Skip to main content Accessibility help

Predicting psychosis-spectrum diagnoses in adulthood from social behaviors and neighborhood contexts in childhood

  • Paul D. Hastings (a1), Lisa A. Serbin (a2), William Bukowski (a2), Jonathan L. Helm (a3), Dale M. Stack (a2), Daniel J. Dickson (a2), Jane E. Ledingham (a4) and Alex E. Schwartzman (a2)...


Research showing that risk for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychosis, and other psychosis-spectrum diagnoses in adulthood is multidetermined has underscored the necessity of studying the additive and interactive factors in childhood that precede and predict future disorders. In this study, risk for the development of psychosis-spectrum disorders was examined in a 2-generation, 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 3,905 urban families against a sociocultural backdrop of changing economic and social conditions. Peer nominations of aggression, withdrawal, and likeability and national census information on neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood, as well as changes in neighborhood socioeconomic conditions over the lifespan, were examined as predictors of diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychosis-spectrum disorders in adulthood relative to developing only nonpsychotic disorders or no psychiatric disorders. Individuals who were both highly aggressive and highly withdrawn were at greater risk for other psychosis-spectrum diagnoses when they experienced greater neighborhood disadvantage in childhood or worsening neighborhood conditions over maturation. Males who were highly aggressive but low on withdrawal were at greater risk for schizophrenia diagnoses. Childhood neighborhood disadvantage predicted both schizophrenia and bipolar diagnoses, regardless of childhood social behavior. Results provided strong support for multiple-domain models of psychopathology, and suggest that universal preventive interventions and social policies aimed at improving neighborhood conditions may be particularly important for decreasing the prevalence of psychosis-spectrum diagnoses in the future.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Predicting psychosis-spectrum diagnoses in adulthood from social behaviors and neighborhood contexts in childhood
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Predicting psychosis-spectrum diagnoses in adulthood from social behaviors and neighborhood contexts in childhood
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Predicting psychosis-spectrum diagnoses in adulthood from social behaviors and neighborhood contexts in childhood
      Available formats


Corresponding author

Address correspondence: Paul D. Hastings, Department of Psychology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA95618; E-mail:


Hide All
Abel, K. M., Drake, R., & Goldstein, J. M. (2010). Sex differences in schizophrenia. International Review of Psychiatry, 22, 417428.
Altamura, A. C., Buoli, M., Caldiroli, A., Caron, L., Cumerlatro Melter, C., Dobrea, C., Cigliobiano, M., & Zanelli Quarantini, F. (2015). Misdiagnosis, duration of untreated illness (DUI) and outcome in bipolar patients with psychotic symptoms: A naturalistic study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 182, 7075.
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 885908. doi: 10.1037/a0017376
Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 371399. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135233
Brody, G. H., Lei, M., Chen, E., & Miller, G. E. (2014). Neighborhood poverty and allostatic load in African American youth. Pediatrics, 134, 13621368. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1395
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological Review, 101(4), 568586. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.101.4.568
Campbell, F., Conti, G., Heckman, J. J., Moon, S. H., Pinto, R., Pungello, E., & Pan, Y. (2014). Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health. Science, 343, 14781485. doi: 10.1126/science.1248429.
Cicchetti, D. (2008). A multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective on research in development and psychopathology. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (pp. 2757). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., & Curtis, W. J. (2007). Multilevel perspectives on pathways to resilient functioning. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 627629. doi: 10.1017/S0954579407000314
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2009). The past achievements and future promises of developmental psychopathology: The coming of age of a discipline. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 1625.
Cornblatt, B. A., Lencz, T., Smith, C. W., Correll, C. U., Auther, A. M., & Nakayama, E. (2003). The schizophrenia prodrome revisited: A neurodevelopmental perspective. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29, 633651.
Dean, K., Stevens, H., Mortenson, P. B., Murray, R. M., Walsh, E., & Pedersen, C. B. (2010). Full spectrum of psychiatric outcomes among offspring with parental history of mental disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 822829. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.86
Degnan, K. A., Hane, A. A., Henderson, H. A., Moas, O. L., Reeb-Sutherland, B. C., & Fox., N. A. (2011). Longitudinal stability of temperamental exuberance and social-emotional outcomes in early childhood. Developmental Psychology, 47, 765780. doi: 10.1037/a0021316
Dickenson, J. A., & Young, B. J. (2008). A short history of Québec (4th ed.). Québec, QC: McGill-Queen's University Press.
Dishion, T. J., Ha, T., & Véronneau, M.-H. (2012). An ecological analysis of the effects of deviant peer clustering on sexual promiscuity, problem behavior and childbearing from early adolescence to adulthood: An enhancement of the life history framework. Developmental Psychology, 48, 703717. doi: 10.1037/a0027304
Doey, L., Coplan, R. J., & Kingsbury, M. (2013). Bashful boys and coy girls: A review of gender differences in childhood shyness. Sex Roles, 70, 255266. doi: 10.1007/s11199-0130317-9
Done, D. J., Crow, T. J., Johnstone, E. C., & Sacker, A. (1994). Childhood antecedents of schizophrenia and affective illness: Social adjustment at ages 7 and 11. British Medical Journal, 309, 699703.
Dunn, E. C., Milliren, C. E., Evans, C. R., Subramanian, S. V., & Richmond, T. K. (2015). Disentangling the relative influence of schools and neighborhoods on adolescents’ risk for depressive symptoms. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 732740. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302374
Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., & Eggum, N. D. (2010). Emotion-related self-regulation and its relation to children's maladjustment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 495525. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131208
Ellis, B. J., Boyce, W. T., Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 728. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000611
Galanter, C. A., & Leibenluft, E. (2008). Frontiers between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 17, 325-346.
Goeree, R., Farahati, F., Burke, N., Blackhouse, G., O'Reilly, D., … Tarride, J. E. (2005). The economic burden of schizophrenia in Canada in 2004. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 21, 20172028.
Graif, C., Arcaya, M. C., & Diez Roux, A. V. (2016). Moving to opportunity and mental health: Exploring the spatial context of neighborhood effects. Social Science and Medicine, 162, 5058.
Hankin, B. L., & Abela, J. R. Z. (2005). Development of psychopathology: A vulnerability-stress perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Heberle, A. E., & Carter, A. S. (2015). Cognitive aspects of young children's experience of economic disadvantage. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 723746. doi:
Hertzman, C. (1999). The biological embedding of early experience and its effects on health in adulthood. Annals of New York Academy of Science, 896, 8595. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08107.x
Heston, L. L. (1966). Psychiatric disorders in foster home reared children of schizophrenic mothers. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 112, 819825. doi: 10.1192/bjp.112.489.819
Hollingshead, A. B., & Redlich, F. C. (1958). Social class and mental illness: A community study. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Hudson, C. G. (2012). Patterns of residential mobility of people with schizophrenia. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 39, 149179.
Kahle, S., Utendale, W. T., Widaman, K., & Hastings, P. D. (2018). Parasympathetic reactivity and inhibitory control predict the development of externalizing problems in early childhood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46, 237249.
Kessler, R. C., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Chatterji, S., Lee, S., Ormel, J., … Wang, P. S. (2009). The global burden of mental disorders: An update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Epidemiologia E Psichiatria Sociale, 18, 2333. doi:
Knapp, M., Mangalore, R., & Simon, J. (2004). The global costs of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30, 279293.
Kwok, W. (2014). Is there evidence that social class at birth increases risk of psychosis? A systematic review. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 60, 801808.
Lawrence, D., & Kisely, S. (2010). Inequalities in healthcare provision for people with severe mental illness. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 24, 6168. doi: 10.1177/1359786810382058
Ledingham, J. E. (1981). Developmental patterns of aggressive and withdrawn behavior in childhood: A possible method for identifying preschizophrenics. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 9, 122. doi: 10.1007/BF00917854
Ledingham, J. E., Younger, A., Schwartzman, A. E., & Bergeron, G. (1982). Agreement among teacher, peer and self-ratings of children's aggression, withdrawal and likability. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 363372. doi: 10.1007/BF00912327
Leventhal, T., & Dupéré, V. (2011). Moving to opportunity: Does long-term exposure to ‘low-poverty’ neighborhoods make a difference for adolescents? Social Science and Medicine, 73, 737743.
Liu, J. (2006). Childhood externalizing behavior: Theory and implications. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 17, 93103. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6171.2004.tb00003.x
Loeber, R., Hipwell, A., Battista, D., Sembower, M., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2009). Intergenerational transmission of multiple problem behaviors: Prospective relationships between mothers and daughters. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 10351048. doi: 10.1007/s10802-009-9337-x
Luciano, A., & Meara, E. (2014). The employment status of people with mental illness: National survey data from 2009 and 2010. Psychiatric Services, 65, 12011209. doi: 10.1176/
Ludwig, J., Duncan, G. J., Gennetian, L. A., Katz, L. F., Kessler, R. C., Kling, J. R., & Sanbonmatsu, L. (2012). Neighborhood effects on the long-term well-being of low income adults. Science, 337, 15051510. doi: 10.1126/science.1224648
Marcoulides, G. A., & Hershberger, S. L. (1997). Multivariate statistical methods: A first course. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Martin-Storey, A., Ruttle, P. L., Temcheff, C.E., Serbin, L.A., Stack, D.M., Ledingham, J., & Schwartzman, A.E. (2013). Longitudinal and concurrent pathways to alcoholism: The importance of perception of neighborhood disorder. Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 156174. DOI: 10.1002/jcop.21520
Masarik, A. S., & Conger, R.S. (2017). Stress and child development: A review of the family stress model. Current Opinion in Psychology, 13, 8590. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2016.05.008
McEwen, B. S., & Stellar, E. (1993). Stress and the individual: Mechanisms leading to disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 153, 20932101. doi: 10.1001/archinte.1993.00410180039004
McGrath, J., Saha, S., Chant, D., & Welham, J. (2008). Schizophrenia: A concise overview of incidence, prevalence, and mortality. Epidemiologic Reviews, 30, 6776.
Mednick, S. A., & Schulsinger, F. (1968). Some premorbid characteristics related to breakdown in children with schizophrenic mothers. In Rosenthal, D. & Kety, S. (Eds.), Transmission of schizophrenia (pp. 267296). New York, NY: Pergamon.
Miller, G. E., Brody, G. H., Yu, T., & Chen, E. (2014). A family-oriented psychosocial intervention reduces inflammation in low-SES African American youth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 1128711292. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1406578111
Moskowitz, D. S., & Schwartzman, A. E. (1989). Painting group portraits: Studying life outcomes for aggressive and withdrawn children. Journal of Personality, 57, 723746. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1989.tb00492.x
Moskowitz, D. S., Schwartzman, A. E., & Ledingham, J. (1985). Stability and change in aggression and withdrawal in middle childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 3041. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.94.1.30
O'Donnell, P. (2011). Adolescent onset of cortical disinhibition in schizophrenia: Insights from animal models. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37, 484492. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbr028.
O'Donoghue, B., Roche, E., & Lane, A. (2016). Neighbourhood level social deprivation and the risk of psychotic disorders: A systematic review. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 51, 941950.
Page, M. E., Conger, K., Guyer, A. E, Hastings, P. D., & Thompson, R. (2016). Children and the intergenerational transmission of poverty: Research frontiers and policy implications. Center for Poverty Research, University of California Davis.
Patterson, G. R. (2002). The early development of coercive family process. In Reid, J. B., Patterson, G. R., & Snyder, J. (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (pp. 2544). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Pekarik, E. G., Prinz, R. J., Liebert, D. E., Weintraub, S., & Neale, J. M. (1976). The Pupil Evaluation Inventory: A sociometric technique for assessing children's social behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 8397. doi: 10.1007/BF00917607
Perälä, J., Suvisaari, J., Saarni, S. I., Kuoppasalmi, K., Isometsä, E., Pirkola, S., … Lonnqvist, J. (2007). Lifetime prevalence of psychotic and bipolar I disorders in a general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 1928.
Phillips, L. (1953). Case history data and prognosis in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 117, 515525. Retrieved from
Ramsay, S. E., Morris, R. W., Whincup, P. H., Subramanian, S. V., Papacosta, A. O., Lennon, L. T., & Wannamethee, S. G. (2015). The influence of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic deprivation on cardiovascular disease mortality in older age: Longitudinal multilevel analyses from a cohort of older British men. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 69, 12241231. doi: 10.1136/jech-2015-205542
Rasic, D., Hajek, T., Alda, M., & Uher, R. (2014). Risk of mental illness in offspring of parents with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis of family high-risk studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40, 2838. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbt114
Robins, L. N. (1966). Deviant children grown up: A sociological and psychiatric study of sociopathic personality. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Robins, E., & Guze, S.B. (1970). Establishment of diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness: Its application to schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 983987.
Roos, L. L., Magoon, J., Gupta, S., Chateau, D., & Veugelers, P. J. (2004). Socioeconomic determinants of mortality in two Canadian provinces: Multilevel modeling and neighborhood context. Social Science and Medicine, 59, 14351447. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.01.024
Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J. (2006). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In Damon, W. & Lerner, R. (Series Eds.) & Eisenberg, N. (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 571645). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Ruggero, C. J., Carlson, G. A., Kotov, R., & Bromet, E. J. (2010). Ten-year diagnostic consistency of bipolar disorder in a first-admission sample. Bipolar Disorder, 12, 2131.
Rutter, M. (1990). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. In Rolf, J., Masten, A. S., Cicchetti, D., Nuechterlein, K. H, & Weintraub, S. (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (pp. 181214). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Sariaslan, A., Fazel, S., D'Onofrio, B. M., Långström, N., Larsson, H., …, & Lichtenstein, P. (2016). Schizophrenia and subsequent neighborhood deprivation: revisiting the social drift hypothesis using population, twin and molecular genetic data. Translational Psychiatry, 6, e796. doi:10.1038/tp.2016.62.
Schwartzman, A. E., Ledingham, J. E., & Serbin, L. A. (1985). Identification of children at risk for adult schizophrenia: A longitudinal study. International Review of Applied Psychology, 34, 363379. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1985.tb01333.x
Serbin, L. A., Lyons, J. A., Marchessault, K., Schwartzman, A. E., & Ledingham, J. E. (1987). Observational validation of a peer nomination technique for identifying aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive-withdrawn children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 109110. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.55.1.109
Sharkey, P. (2013). Stuck in place: Urban neighborhoods and the end of progress toward racial equality. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Stack, D.M., Serbin, L.A., Mantis, I., & Kingdon, D. (2015). Breaking the cycle of adversity in vulnerable children and families: A thirty-five year study of at-risk lower income families. International Journal for Family Research and Policy, 1, 3156.
Stack, D.M., Serbin, L.A., Matte-Gagné, C., Kingdon, D., Doiron, K., & Schwartzman, A.E. (2017). Development under adverse circumstances as a risk for psychopathology: An intergenerational study of children from disadvantaged high-risk backgrounds. In Centifanti, L.M. & Williams, D. (eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Stain, H. J., Galletly, C. A., Clark, S., Wilson, J., Killen, E. A., Anthes, L., … Harvey, C. (2012). Understanding the social costs of psychosis: The experience of adults affected by psychosis identified by the second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 879889. doi: 10.1177/0004867412449060
Statistics Canada. (1986). Census profile. Catalogue 95-F0184XDB9600 [CD], prepared specifically for Concordia University. Montréal.
Statistics Canada. (2007). Profil pour le Québec et les Régions de tri d'acheminement, Recensement de 2006. Catalogue 94-581-XCB2006003 [CD]. Montréal.
Stone, M. R., Faulkner, G. E. J., Mitra, R., & Builung, R. N. (2014). The freedom to explore: Examining the influence of independent mobility on weekday, weekend and after-school physical activity behaviour in children living in urban and inner-suburban neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status. International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-11-5
Tarbox, S. I., & Pogue-Geile, M. F. (2008). Development of social functioning in preschizophrenia children and adolescents: A systematic review. Psychological Bulletin, 34, 561583. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.34.4.561.
van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2015). Genetic differential susceptibility on trial: Meta-analytic support from randomized controlled experiments. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 151162. doi: 10.1017/S0954579414001369
van Os, J., Hanssen, M., Bijl, R. V., & Vollebergh, W. (2001). Prevalence of psychotic disorder and community level of psychotic symptoms: An urban-rural comparison. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 663668.
van Os, J., Linscott, R. J., Myin-Germeys, I., Delespaul, P., & Krabbendam, L. (2009). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: Evidence for a psychosis proneness-persistence-impairment model of psychotic disorder. Psychological Medicine, 39, 179195. doi: 10.1017/S0033291708003814.
Ventres, W., & Gusoff, G. (2014). Poverty blindness: Exploring the diagnosis and treatment of an epidemic condition. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 25, 5262. DOI:
Véronneau, M. H., Serbin, L. A., Stack, D. M., Ledingham, J., & Schwartzman, A.E. (2015). Emerging psychopathology moderates upward social mobility: The intergenerational (dis)continuity of socioeconomic status. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 12171236. doi:
Wagmiller, R. L., & Adelman, R. (2009). Childhood and intergenerational poverty: The long-term consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Columbia University Academic Commons.
Watt, N. F. (1978). Patterns of childhood social development in adult schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 160165.
Wender, P. H., Rosenthal, D., Kety, S. S., Schulsinger, F., & Welner, J. (1973). Social class and psychopathology in adoptees: A natural experimental method for separating the roles of genetic and experiential factors. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 318325.
Werner, S., Malaspina, D., & Rabinowitz, J. (2007). Socioeconomic status at birth is associated with risk of schizophrenia: Population-based multilevel study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 13731378. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm032
Whiteford, H. A., Degenhardt, L., Rehm, J., Baxter, A. J., Ferrari, A. J., Erskine, H. E., … Vos, T. (2013). Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet, 382, 15751586. doi:
Widaman, K. F. (2006). Best practices in quantitative methods for developmentalists: III. What to do with or without them. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 3, Serial No. 71, 4264.
World Health Organization. (1975). Manual of the international statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, ninth revision (Vols. 1 & 2). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. (2011). Noncommunicable diseases country profiles 2011. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Zahn-Waxler, C., Klimes-Dougan, B., & Slattery, M. J. (2000). Internalizing problems of childhood and adolescence: Prospects, pitfalls, and progress in understanding the development of anxiety and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 443466. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400003102
Zimmerman, M. (2008). To screen or not to screen: Conceptual issues in screening for psychiatric disorders in psychiatric patients with a focus on the performance of the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6, 5363.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Predicting psychosis-spectrum diagnoses in adulthood from social behaviors and neighborhood contexts in childhood

  • Paul D. Hastings (a1), Lisa A. Serbin (a2), William Bukowski (a2), Jonathan L. Helm (a3), Dale M. Stack (a2), Daniel J. Dickson (a2), Jane E. Ledingham (a4) and Alex E. Schwartzman (a2)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.