Skip to main content Accessibility help

Observed positive parenting behaviors and youth genotype: Evidence for gene–environment correlations and moderation by parent personality traits

  • Caroline W. Oppenheimer (a1), Benjamin L. Hankin (a1), Jessica L. Jenness (a1), Jami F. Young (a2) and Andrew Smolen (a3)...


Gene–environment correlations (rGE) have been demonstrated in behavioral genetic studies, but rGE have proven elusive in molecular genetic research. Significant gene–environment correlations may be difficult to detect because potential moderators could reduce correlations between measured genetic variants and the environment. Molecular genetic studies investigating moderated rGE are lacking. This study examined associations between child catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and aspects of positive parenting (responsiveness and warmth), and whether these associations were moderated by parental personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) among a general community sample of third, sixth, and ninth graders (N = 263) and their parents. Results showed that parent personality traits moderated the rGE association between youths' genotype and coded observations of positive parenting. Parents with low levels of neuroticism and high levels of extraversion exhibited greater sensitive responsiveness and warmth, respectively, to youth with the valine/valine genotype. Moreover, youth with this genotype exhibited lower levels of observed anger. There was no association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and parenting behaviors for parents high on neuroticism and low on extraversion. Findings highlight the importance of considering moderating variables that may influence child genetic effects on the rearing environment. Implications for developmental models of maladaptive and adaptive child outcomes, and interventions for psychopathology, are discussed within a developmental psychopathology framework.


Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Benjamin L. Hankin, Department of Psychology, University of Denver, 2155 South Race Street, Denver CO 80208; E-mail:


Hide All
Akil, M., Kolachana, B. S., Rothmond, D. A., Hyde, T. M., Weinberger, D. R., & Kleinman, J. E. (2003). Catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and dopamine regulation in the human brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 20082013.
Alexander, N., Osinsky, R., Mueller, E., Schmitz, A., Guenthert, S., Kuepper, Y., et al. (2011). Genetic variants within the dopaminergic system interact to modulate endocrine stress reactivity and recovery. Behavioural Brain Research, 216, 5358.
Armbruster, D., Mueller, A., Strobel, A., Lesch, K., Kirschbaum, C., & Brocke, B. (2011). Variation in genes involved in dopamine clearance influence the startle response in older adults. Journal of Neural Transmission, 118, 12811292.
Asendorpf, J. B., & Wilpers, S. (1998). Personality effects on social relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 15311544.
Audrain-McGovern, J., & Tercyak, K. P. (2011). Genes, environment, and adolescent smoking: Implications for prevention. In Jaffee, S., Kendler, K. S., & Romer, D. (Eds.), The dynamic genome: The role of genes and environment in youth development (pp. 294321). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2006). Gene–environment interaction of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) and observed maternal insensitivity predicting externalizing behavior in preschoolers. Developmental Psychobiology, 48, 406409.
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 5695.
Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 8396.
Belsky, J., & Barends, N. (2002). Personality and parenting. In Bornstein, M. (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 3. Being and becoming a parent (2nd ed., pp. 415438). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Belsky, J., & Beaver, K. M. (2010). Cumulative-genetic plasticity, parenting, and adolescent self-regulation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 619626.
Belsky, J., Crnic, K., & Woodworth, S. (1995). Personality and parenting: Exploring the mediating role of transient mood and daily hassles. Journal of Personality, 63, 905929.
Belsky, J., & Jaffee, S. (2006). Multiple determinants of parenting. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 3. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (2nd ed., pp. 107123). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 885908.
Benet-Martinez, V., & John, O. P. (1998). Los Cinco Grandes across cultures and ethnic groups: Multitrait multimethod analyses of the Big Five in Spanish and English. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 729750.
Bilder, R. M., Volavka, J., ál Czobor, P., Malhotra, A. K., Kennedy, J. L., Ni, X., et al. (2002). Neurocognitive correlates of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in chronic schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 701707.
Bilder, R. M., Volavka, J., Lachman, H. M., & Grace, A. A. (2004). The catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism: Relations to the tonic-phasic dopamine hypothesis and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 19431961.
Bugental, D. B., & Grusec, J. E. (2006). Socialization processes. In Damon, W. & Lerner, R. M. (Series Eds.) & Eisenberg, N. (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 366428). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Caron, A., Weiss, B., Harris, V., & Catron, T. (2006). Parenting behavior dimensions and child psychopathology: Specificity, task dependency and interactive relations. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 3445.
Carrasco, M. A., Rodriguez, M. A., del Barrio, M. V., & Holgado, F. P. (2011). Relative and absolute stability in perceived parenting behaviour: A longitudinal study with children and adolescents. Psychological Reports, 108, 149166.
Caspi, A. (1998). Personality development across the lifecourse. In Damon, W. & Lerner, R. M. (Series Eds.) & Eisenberg, N. (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 311388). New York: Wiley.
Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851854.
Caspi, A., & Roberts, B. W. (2001). Personality development across the life course: The argument for change and continuity. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 4966.
Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453484.
Cicchetti, D. (2006). Development and psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and method (2nd ed., pp. 123). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Clark, L. A., Kochanska, G., & Ready, R. (2000). Mothers' personality and its interaction with child temperament as predictors of parenting behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 274285.
Clark, L. A., Watson, D., & Mineka, S. (1994). Temperament, personality, and the mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 103116.
Collins, W. A., & Russell, G. (1991). Mother–child and father–child relationships in middle childhood and adolescence: A developmental analysis. Developmental Review, 11, 99136.
Compas, B. E., Champion, J. E., Forehand, R., Cole, D. A., Reeslund, K. L., Fear, J., et al. (2010). Coping and parenting: Mediators of 12-month outcomes of a family group cognitive–behavioral preventive intervention with families of depressed parents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 623634.
Compas, B. E., Forehand, R., Keller, G., Champion, J. E., Rakow, A., Reeslund, K. L., et al. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of a family cognitive–behavioral preventive intervention for children of depressed parents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 10071020.
Coplan, R. J., Reichel, M., & Rowan, K. (2009). Exploring the associations between maternal personality, child temperament, and parenting: A focus on emotions. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 241246.
Cox, M. J., Mills-Koonce, R., Propper, C., & Gariepy, J. (2010). Systems theory and cascades in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 497506.
Cox, M. J., & Paley, B. (1997). Families as systems. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 243267.
Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. (1994). Maternal depression and child development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 73112.
Cuperman, R., & Ickes, W. (2009). Big Five predictors of behavior and perceptions in initial dyadic interactions: Personality similarity helps extraverts and introverts, but hurts “disagreeables.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 667684.
Davidov, M., & Grusec, J. (2006). Untangling the links between parental responsiveness to distress and warmth to child outcomes. Child Development, 77, 4458.
Diamond, A., Briand, L., Fossella, J., & Gelhbach, L. (2004). Genetic and neurochemical modulation of prefrontal cognitive functions in children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 125132.
Dickinson, D., & Elvevag, B. (2009). Genes, cognition, and brain through a COMT lens. Neuroscience, 164, 7287.
Drabant, E. M., Hariri, A. R., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Munoz, K. E., Mattay, V. S., Kolachana, B. S., et al. (2006). Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met genotype and neural mechanisms related to affective arousal and regulation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 13961406.
Durbin, C. E., Klein, D. N., Hayden, E. P., Buckley, M. E., & Moerk, K. C. (2005). Temperamental emotionality in preschoolers and parental mood disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 2837.
Eley, T. C. (2011). The interplay between genes and environment in anxiety and depression. In Jaffee, S., Kendler, K. S., & Romer, D. (Eds.), The dynamic genome: The role of genes and environment in youth development (pp. 229254). New York: Oxford University Press.
Enoch, M., Xu, K., Ferro, E., Harris, C. R., & Goldman, D. (2003). Genetic origins of anxiety in women: A role for a functional catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism. Psychiatric Genetics, 13, 3341.
Feng, X., Keenan, K., Hipwell, A. E., Henneberger, A. K., Rischall, M. S., Butch, J., et al. (2009). Longitudinal associations between emotion regulation and depression in preadolescent girls: Moderation by the caregiving environment. Developmental Psychology, 45, 798808.
Fortuna, K., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Mankuta, D., Kaitz, M., Avinun, R., Ebstein, R. P., et al. (2011). Differential genetic susceptibility to child risk at birth in predicting observed maternal behavior. PLoS One, 6, 18.
Ge, X., Conger, R. D., Lorenz, F. O., Shanahan, M., & Elder, G. H. (1995). Mutual influences in parent and adolescent psychological distress. Developmental Psychology, 31, 406419.
George, M. R. W., Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T. (2010). Positive aspects of fathering and mothering, and childrens' attachment in kindergarten. Early Child Development and Care, 180, 107119.
Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative “description of personality”: The big-five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 12161229.
Goldberg, T. E., Egan, M. F., Gscheidle, T., Coppola, R., Weickert, T., Kolachana, B. S., et al. (2003). Executive subprocesses in working memory: Relationship to catechol-o-methyltransferase val158met genotype and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 889896.
Goldberg, S., Grusec, J. E., & Jenkins, J. M. (1999). Confidence in protection: Arguments for a narrow definition of attachment. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 475483.
Goldman, D., Oroszi, G., & Ducci, F. (2005). The genetics of addictions: Uncovering the genes. Nature Reviews, 6, 521532.
Goldsmith, B. H., Buss, A. H., Plomin, R., Rothbart, M. K., Thomas, A., Chess, S., et al. (1987). Roundtable: What is temperament? Four approaches. Child Development, 58, 505529.
Gottlieb, G., Wahlsten, D., & Lickliter, R. (2006). The significance of biology for human development: A developmental psychobiological systems view. In Lerner, R. M. (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (6th ed., pp. 210257). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., Gipson, P. Y., Campbell, A. J., et al. (2006). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Evidence of moderating and mediating effects. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 257283.
Grusec, J. E., Goodnow, J. J., & Kuczynski, L. (2000). New directions in analyses of parenting contributions to children's acquisition of values. Child Development, 71, 205211.
Haberstick, B. C., & Smolen, A. (2004). Genotyping of three single nucleotide polymorphisms following whole genome preamplification of DNA collected from buccal cells. Behavior Genetics, 34, 541547.
Hammen, C. (2005). Stress and depression. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 293319
Hankin, B. L., Badanes, L. S., Abela, J. R. Z., & Watamura, S. E. (2010). Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation in dysphoric children and adolescents: Cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress from preschool through middle adolescence. Biological Psychiatry, 68, 484490.
Hankin, B. L., Jenness, J., Abela, J. R. Z., & Smolen, A. (2011). Interaction of 5-HTTLPR and idiographic stressors predicts prospective depressive symptoms specifically among youth in a multiwave design. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40, 572585.
Hankin, B. L., Nederhof, E., Oppenheimer, C. W., Jenness, J., Young, J. F., & Abela, J. R. Z. (2011). Differential susceptibility in youth: Evidence that 5-HTTLPR × positive parenting is associated with positive affect “for better and worse.” Translational Psychiatry, 1, 17.
Hartup, W. W., & Laursen, B. (1991). Relationships as developmental contexts. In Cohen, R. & Siegel, A. W. (Eds.), Context and development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hayden, E. P., Klein, D. N., Dougherty, L. R., Olino, T. M., Laptook, R. S., Dyson, M. W., et al. (2010). The dopamine D2 receptor and depressive and anxious symptoms in childhood: Associations and evidence for gene–environment correlation and gene–environment interaction. Psychiatric Genetics, 20, 304310.
Henry, B., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Langley, J., & Silva, P. A. (1994). On the “remembrance of things past”: A longitudinal evaluation of the retrospective method. Psychological Assessment, 6, 92101.
Holden, G. W., & Edwards, L. A. (1989). Parental attitudes towards child rearing: Instruments, issues, and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 2958.
Horwitz, B. N., & Neiderhiser, J. M. (2011). Gene–environment interplay, family relationships, and child adjustment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73, 804816.
Huotari, M., Gogos, J. A., Karayiorgou, M., Koponen, O., Forsberg, M. Rassmaja, A., et al. (2002). Brian catecholamine metabolism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-deficient mice. European Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 246256.
Hutchinson, K. E., Stallings, M., McGeary, J., & Bryan, A. (2004). Population stratification in the candidate gene study: Fatal threat or red herring? Psychological Bulletin, 130, 6679.
Insel, T. R. (2009). Translating scientific opportunity into public health impact: A strategic plan for research on mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 128133.
Isley, S. L., O'Neil, R., Clatfelter, D., & Parke, R. D. (1999). Parent and child expressed affect and children's social competence: Modeling direct and indirect pathways. Developmental Psychology, 35, 547560.
Isley, S. L., O'Neil, R., & Parke, R. D. (1996). The relation of parental affect and control behaviors to children's classroom acceptance: A concurrent and predictive analysis. Early Education and Development, 7, 723.
Jabbi, M., Kema, I. P., van der Pompe, G., te Meerman, G. J., Ormel, J., & den Boer, J. A. (2007). Catechol-o-methyltransferase polymorphism and susceptibility to major depressive disorder modulates psychological stress response. Psychiatric Genetics, 17, 183187.
Jaffee, S. R., & Price, T. S. (2007). Gene–environment correlations: A review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, 12, 432442.
John, O. P., Naumann, L. P., & Soto, C. J. (2008). Paradigm shift to the integrative Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and conceptual issues. In John, O. P., Robins, R. W., & Pervin, L. A. (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 114158). New York: Guilford Press.
John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In Pervin, L. A. & John, O. P. (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (2nd ed., pp. 102138). New York: Guilford Press.
Kaitz, M., Shalev, I., Sapir, N., Devor, N., Samet, Y., Mankuta, D., et al. (2010). Mothers' dopamine receptor polymorphism modulates the relation between infant fussiness and sensitive parenting. Developmental Psychobiology, 52, 149157.
Karreman, A., van Tuijl, C., van Aken, M. A. G., & Deković, M. (2008). Parenting, coparenting, and effortful control in preschoolers. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 3040.
Kazdin, A. E. (2003). Psychotherapy for children and adolescents. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 253276.
Kazdin, A. E. (2005). Parent management training: Treatment for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kim Park, I. J., Garber, J., Ciesla, J. A., & Ellis, B. J. (2008). Convergence among multiple methods of measuring positivity in the family environment: Relation to depression in mothers and their children. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 123134.
Kochanska, G., Clark, L. A., & Goldman, M. S. (1997). Implication for mothers' personality for their parenting and their young children's developmental outcomes. Journal of Personality, 65, 387420.
Kochanska, G., Friesenborg, A. E., Lange, L. A., & Martel, M. M. (2004). Parents' personality and infants' temperament as contributors to their emerging relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 744759.
Koenig, J. L., Barry, R. A., & Kochanska, G. (2010). Rearing difficult children: Parents' personality and children's proneness to anger as predictors of future parenting. Parenting: Science and Practice, 10, 258273.
Larson, R. W., Richards, M. H., Moneta, G., Holmbeck, G., & Duckett, E. (1996). Changes in adolescents' daily interactions with their families from ages 10 to 18: Disengagement and transformation. Developmental Psychology, 32, 744754.
Latzman, R. D., Elkovitch, N., & Clark, L. A. (2009). Predicting parenting practices from maternal and adolescent sons' personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 847855.
Laursen, B., & Williams, V. A. (1997). Perceptions of interdependence and closeness in family and peer relationships among adolescents with and without romantic partners. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 78, 320.
Lee, S. S., Chronis-Tuscano, A., Keenan, K., Pelham, W. E., Loney, J., Van Hulle, C. A., et al. (2010). Association of maternal dopamine transporter genotype with negative parenting: Evidence for gene x environment interaction with child disruptive behavior. Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 548558.
Leerkes, E. M., Blankson, A. N., & O'Brien, M. (2009). Differential effects of maternal sensitivity to distress and non-distress on social–emotional functioning. Child Development, 80, 762775.
Lengua, L. J. (2006). Growth in temperament and parenting as predictors of adjustment during children's transition to adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 42, 819832.
Lerner, R. M. (1982). Children and adolescents as producers of their own development. Developmental Review, 2, 342370.
Livak, K. J. (1999). Allelic discrimination using fluorogenic probes and the 5′ nuclease assay. Genetic Analysis: Biomolecular Engineering, 14, 143149.
Lucht, M., Barnow, S., Schroeder, W., Grabe, H., Finckh, U., John, U., et al. (2006). Negative perceived paternal parenting is associated with dopamine D2 receptor exon 8 and GABA(A) alpha 6 receptor variants. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 141, 167172.
Maccoby, E. (2000). Parenting and its effects on children: On reading and misreading behavior genetics. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 127.
Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In Mussen, P. H. (Series Ed.) & Hetherington, E. M. (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed., pp. 1101). New York: Wiley.
Maccoby, E. E., Snow, M. E., & Jacklin, C. N. (1984). Children's dispositions and mother–child interaction at 12 and 18 months: A short-term longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 20, 459472.
MacDonald, K. (1992). Warmth as a developmental construct: An evolutionary analysis. Child Development, 63, 753773.
Mannisto, P. T., & Kaakkola, S. (1999). Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT): Biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacology, and clinical efficacy of the new selective COMT inhibitors. Pharmocological Reviews, 51, 593628.
Masten, A. S., Roisman, G. I., Long, J. D., Burt, K. B., Obradovic, J., Riley, J. R., et al. (2005). Developmental cascades: Linking academic achievement and externalizing and internalizing symptoms over 20 years. Developmental Psychology, 41, 733746.
McCrae, R. R., & John, O. P. (1992). An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality, 60, 175215.
Melnick, S. M., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2000). Emotion regulation and parenting in AD/HD and comparison boys: Linkages with social behaviors and peer preference. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 7386.
Meyer-Lindenberg, A., & Weinberger, D. R. (2006). Intermediate phenotypes and genetic mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 818827.
Mier, D., Kirsch, P., & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2010). Neural substrates of pleiotropic action of genetic variation in COMT: A meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 918927.
Mills-Koonce, W. R., Propper, C. B., Gariepy, J. L., Blair, C., Garrett-Peters, P., & Cox, M. J. (2007). Bidirectional genetic and environmental influences on mother and child behavior: The family system as the unit of analyses. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 10731087.
Montag, C., Buckholtz, J. W., Hartmann, P., Merz, M., Burk, C., Hennig, J., et al. (2008). COMT genetic variation affects fear processing: Psychophysiological evidence. Behavioral Neuroscience, 122, 901909.
Narusyte, J., Neiderhiser, J. M., D'Onofrio, B. M., Reiss, D., Spotts, E. L., Ganiban, J., et al. (2008). Testing different types of gene–environment correlation: An extended children-of-twins model. Developmental Psychology, 44, 15911603.
Neiderhiser, J. M., Reiss, D., Lichtenstein, P., Spotts, E. L., & Ganiban, J. (2007). Father–adolescent relationships and the role of genotype–environment correlation. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 560571.
Neiderhiser, J. M., Reiss, D., Pedersen, N. L., Lichtenstein, P., Spotts, E. L., Hansson, K., et al. (2004). Genetic and environmental influences on mothering of adolescents: A comparison of two samples. Developmental Psychology, 40, 335351.
Nestler, E. J., & Carlezon, W. A. (2006). The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 11511159.
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (1999). Child care and mother–child interaction in the first three years of life. Developmental Psychology, 35, 13991413.
Olsson, C. A., Anney, R. J. L., Lotfi-Miri, M., Byrnes, G. B., Williamson, R., & Patton, G. C. (2005). Association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and propensity to anxiety in an Australian population-based longitudinal study of adolescent health. Psychiatric Genetics, 15, 109115.
Olsson, C. A., Byrnes, G. B., Anney, R. J. L, Collins, V., Hemphill, S. A., Williamson, R., et al. (2007). COMT val158met and 5HTTLPR functional loci interact to predict persistence of anxiety across adolescence: Results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 6, 647652.
Owens, E. B., Shaw, D. S., & Vondra, J. I. (1998). Relations between infant irritability and maternal responsiveness in low-income families. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 761777.
Patterson, G. R., Forgatch, M. S., Yoerger, K. L., & Stoolmiller, M. (1998). Variables that initiate and maintain an early onset trajectory for juvenile offending. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 531547.
Plomin, R., & Bergeman, C. S. (1991). The nature of nurture: Genetic influence on “environmental” measures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 373386.
Plomin, R., & Daniels, D. (1987). Why are children in the same family so different from one another? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 160.
Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., & Loehlin, J. C. (1977). Genotype–environment interaction and correlation in the analysis of human behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 309322.
Prinzie, P., Dekovic, M., van den Akker, A. L, de Haan, A. D., Stoltz, S. E. M. J., & Hendriks, A. A. J. (2011). Fathers' personality and its interaction with children's personality as predictors of perceived parenting behavior six years later. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 183189.
Prinzie, P., Stams, G. J. M., Dekovic, M., Reijnjes, A. H. A., & Belsky, J. (2009). The relation between parents' big five personality factors and parenting: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 351362.
Propper, C., Moore, G. A., Mills-Koonce, W. R., Halpern, C. T., Hill-Soderland, A., Calkins, S. D., et al. (2008). Gene–environment contributions to the development of infant bagal reactivity: The interaction of dopamine and maternal sensitivity. Child Development, 79, 13771394.
Rasch, B., Spalek, K., Buholzer, S., Luechinger, R., Boesiger, P., de Quervain, D. J. F., et al. (2010). Aversive stimuli lead to differential amygdala activation and connectivity patterns depending on catechol-o-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype. NeuroImage, 52, 17121719.
Roberts, W., & Strayer, J. (1987). Parents' responses to the emotional distress of their children: Relations with children's competence. Developmental Psychology, 23, 415422.
Robins, R. W., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2002). It's not just who you're with, it's who you are: Personality and relationship experiences across multiple relationships. Journal of Personality, 70, 925964.
Rohner, R. P. (1976). They love me, they love me not: A worldwide study of the effects of parental acceptance and rejection. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Rothbaum, F., & Weisz, J. R. (1994). Parental caregiving and child externalizing behavior in nonclinical samples: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 5574.
Rutter, M., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2006). Gene–environment interplay and psychopathology: Multiple varieties but real effects. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 226251.
Sameroff, A. (1983). Developmental systems: Context and evolution. In Kessin, W. (Ed.), Handbook of child Psychology: History, theories, and methods (pp. 327394). New York: Wiley.
Savitz, J., Solms, M., & Ramesar, R. (2006). The molecular genetics of cognition: Dopamine, COMT, and BDNF. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 6, 311328.
Scarr, S., & McCartney, K. (1983). How people make their own environments: A theory of genotype–environment effects. Child Development, 54, 424435.
Sheeber, L., Hops, H., Alpert, A., Davis, B., & Andrews, J. (1997). Family support and conflict: Prospective relations to adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 333344.
Skinner, E., Johnson, S., & Snyder, T. (2005). Six dimensions of parenting: A motivational model. Parenting: Science and Practice, 5, 175235.
Smith, C. L., Spinrad, T. L., Eisenberg, N., Gaertner, B. M., Popp, T. K., & Maxon, E. (2007). Maternal personality: Longitudinal associations to parenting behavior and maternal emotional expressions toward toddlers. Parenting: Science and Practice, 7, 305329.
Stams, G. J. M., Juffer, F., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2002). Maternal sensitivity, infant attachment, and temperament in early childhood predict adjustment in middle childhood: The case of adopted children and their biologically unrelated parents. Developmental Psychology, 38, 806821.
Stein, M. B., Fallin, M. D., Schork, N. J., & Gelernter, J. (2005). COMT polymorphisms and anxiety-related personality traits. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30, 20922102.
Steinberg, L. (2001). We know some things: Parent–adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 119.
Steinberg, L., Elmen, J. D., & Mounts, N. S. (1989). Authoritative parenting, psychosocial maturity, and academic success among adolescents. Child Development, 60, 14241436.
Thase, M. E. (2009). Neurobiological aspects of depression. In Gotlib, I. H. & Hammen, C. L. (Eds.), Handbook of depression (2nd ed., pp. 187217). New York: Guilford Press.
Tunbridge, E. M., Harrison, P. J., & Weinberger, D. R. (2006). Catechol-o-methyltransferase, cognition, and psychosis: Val158Met and beyond. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 141151.
von Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General systems theory. New York: Braziller.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Harkness, A. R. (1994). Structures of personality and their relevance to psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 1831.
Watson, D., & Hubbard, B. (1996). Adaptational style and dispositional structure: Coping in the context of the five-factor model. Journal of Personality, 64, 737774.
Williams, L. M., Gatt, J. M., Grieve, S. M., Dobson-Stone, C., Paul, R. H., Gordon, E., et al. (2010). COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism effects on emotional brain function and negativity bias. NeuroImage, 53, 918925.
Wilson, S., & Durbin, C. E. (in press). Dyadic parent–child interaction during early childhood: Contributions of parental and child personality traits. Journal of Personality.
Wood, J. J., McLeod, B. D., Sigman, M., Hwang, W., & Chu, B. C. (2003). Parenting and childhood anxiety: Theory, empirical findings, and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 134151.
Zuckerman, M., Kuhlman, D. M., Joireman, J., Teta, P., & Kraft, M. (1993). A comparison of three structural models for personality: The big three, the big five, and the alternative five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 757768.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed