Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and temperament in adolescent borderline and antisocial personality pathology

  • Martina Jovev (a1) (a2), Sarah Whittle (a1), Murat Yücel (a1), Julian Guy Simmons (a1), Nicholas B. Allen (a1) and Andrew M. Chanen (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

Investigating etiological processes early in the life span represents an important step toward a better understanding of the development of personality pathology. The current study evaluated the interaction between an individual difference risk factor (i.e., temperament) and a biological risk factor for aggressive behavior (i.e., atypical [larger] rightward hippocampal asymmetry) in predicting the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder symptoms during early adolescence. The sample consisted of 153 healthy adolescents (M = 12.6 years, SD = 0.4, range = 11.4–13.7) who were selected from a larger sample to maximize variation in temperament. Interactions between four temperament factors (effortful control, negative affectivity, surgency, and affiliativeness), based on the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire—Revised, and volumetric measures of hippocampal asymmetry were examined as cross-sectional predictors of BPD and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. Boys were more likely to have elevated BPD symptoms if they were high on affiliation and had larger rightward hippocampal asymmetry. In boys, low affiliation was a significant predictor of BPD symptoms in the presence of low rightward hippocampal asymmetry. For girls, low effortful control was associated with elevated BPD symptoms in the presence of atypical rightward hippocampal asymmetry. This study builds on previous work reporting significant associations between atypical hippocampal asymmetry and poor behavioral regulation.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Andrew Chanen, Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, Locked Bag 10, Parkville, VC 3052, Australia; E-mail: achanen@unimelb.edu.au.

References

Hide All
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Youth Self-report and 1991 profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
Ayduk, O., Zayas, V., Downey, G., Cole, A., Shoda, Y., & Mischel, W. (2008). Rejection sensitivity and executive control: Joint predictors of borderline personality features. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 151168.
Basoglu, C., Oner, O., Ates, A., Algul, A., Bez, Y., Ebrinc, S., et al. (2011). Temperament traits and psychopathy in a group of patients with antisocial personality disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52, 607612.
Beauchaine, T. P., Klein, D. N., Crowell, S. E., Derbidge, C., & Gatzke-Kopp, L. (2009). Multifinality in the development of personality disorders: A Biology × Sex × Environment interaction model of antisocial and borderline traits. Developmental Psychology, 21, 735770.
Bernstein, D. P., Cohen, P., Skodol, A. E., Bezirganian, S., & Brook, J. (1996). Childhood antecedents of adolescent personality disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 907913.
Bernstein, D. P., Cohen, P., Velez, C. N., Schwab-Stone, M., Siever, L. J., & Shinsato, L. (1993). Prevalence and stability of the DSM-III-R personality disorders in a community-based survey of adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 12371243.
Brunner, R., Henze, R., Parzer, P., Kramer, J., Feigl, N., Lutz, K., et al. (2010). Reduced prefrontal and orbitofrontal gray matter in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder: Is it disorder specific? NeuroImage, 49, 114120.
Caspi, A. (2000). The child is father of the man: Personality continuities from childhood to adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 158172.
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Newman, D. L., & Silva, P. A. (1996). Behavioral observations at age 3 years predict adult psychiatric disorders: Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 10331039.
Chanen, A. M., Jovev, M., & Jackson, H. (2007). Adaptive functioning and psychiatric symptoms in adolescents with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 297306.
Chanen, A. M., Jovev, M., McCutcheon, L. K., Jackson, H. J., & McGorry, P. D. (2008). Borderline personality disorder in young people and the prospects for prevention and early intervention. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 4, 4857.
Chanen, A. M., Velakoulis, D., Carison, K., Gaunson, K., Wood, S. J., Yücel, M., et al. (2008). Orbitofrontal, amygdala and hippocampal volumes in teenagers with first-presentation borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging, 163, 116125.
Chesterman, L. P., Taylor, P. J., Cox, T., Hill, M., & Lumsden, J. (1994). Multiple measures of cerebral state in dangerous mentally disordered inpatients. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 4, 228239.
Clark, L. (2005). Temperament as a unifying basis for personality and psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 505521.
Cohen, P., & Crawford, T. N. (2005). Developmental issues. In Bender, D. S., Oldham, J. M., & Skodol, A. E. (Eds.), The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of personality disorders (pp. 171185). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Cohen, P., Crawford, T. N., Johnson, J. G., & Kasen, S. (2005). The children in the community study of developmental course of personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19, 466486.
Coyne, J. C., & Whiffen, V. E. (1995). Issues in personality as diatheses for depression: The case of sociotropy-dependency and autonomy-self-criticism. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 358378.
Crawford, T., Cohen, P., & Brook, J. (2001). Dramatic–erratic personality disorder symptoms: II. Developmental pathways from early adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15, 336350.
Crawford, T. N., Cohen, P., Johnson, J. G., Kasen, S., First, M. B., Gordon, K., et al. (2005). Self-reported personality disorder in the children in the community sample: Convergent and prospective validity in late adolescence and adulthood. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19, 3052.
Crowell, S. E., Beauchaine, T. P., & Lenzenweger, M. F. (2008). The development of borderline personality disorder and self-injurious behavior. In Beauchaine, T. & Hinshaw, S. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (pp. 510539). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Crowell, S. E., Beauchaine, T. P., & Linehan, M. M. (2009). A biosocial developmental model of borderline personality: Elaborating and extending Linehan's theory. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 495510.
De Clercq, B., De Fruyt, F., & Widiger, T. A. (2009). Integrating a developmental perspective in dimensional models of personality disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 154162.
Eaton, N. R., Krueger, R. F., Keyes, K. M., Skodol, A. E., Markon, K. E., Grant, B. F., et al. (2011). Borderline personality disorder co-morbidity: Relationship to the internalizing–externalizing structure of common mental disorders. Psychological Medicine, 41, 10411050.
Ellis, L. K., & Rothbart, M. K. (2001). Revision of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire. Poster presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development.
Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., Goldsmith, H. H., & Van Hulle, C. A. (2006). Gender differences in temperament: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 3372.
Fowles, D. C., & Dindo, L. (2009). Temperament and Psychopathy: A dual-pathway model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 28, 179183.
Giedd, J. N., Castellanos, F. X., Rajapakse, J. C., Vaituzis, A. C., & Rapoport, J. L. (1997). Sexual dimorphism of the developing human brain. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 21, 11851201.
Gunderson, J. G. (1996). The borderline patient's intolerance of aloneness: Insecure attachments and therapist availability. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 752758.
Harpur, T. J., Hart, S. D., & Hare, R. D. (1993). The personality of the psychopath. In Costa, P. T. & Widiger, T. A. (Eds.), Personality disorders and the Five-Factor model of personality (pp. 149173). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Hier, D. (1979). Sex differences in hemispheric specialization: Hypothesis for the excess of dyslexia in boys. Annals of Dyslexia, 29, 74.
Holmes, T. H., & Masuda, M. (1974). Life changes and illness susceptibility. In Dohrenwend, B. S. & Dohrenwend, B. P. (Eds.), Stressful life events: Their nature and effects (pp. 4572). New York: Wiley.
Isaacs, E. B., Lucas, A., Chong, W. K., Wood, S. J., Johnson, C. L., Marshall, C., et al. (2000). Hippocampal volume and everyday memory in children of very low birth weight. Pediatric Research, 47, 713720.
Jack, C. R., Twomey, C. K., Zinsmeister, A. R., Sharborough, F. W., Petersen, R., & Cascino, G. D. (1989). Anterior temporal lobes and hippocampal formations: Normative volumetric measurements from MR images in young adults. Radiology, 172, 549554.
Jenkinson, M., & Smith, S. M. (2001). A global optimisation method for robust affine registration of brain images. Medical Image Analysis, 5, 143156.
Johnson, J., Cohen, D., Brown, J., Smailes, E., & Berstein, D. (1999). Childhood maltreatment increases risk for personality disorders during early adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 600606.
Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Kasen, S., Skodol, A. E., Hamagami, F., & Brook, J. S. (2000). Age-related change in personality disorder trait levels between early adolescence and adulthood: A community-based longitudinal investigation. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 265275.
Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Skodol, A. E., Oldham, J. M., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. S. (1999). Personality disorders in adolescence and risk of major mental disorders and suicidality during adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 805811.
Johnson, J. G., Smailes, E. M., Cohen, P., Brown, J., & Bernstein, D. P. (2000). Associations between four types of childhood neglect and personality disorder symptoms during adolescence and early adulthood: Findings of a community-based longitudinal study. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14, 171187.
Joyce, P., McKenzie, J., Luty, S., Mulder, R., Carter, J., Sullivan, P., et al. (2003). Temperament, childhood environment and psychopathology as risk factors for avoidant and borderline personality disorders. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 37, 756764.
Kasen, S., Cohen, P., Skodol, A. E., Johnson, J. G., Smailes, E., & Brook, J. S. (2001). Alternative pathways of continuity: Childhood depression and adult personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 231236.
Le Doux, J. E. (1996). The emotional brain. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Lenzenweger, M., & Cicchetti, D. (2005). Toward a developmental psychopathology approach to borderline personality disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 893898.
Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., & Gau, J. M. (2003). Comparability of self-report checklist and interview data in the assessment of stressful life events in young adults. Psychological Reports, 93, 459471.
Liest, T., & Dadds, M. R. (2009). Adolescents' ability to read different emotional faces relates to their history of maltreatment and type of psychopathology. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 14, 237250.
Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive–behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.
Nelson, E. E., Leibenluft, E., McClure, E. B., & Pine, D. S. (2005). The social re-orientation of adolescence: A neuroscience perspective on the process and its relation to psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, 35, 163174.
Nunes, P. M., Wenzel, A., Borges, K. T., Porto, C. R., Caminha, R. M., & de Oliveira, I. R. (2009). Volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with borderline personality disorder: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality Disorders, 23, 333.
Oldfield, R. C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh handedness inventory. Neuropsychology, 9, 97114.
Orvaschel, H., & Puig-Antich, J. (1994). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children: Epidemiological version. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Nova Southeastern University, Center for Psychological Studies.
Paris, J. (1997). Antisocial and borderline personality disorders: Two separate diagnoses or two aspects of the same psychopathology? Comprehensive Psychiatry, 38, 237242.
Paus, T. (2005). Mapping brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 6068.
Putnam, S., Ellis, L., & Rothbart, M. (2001). The structure of temperament from infancy through adolescence. In Eliasz, A. & Angleitner, A. (Eds.), Advances in research on temperament. Lengerich, Germany: Pabst Science Publishers.
Raine, A., Buchsbaum, M., & LaCasse, L. (1997). Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 495508.
Raine, A., Ishikawa, S. S., Arce, E., Lencz, T., Knuth, K. H., Bihrle, S., et al. (2004). Hippocampal structural asymmetry in unsuccessful psychopaths. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 185191.
Reichborn-Kjennerud, T. (2010). Genetics of personality disorders. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, 30, 893910.
Rettew, D. C., Copeland, W., Stanger, C., & Hudziak, J. J. (2004). Associations between temperament and DSM-IV externalizing disorders in children and adolescents. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 25, 383391.
Rothbart, M., & Ahadi, S. (1994). Temperament and the development of personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 5566.
Rothbart, M., Ahadi, S., & Evans, D. (2000). Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 122135.
Rothbart, M., & Bates, J. (2006). Temperament. In Eisenberg, N., Damon, W., & Richard, L. M. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 99166). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Samuel, D., & Widiger, T. (2008). A meta-analytic review of the relationships between the five-factor model and DSM-IV-TR personality disorders: A facet level analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 13261342.
Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147177.
Shaffer, D., Gould, M. S., Brasic, J., Ambrosini, P., Fisher, P., Bird, H., et al. (1983). A Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS). Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 12281231.
Shaw, P., Greenstein, D., Lerch, J., Clasen, L., Lenroot, R., Gogtay, N., et al. (2006). Intellectual ability and cortical development in children and adolescents. Nature, 440, 676679.
Skodol, A. E., Gunderson, J. G., McGlashan, T. H., Dyck, I. R., Stout, R. L., Bender, D. S., et al. (2002). Functional impairment in patients with schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, or obsessive–compulsive personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 276283.
Smith, S. M. (2002). Fast robust automated brain extraction. Human Brain Mapping, 17, 143155.
Soderstrom, H., Hultin, L., Tullberg, M., Wikkelso, C., Ekholm, S., & Forsman, A. (2002). Reduced frontotemporal perfusion in psychopathic personality. Psychiatry Research, 114, 8194.
StataCorp. (2009). Stata Statistical Software: Release 11.0. College Station, TX: Author.
Swendsen, J. D., Conway, K. P., Rounsaville, B. J., & Merikangas, K. R. (2002). Are personality traits familial risk factors for substance abuse? Results of a controlled family study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 17601766.
Szabo, C. A., Wyllie, E., Siavalas, E. L., Najm, I., Ruggieri, P., & Kotagal, P. (1999). Hippocampal volumetry in children 6 years or younger: Assessment of children with and without complex febrile seizures. Epilepsy Research, 33, 19.
Thompson, D. K., Wood, S. J., Doyle, L. W., Warfield, S. K., Egan, G. F., & Inder, T. E. (2009). MR-determined hippocampal asymmetry in full-term and preterm neonates. Hippocampus, 19, 118123.
Velakoulis, D., Pantelis, C., McGorry, P. D., Dudgeon, P., Brewer, W., Cook, C., et al. (1999). Hippocampal volume in first-episode psychoses and chronic schizophrenia—A high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 133141.
Velakoulis, D., Wood, S. J., Wong, M. T., McGorry, P. D., Yung, A. R., Phillips, L., et al. (2006). Hippocampal and amygdala volumes according to psychosis stage and diagnosis—A magnetic resonance imaging study of chronic schizophrenia, first-episode psychosis, and ultra-high-risk individuals. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 139149.
Watson, C., Andermann, F., Gloor, P., Jones-Gotman, M., Peters, T., Evans, A., et al. (1992). Anatomic basis of amygdaloid and hippocampal volume measurement by magnetic resonance imaging. Neurology, 42, 17431750.
Whittle, S., Yap, M. B. H., Sheeber, L., Dudgeon, P., Yücel, M., Pantelis, C., et al. (2011). Hippocampal volume and sensitivity to maternal aggressive behavior: A prospective study of adolescent depressive symptoms. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 115129.
Whittle, S., Yucel, M., Fornito, A., Barrett, A., Wood, S. J., Lubman, D. I., et al. (2008). Neuroanatomical correlates of temperament in early adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 682.
Yang, Y., & Raine, A. (2009). Prefrontal structural and functional brain imaging findings in antisocial, violent, and psychopathic individuals: A meta-analysis Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging, 174, 8188.
Zanarini, M. C., & Frankenburg, F. R. (1997). Pathways to the development of borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders. Special Issue: Trauma and Personality Disorders, 11, 93104.
Zanarini, M. C., & Gunderson, J. G. (1997). Differential diagnoses of antisocial behavior and borderline personality disorder. In Stoff, D. M., Breiling, J., & Maser, J. D. (Eds.), Handbook of antisocial behavior. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Zhang, Y., Brady, M., & Smith, S. (2001). Segmentation of brain MR images through a hidden Markov random field model and the expectation maximization algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 20, 4557.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed