American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Bagby, R. M., Ryder, A. G., Schuller, D. R., & Marshall, M. B. (2004). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale: Has the gold standard become a lead weight? American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 2163–2177.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2006). Gene–environment interaction of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) and observed maternal insensitivity predicting externalizing behavior in preschoolers. Developmental Psychobiology, 48, 406–409.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Pijlman, F. T., Mesman, J., & Juffer, F. (2008). Experimental evidence for differential susceptibility: Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) moderates intervention effects on toddlers' externalizing behavior in a randomized controlled trial. Developmental Psychology, 44, 293.
Banny, A., Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., Crick, N. R., & Oshri, A. (2013). Vulnerability to depression: A moderated mediation model of the roles of child maltreatment, peer victimization, and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genetic variation among children from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 599–614.
Bateman, B., & Fonagy, P. (1999). Effectiveness of partial hospitalization in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1563–1569.
Beach, S. R. H., Brody, G. H., Kogan, S. M., Philibert, R. A., Chen, Y.-F., & Lei, M.-K. (2009). Change in caregiver depression in response to parent training: Genetic moderation of intervention effects. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 112–117.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory—II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Belsky, J. (1997). Theory testing, effect-size evaluation, and differential susceptibility to rearing influence: The case of mothering and attachment. Child Development, 68, 598–600.
Belsky, J. (2005). Differential susceptibility to rearing influences: An evolutionary hypothesis and some evidence. In Ellis, B. & Bjorklund, D. (Eds.), Origins of the social mind: Evoluntionary pyschology and child development (pp. 139–163). New York: Guilford Press.
Belsky, J., Bakersman-Kranenburg, M. J., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2007). For better and for worse: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 300–304.
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 885–908.
Boyce, W. T., & Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary–developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271–301.
Bradley, R. G., Binder, E. B., Epstein, M. P., Tang, Y., Nair, H. P., Liu, W., et al. (2008). Influence of child abuse on adult depression: Moderation by the corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor gene. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 190–200.
Brody, G. H., Beach, S. R., Philibert, R. A., Chen, Y. F., & Murry, V. M. (2009). Prevention effects moderate the association of 5-HTTLPR and youth risk behavior initiation: Gene × Environment hypotheses tested via a randomized prevention design. Child Development, 80, 645–661.
Browne, A., & Bassuk, S. (1997). Intimate violence in the lives of homeless and poor housed women: Prevalence and patterns in an ethnically diverse sample. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6, 261–278.
Bukh, J. D., Bock, C., Vinberg, M., Werge, T., Gether, U., & Kessing, L. V. (2010). No interactions between genetic polymorphisms and stressful life events on outcome of antidepressant treatment. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 20, 327–335.
Caspi, A., Hariri, A. R., Holmes, A., Usher, R., & Moffitt, T. E. (2010). Genetic sensitivity to the environment: The case of the serotonin transporter gene and its implicatons for studying complex disease and traits. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 509–527.
Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, H. L., et al. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386–389.
Chrousos, G. P. (1998). Stressors, stress, and neuroendocrine integration of the adaptive response: The 1997 Hans Selye Memorial Lecture. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 851, 311–335.
Chapman, D. P., Whitfield, C. L., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Edwards, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82, 217–225.
Cicchetti, D. (2006). Development and psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Vol. 1, 2nd ed., pp. 1–23). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., & Dawson, G. (2002). Multiple levels of analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 417–420.
Cicchetti, D., & Gunnar, M. R. (2008). Integrating biological processes into the design and evaluation of preventive interventions. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 737–743.
Cicchetti, D., & Lynch, M. (1993). Toward an ecological/transactional model of community violence and child maltreatment: Consequences for children's development. Psychiatry, 56, 96–118.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2012). Gene by environment interaction and resilience: Effects of child maltreatment and serotonin, corticotropin releasing hormone, dopamine, and oxytocin genes. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 411–427.
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., Hecht, K. F., Crick, N. R., & Hetzel, S. (2014). Moderation of maltreatment effects on childhood borderline personality symptoms by gender and oxytocin receptor and FK506 binding protein 5 genes. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 831–849.
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Oshri, A. (2011). Interactive effects of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1, serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region, and child maltreatment on diurnal cortisol regulation and internalizing symptomatology. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 1125–1138.
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1995). Developmental psychopathology and disorders of affect. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (Vol. 2, pp. 369–420). New York: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1998). The development of depression in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 53, 221–241.
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2009). The past achievements and future promises of developmental psychopathology: The coming of age of a discipline. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 16–25.
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (in press). A multilevel perspective on child maltreatment. In Lamb, M. & Garcia Coll, C. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Vol. 3. Socioemotional process (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Marmelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396.
Danese, A. (2008). Genetic opportunites for psychiatric epidemiology: On life stress and depression. Epidemiologia e psichiatria sociale, 17, 201–210.
Davies, P. T., & Cicchetti, D. (2014). How and why does the 5-HTTLPR gene moderate associations between maternal unresponsiveness and children's problems? Child Development, 85, 484–500.
DeYoung, C., Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2011). Moderation of the association between childhood maltreatment and neurotocism by the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 gene. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 898–906.
Dozois, D. J. A., Dobson, K. S., & Ahnberg, J. L. (1998). A psychometric evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory—II. Psychological Assessment, 10, 83–89.
Duncan, L. E., & Keller, M. C. (2014). A critical review of the first 10 years of candidate gene-by-environment interaction research in psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 1041–1049.
Elkin, I., Shea, M. T., Watkins, J. T., Imber, S. D., Sotsky, S. M., Collins, J. F., et al. (1989). National Institute of Mental Health treatment of depression collaborative research program: General effectiveness of treatments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 971.
Ellis, B. J., Boyce, W. T., Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 7–28.
Excoffier, L., & Lischer, H. E. L. (2010). Arlequin suite ver 3.5: A new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows. Molecular Ecology Resources, 10, 564–567.
Falush, D., Stephens, M., & Pritchard, J. K. (2003). Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: Linked loci and correlated allele frequencies. Genetics, 164, 1567–1587.
Falush, D., Stephens, M., & Pritchard, J. K. (2007). Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: Dominant markers and null alleles. Molecular Ecology Notes, 7, 574–578.
Fonagy, P., Target, M., Cottrell, D., Phillips, J., & Kurtz, Z. (Eds.). (2002). What works for whom? A critical review of treatments for children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.
Gelernter, J., Kranzler, H., & Cubells, J. F. (1997). Serotonin transporter protein (SLC6A4) allele and haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibria in African- and European-American and Japanese populations and in alcohol-dependent subjects. Human Genetics, 101, 243–246.
Grote, N. K., Swartz, H. A., Geibel, S. L., Zuckoff, A., Houck, P. R., & Frank, E. (2009). A randomized controlled trial of culturally relevant, brief interpersonal psychotherapy for perinatal depression. Psychiatric Services, 60, 313–321.
Gunlicks-Stoessel, M., Mufson, L., Jekal, A., & Turner, B. (2010). The impact of perceived interpersonal functioning on treatment for adolescent depression: IPT-A versus treatment as usual in school-based health clinics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 260–267.
Gunnar, M. R., & Vazquez, D. (2006). Stress neurobiology and developmental psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 2. Developmental neuroscience (2nd ed., pp. 533–577). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Hariri, A., & Holmes, A. (2006). Genetics of emotional regulation: The role of the serotonin transporter in neural function. Trends in Cognitive Science, 10, 182–191.
Heim, C., & Binder, E. B. (2012). Current research trends in early life stress and depression: Review of human studies on sensitive periods, gene–environment interactions, and epigenetics. Experimental Neurology, 233, 102–111.
Hollon, S. D., & Ponniah, K. (2010). A review of empirically supported psychological therapies for mood disorders in adults. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 891–932.
Hornung, O., & Heim, C. (2014). Gene–environment interactions and intermediate phenotypes: Early trauma and depression. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 5, 14.
Hubisz, M. J., Falush, D., Stephens, M., & Pritchard, J. K. (2009). Inferring weak population structure with the assistance of sample group information. Molecular Ecology Resources, 9, 1322–1332.
Karg, K., Burmeister, M., Shedden, K., & Sen, S. (2011). The serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR), stress, and depression meta-analysis revisited: Evidence of genetic moderation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 444–454.
Keers, R., Uher, R., Huezo-Diaz, P., Smith, R., Jaffee, S., Rietschel, M., et al. (2011). Interaction between serotonin transporter gene variants and life events predicts response to antidepressants in the GENDEP project. Pharmacogenomics Journal, 11, 138–145.
Keller, M. C. (2014). Gene × Environment interaction studies have not properly controlled for potential confounders: The problem and the (simple) solution. Biological Psychiatry, 75, 18–24.
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P. A., Demler, O., Jin, R., Koretz, D., Merikangas, K. R., et al. (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 3095–3105.
Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 617–627.
Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Swartz, M. S., Blazer, D. G., & Nelson, C. B. (1993). Sex and depression in the National Comorbidity Survey: I. Lifetime prevalence, chronicity and recurrence. Journal of Affective Disorders, 29, 85–96.
Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–1060.
Krupnick, J. L., Green, B. L., Stockton, P., Miranda, J., Krause, E., & Mete, M. (2008). Group interpersonal psychotherapy for low-income women with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychotherapy Research, 18, 497–507.
Lai, C. Q., Tucker, K. L., Choudhry, S., Parnell, L. D., Mattei, J., García-Bailo, B., et al. (2009). Population admixture associated with disease prevalence in the Boston Puerto Rican health study. Human Genetics, 125, 199–209.
Laucht, M., Treutlein, J., Blomeyer, D., Buchmann, A. F., Schmid, B., Becker, K., et al. (2009). Interaction between the 5-HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism and environmental adversity for mood and anxiety psychopathology: Evidence from a high-risk community sample of young adults. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 12, 737–747.
Lenze, E. J., Dew, M. A., Mazumdar, S., Begley, A. E., Cornes, C., Miller, M. D., et al. (2002). Combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy as maintenance treatment for late-life depression: Effects on social adjustment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 466–468.
Lesch, K. P., Bengel, D., Heiles, A., Sabol, S. Z., Greenberg, S., Petri, S., et al. (1996). Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science, 274, 1527–1531.
Little, R. J. A., & Yau, L. (1998). Statistical techniques for analyzing data from prevention trials: Treatment of no-shows using Rubin's Causal Model. Psychological Methods, 3, 147–159.
Lupien, S. J., McEwen, B. S., Gunnar, M. R., & Heim, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behavior and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 434–445.
Mandelli, L., Marino, E., Pirovano, A., Calati, R., Zanardi, R., Colombo, C., et al. (2009). Interaction between SERTPR and stressful life events on response to antidepressant treatment. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 19, 64–67.
McGuffin, P., Katz, R., Watkins, S., & Rutherford, J. (1996). A hospital-based twin register of the heritability of DSM-IV unipolar depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 129.
Mitchell, A. M., Crane, P. A., & Kim, Y. (2008). Perceived stress in survivors of suicide: Psychometric properties of the perceived stress scale. Research in Nursing and Health, 31, 576–585.
Morris, D. W., Rush, A. J., Jain, S., Fava, M., Wisniewski, S. R., Balasubramani, G. K., et al. (2007). Diurnal mood variation in outpatients with major depressive disorder: Implications for DSM-V from an analysis of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression Study data. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68, 1339–1347.
Mufson, L., Moreau, D., Weissman, M., Wickramaratne, P., Martin, J., & Samilov, A. (1994). Modification of interpersonal psychotherapy with depressed adolescents (IPT-A): Phase I and II studies. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 695–705.
Mufson, L., Weissman, M., Moreau, D., & Garfinkel, R. (1999). Efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 573–579.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user's guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.
Odegerel, Z., Talati, A., Hamilton, S. P., Levinson, D. F., & Weissman, M. M. (2013). Genotyping serotonin transporter polymorphisms 5-HTTLPR and res25531 in European- and African American subjects from the National Institute of Mental Health's Collaborative Center for Genomic Studies. Translational Psychiatry, 3, e307.
Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2013). Vantage sensitivity: Individual differences in response to positive experiences. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 901–916.
Polanczyk, G., Caspi, A., Williams, B., Price, T. S., Danese, A., Sugden, K., et al. (2009). Protective effect of CRHR1 gene variants on the development of adult depression following childhood maltreatment: Replication and extension. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 978–985.
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401.
Regier, D. A., Herschfeld, R. M., Goodwin, F. K., Burke, J. D., Lazar, J. B., & Judd, L. L. (1988). The NIMH depression awareness, recognition, and treatment program: Structure, aims, and scientific basis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1351–1357.
Risch, N., Herrell, R., Lehner, T., Liang, K. Y., Eaves, L., Hoh, J., et al. (2009). Interaction between the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), stressful life events, and risk of depression: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301, 2462–2471.
Robins, L. N., Cottler, L., Bucholz, K., & Compton, W. (1995). Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM–IV. St. Louis, MO: Washington University Press.
Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Croughan, J., & Ratcliff, K.S. (1981). National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: Its history, characteristics, and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 381–389.
Robins, L. N., Helzer, J. E., Ratcliff, K. S., & Seyfried, W. (1982). Validity of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version II: DSM-III diagnoses. Psychological Medicine, 12, 855–870.
Rossello, J., & Bernal, G. (1999). The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal treatments for depression in Puerto Rican adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 734–745.
Sadeh, N., Javdani, S., Jackson, J. J., Reynolds, E. K., Potenza, M. N., Gelernter, J., et al. (2010). Serotonin transporter gene associations with psychopathic traits in youth vary as a function of socioeconomic resources. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 604–609.
Sanchez, M. M., Young, L. J., Plotsky, P. M., & Insel, T. R. (1999). Autoradiographic and in situ hybridization localization of corticotrophin-releasing factor 1 and 2 receptors in nonhuman primate brain. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 408, 365–377.
Segre, L. S., O'Hara, M. W., Arndt, S., & Stuart, S. (2007). The prevalence of postpartum depression. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42, 316–321.
Smedley, B. D., Stith, A. Y., & Nelson, A. R. (2002). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care (Institute of Medicine Report). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Spinelli, M. G., & Endicott, J. (2003). Controlled clinical trial of interpersonal psychotherapy versus parenting education program for depressed pregnant women. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 555–562.
Storch, E. A., Roberti, J. W., & Roth, D. A. (2004). Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the Beck Depression Inventory—Second Edition in a sample of college students. Depression and Anxiety, 19, 187–189.
Sullivan, P. F., Neale, M. C., & Kendler, K. S. (2000). Genetic epidemiology of major depression: Review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1552–1562.
Tofighi, D., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2011). R Mediation: An R package for mediation analysis confidence intervals. Behavior Research Methods, 43, 692–700.
Toth, S. L., Rogosch, F. A., Oshri, A., Gravener, J., Sturm, R., & Morgan-Lopez, A. (2013). The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for economically disadvantaged mothers. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 1065–1078.
Tyrka, A. R., Price, L. H., Gelernter, J., Schepker, C., Anderson, G. M., & Carpenter, L.L. (2009). Interaction of childhood maltreatment with the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene: Effects on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis reactivity. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 681–685.
Uher, R. (2011). Genes, environment, and individual differences in responding to treatment for depression. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 19, 109–124.
van IJzendoorn, M. H., Belsky, J., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2012). Serotonin transporter genotype 5HTTLPR as a marker of differential susceptibility? A meta-analysis of child and adolescent gene-by-environment studies. Translational Psychiatry, 2, e147.
Wang, P. S., Lane, M., Olfson, M., Pincus, H. A., Wells, K. B., & Kessler, R. C. (2005). Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 629–640.
Watson, D., & Clark, L. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 465–490.
Weiss, E. L., Longhurst, J. G., & Mazure, C. M. (1999). Childhood sexual abuse as a risk factor for depression in women: Psychosocial and neurobiological correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 816–828.
Weissman, M. M. (1999). Social Adjustment Scale—Self-Report (SAS-SR): User's manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.
Weissman, M. M., & Bothwell, S. (1976). Assessment of social adjustment by patient self-report. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 1111–1115.
Weissman, M. M., Markowitz, J. W., & Klerman, G. L. (2000). Comprehensive guide to interpersonal psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.
Whiffen, V. E., & Gotlib, I. H. (1993). Comparison of postpartum and nonpostpartum depression: Clinical presentation, psychiatric history, and psychosocial functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 485–494.
Williams, D. R., & Collins, C. (1995). U.S. socioeconomic and racial differences in health. Annual Review of Sociology, 21, 349–386.
Yaeger, R., Avila-Bront, A., Abdul, K., Nolan, P. C., Grann, V. R., Birchette, M. G., et al. (2008). Comparing genetic ancestry and self-described race in African Americans born in the United States and in African. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 17, 1329–1338.