Skip to main content Accessibility help

Informant-specific reports of peer and teacher relationships buffer the effects of harsh parenting on children's oppositional defiant disorder during kindergarten

  • Danielle S. Roubinov (a1), W. Thomas Boyce (a1) and Nicole R. Bush (a1)


Harsh and restrictive parenting are well-established contributors to the development of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) among children. However, few studies have explored whether interpersonal relationships that develop outside the family environment attenuate the risk for ODD that is associated with harsh parenting. The current study tested multireporter measures of teacher–child closeness and peer acceptance as moderators of the association between harsh parenting and children's ODD as children's social worlds widen during the kindergarten year (N = 338 children, 48% girls, M age = 5.32 years). Harsh parenting interacted with peer nominations of peer acceptance and children's report of teacher–child closeness to predict children's ODD symptoms in the spring, adjusting for fall symptoms. Children exposed to harsh parenting exhibited greater symptom increases when they were less liked/accepted playmates and in the context of lower teacher–child closeness. However, harsh parenting was not associated with symptom change among children with higher levels of peer-nominated acceptance and those who reported closer relationships with teachers. There were no significant interactions using teacher's report of peer acceptance or teacher's report of teacher–child closeness. Findings highlight positive peer and teacher relationships as promising targets of intervention among children exposed to harsh parenting and support the importance of assessing multiple perspectives of children's social functioning.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Informant-specific reports of peer and teacher relationships buffer the effects of harsh parenting on children's oppositional defiant disorder during kindergarten
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Informant-specific reports of peer and teacher relationships buffer the effects of harsh parenting on children's oppositional defiant disorder during kindergarten
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Informant-specific reports of peer and teacher relationships buffer the effects of harsh parenting on children's oppositional defiant disorder during kindergarten
      Available formats


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Danielle S. Roubinov, University of California, San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry, 3333 California Avenue, Suite 465, San Francisco, CA 94118; E-mail:


Hide All
Ablow, J., & Measelle, J. (2003). Manual for the Berkeley Puppet Interview: Symptomatology, social, and academic modules. Pittsburgh, PA: MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Psychopathology and Development.
Adler, N., Bush, N. R., & Pantell, M. S. (2012). Rigor, vigor, and the study of health disparities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(Suppl. 2), 1715417159. doi:10.1073/pnas.1121399109
Aebi, M., Plattner, B., Metzke, C. W., Bessler, C., & Steinhausen, H. C. (2013). Parent and self-reported dimensions of oppositionality in youth: Construct validity, concurrent validity, and the prediction of criminal outcomes in adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 941949. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12039
Aiken, L. S., West, S. G., & Reno, R. R. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Alink, L. R., Mesman, J., Van Zeijl, J., Stolk, M. N., Juffer, F., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., … Koot, H. M. (2009). Maternal sensitivity moderates the relation between negative discipline and aggression in early childhood. Social Development, 18, 99120. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00478.x
Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (1996). The relative diagnostic utility of child and parent reports of oppositional defiant behaviors. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 6, 253259. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1234-988X(199612)6:4<253::AID-MPR170>3.3.CO;2-O
Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 4388.
Berg, Y. H., Lansu, T. A., & Cillessen, A. H. (2015). Measuring social status and social behavior with peer and teacher nomination methods. Social Development, 24, 815832. doi:10.1111/sode.12120
Bierman, K. (2002). Evaluation of the first 3 years of the Fast Track prevention trial with children at high risk for adolescent conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 1935. doi:10.1023/A:1014274914287
Bierman, K. L., Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., Foster, E. M., Greenberg, M. T., Lochman, J. E., … Pinderhughes, E. E. (2004). The effects of the Fast Track program on serious problem outcomes at the end of elementary school. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 650661. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3304_1
Blake, J. J., Kim, E. S., & Lease, A. M. (2011). Exploring the incremental validity of nonverbal social aggression: The utility of peer nominations. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 57, 293318. doi:10.1353/mpq.2011.0015
Block, J. H. (1965). The child-rearing practices report: A technique for evaluating parental socialization orientations. Unpublished manuscript, University of California, Berkeley, Institute of Human Development.
Bolger, K. E., Patterson, C. J., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (1998). Peer relationships and self-esteem among children who have been maltreated. Child Development, 69, 11711197. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06166.x
Bornstein, M. H., Hahn, C.-S., & Haynes, O. M. (2010). Social competence, externalizing, and internalizing behavioral adjustment from early childhood through early adolescence: Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 717735. doi:10.1017/S0954579410000416
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). Contexts of child rearing: Problems and prospects. American Psychologist, 34, 844850. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.844
Bukowski, W. M., Cillessen, A., & Velasquez, A. (2012). Peer ratings. In Brett, T. D. L., Larsen, P., & Card, N. A. (Eds.), Handbook of developmental research methods (pp. 211228). New York: Guilford Press.
Bukowski, W. M., & Hoza, B. (1989). Popularity and friendship: Issues in theory, measurement, and outcome. In Berndt, T. J. & Ladd, G. W. (Eds.), Peer relationships in child development (pp. 1545). New York: Wiley.
Burke, J. D., Loeber, R., & Birmaher, B. (2002). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: A review of the past 10 years, part II. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 12751293. doi:10.1097/00004583-200211000-00009
Burke, J. D., Rowe, R., & Boylan, K. (2014). Functional outcomes of child and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in young adult men. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 264272. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12150
Bush, N. R., Obradović, J., Adler, N., & Boyce, W. T. (2011). Kindergarten stressors and cumulative adrenocortical activation: The “first straws” of allostatic load? Development and Psychopathology, 23, 10891106. doi:10.1017/S0954579411000514
Cicchetti, D. (1993). Developmental psychopathology: Reactions, reflections, projections. Developmental Review, 13, 471502. doi:10.1006/drev.1993.1021
Cicchetti, D., & Curtis, W. J. (2007). Multilevel perspectives on pathways to resilient functioning. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 627. doi:10.1017/S0954579407000314
Cillessen, A. H. N., & Marks, P. E. L. (2011). Conceptualizing and measuring popularity. In illeseen, A. H. N., Schwartz, D., & Mayeux, L. (Eds.), Popularity in the peer system (pp. 2556). New York: Guilford Press.
Costello, E. J. (2007). Psychiatric predictors of adolescent and young adult drug use and abuse. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 88, S1S3. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.12.007
Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.74
Criss, M. M., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Lapp, A. L. (2002). Family adversity, positive peer relationships, and children's externalizing behavior: A longitudinal perspective on risk and resilience. Child Development, 73, 12201237. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00468
Deater-Deckard, K. (2001). Annotation: Recent research examining the role of peer relationships in the development of psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 565579. doi:10.1017/S0021963001007272.
Deković, M., Janssens, J. M., & Gerris, J. R. (1991). Factor structure and construct validity of the Block Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR). Psychological Assessment, 3, 182. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.3.2.182
Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (2016). The development and ecology of antisocial behavior: Linking etiology, prevention, and treatment. In Cicchetti, D. (Ed.), Developmental psychopathology, risk, resilience, and intervention (Vol. 3, pp. 647678). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Dishion, T. J., & Tipsord, J. M. (2011). Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 189214. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100412
Egger, H. L., & Angold, A. (2006). Common emotional and behavioral disorders in preschool children: Presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 313337. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01618.x
Eisenberg, N., Zhou, Q., Spinrad, T. L., Valiente, C., Fabes, R. A., & Liew, J. (2005). Relations among positive parenting, children's effortful control, and externalizing problems: A three-wave longitudinal study. Child Development, 76, 10551071. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00897.x
Erath, S. A., El-Sheikh, M., Hinnant, J. B., & Cummings, E. M. (2011). Skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between harsh parenting and growth in child externalizing behavior. Developmental Psychology, 47, 693. doi:10.1037/a0021909
Essex, M. J., Boyce, W. T., Goldstein, L. H., Armstrong, J. M., Kraemer, H. C., Kupfer, D. J., & MacArthur Assessment Battery Working Group. (2002). The confluence of mental, physical, social, and academic difficulties in middle childhood: II. Developing the Macarthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 588603. doi:10.1097/00004583-200205000-00017
Gallup. (2014). State of American Schools. Retrieved from
Gauze, C., Bukowski, W. M., Aquan-Assee, J., & Sippola, L. K. (1996). Interactions between family environment and friendship and associations with self-perceived well-being during early adolescence. Child Development, 67, 22012216. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01852.x
Gershoff, E. T. (2002). Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 539. doi:10.1037//0033-2909.128.4.539
Gifford-Smith, M. E., & Brownell, C. A. (2003). Childhood peer relationships: Social acceptance, friendships, and peer networks. Journal of School Psychology, 41, 235284. doi:10.1016/S0022-4405(03)00048-7
Greenberg, M. T., Brown, J. L., & Abenavoli, R. M. (2016). Teacher stress and health effects on teachers, students, and schools. College Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, Edna Bennett Pierce Prevention Research Center.
Gruenenfelder-Steiger, A. E., Harris, M. A., & Fend, H. A. (2016). Subjective and objective peer approval evaluations and self-esteem development: A test of reciprocal, prospective, and long-term effects. Developmental Psychology, 52, 1563.
Hagan, M. J., Roubinov, D. S., Adler, N. E., Boyce, W. T., & Bush, N. R. (2016). Socioeconomic adversity, negativity in the parent child-relationship, and physiological reactivity: An examination of pathways and interactive processes affecting young children's physical health. Psychosomatic Medicine, 78, 9981007. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000379
Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early teacher–child relationships and the trajectory of children's school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development, 72, 625638. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00301
Hamre, B. K., Pianta, R. C., Downer, J. T., & Mashburn, A. J. (2008). Teachers' perceptions of conflict with young students: Looking beyond problem behaviors. Social Development, 17, 115136. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00418.x
Harrison, L. J., Clarke, L., & Ungerer, J. A. (2007). Children's drawings provide a new perspective on teacher–child relationship quality and school adjustment. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22, 5571. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2006.10.003
Hinshaw, S. P., & Anderson, C. (1996). Conduct and oppositional defiant disorders. In Mash, E. & Barkley, R. (Eds.), Child psychopathology (pp. 113149). New York: Guilford Press.
Hinshaw, S. P., & Lee, S. S. (2003). Conduct and oppositional defiant disorders. In Mash, E. & Barkley, R. (Eds.), Child psychopathology (pp. 144198). New York: Guilford Press.
Hirschfield, P. J., & Gasper, J. (2011). The relationship between school engagement and delinquency in late childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 322. doi:10.007/s10964-010-9579-5
Holmes, C. J., Kim-Spoon, J., & Deater-Deckard, K. (2016). Linking executive function and peer problems from early childhood through middle adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 3142. doi:10.1007/s10802-015-0044-5
Jerome, E. M., Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2009). Teacher–child relationships from kindergarten to sixth grade: Early childhood predictors of teacher-perceived conflict and closeness. Social Development, 18, 915945. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00508.x
Kagan, J. (2009). Two is better than one. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 2223. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01092.x
Kiuru, N., Laursen, B., Aunola, K., Zhang, X., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Leskinen, E., … Nurmi, J.-E. (2016). Positive teacher affect and maternal support facilitate adjustment after the transition to first grade. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 62, 158178.
Konold, T. R., Jamison, K. R., Stanton-Chapman, T. L., & Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. (2010). Relationships among informant based measures of social skills and student achievement: A longitudinal examination of differential effects by sex. Applied Developmental Science, 14, 1834. doi:10.1080/10888690903510307
Kraemer, H. C., Measelle, J. R., Ablow, J. C., Essex, M. J., Boyce, W. T., & Kupfer, D. J. (2003). A new approach to integrating data from multiple informants in psychiatric assessment and research: Mixing and matching contexts and perspectives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 15661577. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.9.1566
Ladd, G. W. (1990). Having friends, keeping friends, making friends, and being liked by peers in the classroom: Predictors of children's early school adjustment? Child Development, 61, 10811100. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1990.tb02843.x
Ladd, G. W., & Kochenderfer-Ladd, B. (2002). Identifying victims of peer aggression from early to middle childhood: Analysis of cross-informant data for concordance, estimation of relational adjustment, prevalence of victimization, and characteristics of identified victims. Psychological Assessment, 14, 74. doi:10.1037//1040-3590.14.1.74
Ladd, G. W., Kochenderfer, B. J., & Coleman, C. C. (1997). Classroom peer acceptance, friendship, and victimization: Distinct relation systems that contribute uniquely to children's school adjustment? Child Development, 68, 11811197. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1997.tb01993.x
Ladd, G. W., & Price, J. M. (1987). Predicting children's social and school adjustment following the transition from preschool to kindergarten. Child Development, 58, 11681189. doi:10.2307/1130613
Ladd, G. W., Price, J. M., & Hart, C. H. (1990). Preschoolers’ behavioral orientations and patterns of peer contact: Predictive of social status? In Asher, S. R. & Coie, J. D. (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 90115). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Laursen, B., Little, T. D., & Card, N. A. (2012). Handbook of developmental research methods. New York: Guilford Press.
Lavigne, J. V., LeBailly, S. A., Hopkins, J., Gouze, K. R., & Binns, H. J. (2009). The prevalence of ADHD, ODD, depression, and anxiety in a community sample of 4-year-olds. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38, 315328. doi:10.1080/15374410902851382
Lee, V. E. (2000). Using hierarchical linear modeling to study social contexts: The case of school effects. Educational Psychologist, 35, 125141. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3502_6
Leve, L. D., & Cicchetti, D. (2016). Longitudinal transactional models of development and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 28, 621622. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000201
Loeber, R., Burke, J., & Pardini, D. A. (2009). Perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and psychopathic features. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 133142. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02011.x
Luby, J. L., Heffelfinger, A., Measelle, J. R., Ablow, J. C., Essex, M. J., Dierker, L., … Kupfer, D. J. (2002). Differential performance of the MacArthur HBQ and DISC-IV in identifying DSM-IV internalizing psychopathology in young children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 458466. doi:10.1097/00004583-200204000-00019
Lynch, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Children's relationships with adults and peers: An examination of elementary and junior high school students. Journal of School Psychology, 35, 8199. doi:10.1016/S0022-4405(96)00031-3
Marks, P. E. L., Babcok, B., Cillessen, A. H. N., & Crick, N. R. (2013). The effects of participation rate on the internal reliability of peer nomination measures. Social Development, 22, 609622. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2012.00661.x
Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2016). Resilience in development: Progress and transformation. In Cicchetti, D. (Ed.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 4. Risk, resilience, and intervention (3rd ed., pp. 271333). New York: Wiley.
Meehan, B. T., Hughes, J. N., & Cavell, T. A. (2003). Teacher–student relationships as compensatory resources for aggressive children. Child Development, 74, 11451157. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00598
Miller-Lewis, L. R., Sawyer, A. C., Searle, A. K., Mittinty, M. N., Sawyer, M. G., & Lynch, J. W. (2014). Student-teacher relationship trajectories and mental health problems in young children. BMC Psychology, 2, 27. doi:10.1186/s40359-014-0027-2
Morrison, M. O., & Bratton, S. C. (2010). Preliminary investigation of an early mental health intervention for Head Start programs: Effects of child teacher relationship training on children's behavior problems. Psychology in the Schools, 47, 10031017. doi:10.1002/pits.20520
Nock, M. K., Kazdin, A. E., Hiripi, E., & Kessler, R. C. (2007). Lifetime prevalence, correlates, and persistence of oppositional defiant disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 703713. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01733.x
Obradović, J., Burt, K. B., & Masten, A. S. (2009). Testing a dual cascade model linking competence and symptoms over 20 years from childhood to adulthood. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39, 90102. doi:10.1080/15374410903401120
Obradovic, J., Bush, N. R., Stamperdahl, J., Adler, N. E., & Boyce, W. T. (2010). Biological sensitivity to context: The interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socioemotional behavior and school readiness. Child Development, 81, 270289. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01394.x
Ollendick, T. H., Greene, R. W., Austin, K. E., Fraire, M. G., Halldorsdottir, T., Allen, K. B., … Cunningham, N. R. (2016). Parent management training and collaborative and proactive solutions: A randomized control trial for oppositional youth. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 45, 591604. doi:10.1080/15374416.2015.1004681
Owens, J., & Hoza, B. (2003). Diagnostic utility of DSM-IV-TR symptoms in the prediction of DSM-IV-TR ADHD subtypes and ODD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 7, 1127. doi:10.1177/108705470300700102
Park, S., & Lake, E. T. (2005). Multilevel modeling of a clustered continuous outcome: Nurses' work hours and burnout. Nursing Research, 54, 406413. doi:10.1097/00006199-200511000-00007
Patterson, G. (1982). Coercive family process (Vol. 3). Eugene, OR: Castalia.
Patterson, G. R. (2002). The early development of coercive family process. In Reid, J., Patterson, G. R., & Snyder, J. (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (pp. 2544). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Perry, D. G., Kusel, S. J., & Perry, L. C. (1988). Victims of peer aggression. Developmental Psychology, 24, 807. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.24.6.807
Pianta, R. C. (1997). Adult–child relationship processes and early schooling. Early Education and Development, 8, 1126. doi:10.1207/s15566935eed0801_2
Pianta, R. C., Steinberg, M. S., & Rollins, K. B. (1995). The first two years of school: Teacher child relationships and deflections in children's classroom adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 295312. doi:10.1017/S0954579400006519
Pinderhughes, E. E., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & Zelli, A. (2000). Discipline responses: Influences of parents' socioeconomic status, ethnicity, beliefs about parenting, stress, and cognitive-emotional processes. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 380400. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.14.3.380
Portilla, X. A., Ballard, P. J., Adler, N. E., Boyce, W. T., & Obradović, J. (2014). An integrative view of school functioning: Transactions between self-regulation, school engagement, and teacher–child relationship quality. Child Development, 85, 19151931. doi:10.1111/cdev.12259
Poulin, F., & Chan, A. (2010). Friendship stability and change in childhood and adolescence. Developmental Review, 30, 257272. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2009.01.001
Reyno, S. M., & McGrath, P. J. (2006). Predictors of parent training efficacy for child externalizing behavior problems—A meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 99111. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01544.x
Rhodes, J. E., Grossman, J. B., & Resch, N. L. (2000). Agents of change: Pathways through which mentoring relationships influence adolescents' academic adjustment. Child Development, 71, 16621671. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00256
Rickel, A. U., & Biasatti, L. L. (1982). Modification of the Block Child Rearing Practices Report. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 129134. doi:10.1002/1097-4679(198201)38:1<129::AID-JCLP2270380120>3.0.CO;2-3
Romano, E., Tremblay, R. E., Boulerice, B., & Swisher, R. (2005). Multilevel correlates of childhood physical aggression and prosocial behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 565578. doi:10.1007/s10802-005-6738-3
Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher–student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81, 493529. doi:10.3102/0034654311421793
Roubinov, D. S., Hagan, M. J., Boyce, W. T., Adler, N. E., & Bush, N. R. (2018). Family socioeconomic status, cortisol, and physical health in early childhood: The role of advantageous neighborhood characteristics. Psychosomatic Medicine, 80, 492501. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000585
Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W. M., & Bowker, J. C. (2015). Children in peer groups. In Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (7th ed., pp. 175222). New York: Wiley.
Runions, K. C., Vitaro, F., Cross, D., Shaw, T., Hall, M., & Boivin, M. (2014). Teacher–child relationship, parenting, and growth in likelihood and severity of physical aggression in the early school years. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 60, 274–301.
Sabol, T. J., & Pianta, R. C. (2012). Recent trends in research on teacher–child relationships. Attachment & Human Development, 14, 213231. doi:10.1080/14616734.2012.672262
Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the stae of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147177. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.7.2.147
Sentse, M., & Laird, R. D. (2010). Parent–child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39, 873884. doi:10.1080/15374416.2010.517160
Sentse, M., Lindenberg, S., Omvlee, A., Ormel, J., & Veenstra, R. (2010). Rejection and acceptance across contexts: Parents and peers as risks and buffers for early adolescent psychopathology. The TRAILS study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 119130. doi:10.1007/s10802-009-9351-z
Seung Lam, M., & Pollard, A. (2006). A conceptual framework for understanding children as agents in the transition from home to kindergarten. Early Years, 26, 123141. doi:10.1080/09575140600759906
Silver, R. B., Measelle, J. R., Armstrong, J. M., & Essex, M. J. (2010). The impact of parents, child care providers, teachers, and peers on early externalizing trajectories. Journal of School Psychology, 48, 555583. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2010.08.003
Smith, J. D., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., Wilson, M. N., Winter, C. C., & Patterson, G. R. (2014). Coercive family process and early-onset conduct problems from age 2 to school entry. Development and Psychopathology, 26(4, Pt. 1), 917932. doi:10.1017/S0954579414000169
Speltz, M. L., McClellan, J., DeKlyen, M., & Jones, K. (1999). Preschool boys with oppositional defiant disorder: Clinical presentation and diagnostic change. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 838845. doi:10.1097/00004583-199907000-00013
Troop-Gordon, W., & Ladd, G. W. (2005). Trajectories of peer victimization and perceptions of the self and schoolmates: Precursors to internalizing and externalizing problems. Child Development, 76, 10721091. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00898.x
van Lier, P. A., & Koot, H. M. (2010). Developmental cascades of peer relations and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing problems from kindergarten to fourth-grade elementary school. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 569582. doi:10.1017/S0954579410000283
Verschueren, K., & Koomen, H. M. (2012). Teacher–child relationships from an attachment perspective. Attachment & Human Development, 14, 205211. doi:10.1080/14616734.2012.672260
Wang, M.-T., Brinkworth, M., & Eccles, J. (2013). Moderating effects of teacher–student relationship in adolescent trajectories of emotional and behavioral adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 49, 690705. doi:10.1037/a0027916
Wang, M. T., Selman, R. L., Dishion, T. J., & Stormshak, E. A. (2010). A tobit regression analysis of the covariation between middle school students' perceived school climate and behavioral problems. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20, 274286. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00648.x
Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Hammond, M. (2004). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: Intervention outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 105124. doi:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3301_11
White, K. M. (2016). “My teacher helps me”: Assessing teacher-child relationships from the child's perspective. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 30, 2941. doi:10.1080/02568543.2015.1105333
Whittinger, N. S., Langley, K., Fowler, T. A., Thomas, H. V., & Thapar, A. (2007). Clinical precursors of adolescent conduct disorder in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 179187. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000246066.00825.53



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed