), Guillaume Elgbeili (a3), Sue Kildea (a1) (a2) and Suzanne King (a3) (a4)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.