Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Exposure to maternal pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms: Risk for major depression, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder in adolescent offspring

  • Cristie Glasheen (a1), Gale A. Richardson (a2), Kevin H. Kim (a3), Cynthia A. Larkby (a2), Holly A. Swartz (a2) and Nancy L. Day (a2)...

Abstract

This study evaluated whether exposure to maternal pre- or postnatal depression or anxiety symptoms predicted psychopathology in adolescent offspring. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms in 577 women of low socioeconomic status selected from a prenatal clinic. Logistic regression models indicated that maternal pre- and postnatal depression trajectory exposure was not associated with offspring major depression, anxiety, or conduct disorder, but exposure to the high depression trajectory was associated with lower anxiety symptoms in males. Exposure to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety was associated with the risk of conduct disorder among offspring. Male offspring exposed to medium and high pre- and postnatal anxiety had higher odds of conduct disorder than did males with low exposure levels. Females exposed to medium or high pre- and postnatal anxiety were less likely to meet conduct disorder criteria than were females with lower exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of pre- and postnatal anxiety trajectories on the risk of conduct disorder in offspring. These results suggest new directions for investigating the etiology of conduct disorder with a novel target for intervention.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Cristie Glasheen, RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709; E-mail: cglasheen@rti.org.

References

Hide All
Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1983). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington. VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Allen, N. B., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (1998). Prenatal and perinatal influences on risk for psychopathology in childhood and adolescence. Developmental Psychopathology, 10, 513529.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: Author.
Araya, R., Hu, X., Heron, J., Enoch, M. A., Evans, J., Lewis, G., et al. (2009). Effects of stressful life events, maternal depression and 5-HTTLPR genotype on emotional symptoms in pre-adolescent children. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 150B, 670682.
Austin, M. P. (2004). Antenatal screening and early intervention for “perinatal” distress, depression and anxiety: where to from here? Archives of Women's Mental Health, 7, 16.
Austin, M. P., Hadzi-Pavlovic, D., Leader, L., Saint, K., & Parker, G. (2005). Maternal trait anxiety, depression and life event stress in pregnancy: Relationships with infant temperament. Early Human Development, 81, 183190.
Austin, M. P., Leader, L. R., & Reilly, N. (2005). Prenatal stress, the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, and fetal and infant neurobehaviour. Early Human Development, 81, 917926.
Avan, B., Richter, L. M., Ramchandani, P. G., Norris, S. A., & Stein, A. (2010). Maternal postnatal depression and children's growth and behaviour during the early years of life: Exploring the interaction between physical and mental health. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 95, 690695.
Barker, E. D., Copeland, W., Maughan, B., Jaffee, S. R., & Uher, R. (2012). Relative impact of maternal depression and associated risk factors on offspring psychopathology. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200, 124129.
Barnett, B., Schaafsma, M. F., Guzman, A. M., & Parker, G. B. (1991). Maternal anxiety: A 5-year review of an intervention study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 423438.
Bauer, D. J., & Curran, P. J. (2003). Distributional assumptions of growth mixture models: Implications for overextraction of latent trajectory classes. Psychological Methods, 8, 338363.
Beck, C. T. (1998). The effects of postpartum depression on child development: A meta-analysis. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 12, 1220.
Beeghly, M., Weinberg, M. K., Olson, K. L., Kernan, H., Riley, J., & Tronick, E. Z. (2002). Stability and change in level of maternal depressive symptomatology during the first postpartum year. Journal of Affective Disorders, 71, 169180.
Berkman, L. F., & Syme, S. L. (1979). Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: A nine-year follow-up study of Alameda County residents. American Journal of Epidemiology, 109, 186204.
Boyd, J. H., Weissman, M. M., Thompson, W. D., & Myers, J. K. (1982). Screening for depression in a community sample: Understanding the discrepancies between depression symptom and diagnostic scales. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 11951200.
Boyer, P. (2000). Do anxiety and depression have a common pathophysiological mechanism? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplimental, 2429.
Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Gotlib, I. H. (1993). Psychopathology and early experience: A reappraisal of retrospective reports. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 8298.
Brown, L., & Wright, J. (2003). The relationship between attachment strategies and psychopathology in adolescence. Psychology & Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 76, 351367.
Buss, A. P. R. (1984). Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Chambers, J. A., Power, K. G., & Durham, R. C. (2004). The relationship between trait vulnerability and anxiety and depressive diagnoses at long-term follow-up of generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 18, 587607.
Chung, E. K., McCollum, K. F., Elo, I. T., Lee, H. J., & Culhane, J. F. (2004). Maternal depressive symptoms and infant health practices among low-income women. Pediatrics, 113, e523e529.
Coplan, R. J., O'Neil, K., & Arbeau, K. A. (2005). Maternal anxiety during and after pregnancy and infant temperament at three months of age. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 19, 199215.
Cornelius, M. D., Ryan, C. M., Day, N. L., Goldschmidt, L., & Willford, J. A. (2001). Prenatal tobacco effects on neuropsychological outcomes among preadolescents. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 22, 217225.
Dascalu, M., Compton, W. M., Horton, J. C., & Cottler, L. B. (2003). Validity of DIS-IV in diagnosing depression and other psychiatric disorders among substance users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 63, 37.
Davis, E., Snidman, N., Wadhwa, P., Glynn, L., Schetter, C., & Sandman, C. (2004). Prenatal maternal anxiety and depression predict negative behavioral reactivity in infancy. Infancy, 6, 319331.
Day, N. L., & Robles, N. (1989). Methodological issues in the measurement of substance use. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 562, 813.
Dennis, C. L., & Kingston, D. (2008). A systematic review of telephone support for women during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 37, 301314.
de Weerth, C., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2005). Physiological stress reactivity in human pregnancy—A review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 295312.
Dretzke, J., Frew, E., Davenport, C., Barlow, J., Stewart-Brown, S., Sandercock, J., et al. (2005). The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of parent training/education programmes for the treatment of conduct disorder, including oppositional defiant disorder, in children. Health Technology Assessment, 9, iii, ix–x, 1233.
Eme, R. F. (2007). Sex differences in child-onset, life-course-persistent conduct disorder: A review of biological influences. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 607627.
Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Thorpe, K. (1996). Changes in depression during and following pregnancy: ALSPAC Study Team Study of Pregnancy and Children. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 10, 279293.
Fergusson, D. M., Woodward, L. J., & Horwood, L. J. (2000). Risk factors and life processes associated with the onset of suicidal behaviour during adolescence and early adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 30, 2339.
Fumagalli, F., Molteni, R., Racagni, G., & Riva, M. A. (2007). Stress during development: Impact on neuroplasticity and relevance to psychopathology. Progress in Neurobiology, 81, 197217.
Gjerdingen, D. K., & Yawn, B. P. (2007). Postpartum depression screening: Importance, methods, barriers, and recommendations for practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 20, 280288.
Gordon, T. E. J., Cardone, I. A., Kim, J. J., Gordon, S. M., & Silver, R. K. (2006). Universal perinatal depression screening in an academic medical center. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 107, 342.
Grace, S. L., Evindar, A., & Stewart, D. E. (2003). The effect of postpartum depression on child cognitive development and behavior: A review and critical analysis of the literature. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 6, 263274.
Hay, D. F., Pawlby, S., Waters, C. S., Perra, O., & Sharp, D. (2010). Mothers' antenatal depression and their children's antisocial outcomes. Child Development, 81, 149165.
Hay, D. F., Pawlby, S., Waters, C. S., & Sharp, D. (2008). Antepartum and postpartum exposure to maternal depression: Different effects on different adolescent outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 10791088.
Heron, J., O'Connor, T. G., Evans, J., Golding, J., & Glover, V. (2004). The course of anxiety and depression through pregnancy and the postpartum in a community sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 80, 6573.
Hobel, C. J., Hyvarinen, M. A., Okada, D. M., & Oh, W. (1973). Prenatal and intrapartum high-risk screening: I. Prediction of the high-rish neonate. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 117, 19.
Holmes, S. E., Slaughter, J. R., & Kashani, J. (2001). Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development Child, 31, 183193.
Horton, J. C., Compton, W. M., & Cottler, L. B. (1998). Assessing psychiatric disorders among drug users: Reliability of the revised DIS-IV. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health.
Huizink, A. C., de Medina, P. G., Mulder, E. J., Visser, G. H., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2002). Psychological measures of prenatal stress as predictors of infant temperament. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 10781085.
Jareethum, R., Titapant, V., Chantra, T., Sommai, V., Chuenwattana, P., & Jirawan, C. (2008). Satisfaction of healthy pregnant women receiving short message service via mobile phone for prenatal support: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 91, 458463.
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593602.
Klein, D. N., Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., Seeley, J. R., & Olino, T. M. (2005). Psychopathology in the adolescent and young adult offspring of a community sample of mothers and fathers with major depression. Psychological Medicine, 35, 353365.
Kruijshaar, M. E., Barendregt, J., Vos, T., de Graaf, R., Spijker, J., & Andrews, G. (2005). Lifetime prevalence estimates of major depression: An indirect estimation method and a quantification of recall bias. European Journal of Epidemiology, 20, 103111.
Kuo, W. H., Wilson, T. E., Holman, S., Fuentes-Afflick, E., O'Sullivan, M. J., & Minkoff, H. (2004). Depressive symptoms in the immediate postpartum period among Hispanic women in three U.S. cities. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 6, 145153.
Kurtz Landy, C., Sword, W., & Ciliska, D. (2008). Urban women's socioeconomic status, health service needs and utilization in the four weeks after postpartum hospital discharge: Findings of a Canadian cross-sectional survey. BMC Health Services Research, 8, 203.
Lederman, R. P. (1995). Treatment strategies for anxiety, stress, and developmental conflict during reproduction. Behavioral Medicine, 21, 113122.
Lee, A. M., Lam, S. K., Sze Mun Lau, S. M., Chong, C. S., Chui, H. W., & Fong, D. Y. (2007). Prevalence, course, and risk factors for antenatal anxiety and depression. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 110, 11021112.
Leech, S. L., Larkby, C. A., Day, R., & Day, N. L. (2006). Predictors and correlates of high levels of depression and anxiety symptoms among children at age 10. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 223230.
Leigh, B., & Milgrom, J. (2008). Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress. BMC Psychiatry, 8, 24.
Littman, B., & Parmelee, A. H. Jr. (1978). Medical correlates of infant development. Pediatrics, 61, 470474.
Lo, Y. T., Mendell, N. R., & Rubin, D. B. (2001). Testing the number of components in a normal mixture. Biometrika, 88, 767778.
Loeber, R., Burke, J., & Pardini, D. A. (2009). Perspectives on oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and psychopathic features. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 133142.
Luoma, I., Tamminen, T., Kaukonen, P., Laippala, P., Puura, K., Salmelin, R., et al. (2001). Longitudinal study of maternal depressive symptoms and child well-being. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 13671374.
McCartney, K., Owen, M. T., Booth, C. L., Clarke-Stewart, A., & Vandell, D. L. (2004). Testing a maternal attachment model of behavior problems in early childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 765778.
McMahon, C. A., Barnett, B., Kowalenko, N. M., & Tennant, C. C. (2006). Maternal attachment state of mind moderates the impact of postnatal depression on infant attachment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 660669.
Mora, P. A., Bennett, I. M., Elo, I. T., Mathew, L., Coyne, J. C., & Culhane, J. F. (2009). Distinct trajectories of perinatal depressive symptomatology: Evidence from growth mixture modeling. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169, 2432.
Murali, V., & Oyebode, F. (2004). Poverty, social inequality and mental health. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 10, 216224.
Murray, L., Arteche, A., Fearon, P., Halligan, S., Goodyer, I., & Cooper, P. (2011). Maternal postnatal depression and the development of depression in offspring up to 16 years of age. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 460470.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2007). Mplus user's guide (5th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.
Najman, J. M., Andersen, M. J., Bor, W., O'Callaghan, M. J., & Williams, G. M. (2000). Postnatal depression-myth and reality: Maternal depression before and after the birth of a child. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35, 1927.
O'Connor, T. G., Heron, J., & Glover, V. (2002). Antenatal anxiety predicts child behavioral/emotional problems independently of postnatal depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 14701477.
O'Connor, T. G., Heron, J., Golding, J., Beveridge, M., & Glover, V. (2002). Maternal antenatal anxiety and children's behavioural/emotional problems at 4 years: Report from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 502508.
O'Connor, T. G., Heron, J., Golding, J., & Glover, V. (2003). Maternal antenatal anxiety and behavioural/emotional problems in children: A test of a programming hypothesis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 10251036.
Orr, S. T., Blazer, D. G., & James, S. A. (2006). Racial disparities in elevated prenatal depressive symptoms among black and white women in eastern north Carolina. Annals of Epidemiology, 16, 463468.
Orvaschel, H., Puig-Antich, J., Chambers, W., Tabrizi, M. A., & Johnson, R. (1982). Retrospective assessment of prepubertal major depression with the Kiddie-SADS-e. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 21, 392397.
Papousek, M., & von Hofacker, N. (1998). Persistent crying in early infancy: A non-trivial condition of risk for the developing mother–infant relationship. Child: Care, Health and Development, 24, 395424.
Pastor, D. L. (1981). The quality of mother–infant attachment and its relationship to toddlers' initial sociability with peers. Developmental Psychology, 17, 326335.
Pawlby, S., Hay, D. F., Sharp, D., Waters, C. S., & O'Keane, V. (2009). Antenatal depression predicts depression in adolescent offspring: Prospective longitudinal community-based study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 113, 236243.
Pawlby, S., Sharp, D., Hay, D., & O'Keane, V. (2008). Postnatal depression and child outcome at 11 years: The importance of accurate diagnosis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 107, 241245.
Pemberton, C. K., Neiderhiser, J. M., Leve, L. D., Natsuaki, M. N., Shaw, D. S., Reiss, D., et al. (2010). Influence of parental depressive symptoms on adopted toddler behaviors: An emerging developmental cascade of genetic and environmental effects. Devlopment and Psychopathology, 22, 803818.
Perren, S., von Wyl, A., Burgin, D., Simoni, H., & von Klitzing, K. (2005). Depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress across the transition to parenthood: Associations with parental psychopathology and child difficulty. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 26, 173183.
Pritchard, C. W. (1994). Depression and smoking in pregnancy in Scotland. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 48, 377382.
Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385401.
Ree, M. J. (2008). Distinguishing cognitive and somatic dimensions of state and trait anxiety: Development and validation of the State–Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (STICSA). Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36, 313332.
Reynolds, C., & Richmond, B. (1978). What I think and feel: A revised measure of children's manifest anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 271280.
Robins, L. N., Cottler, L. B., Bucholz, K. K., Compton, W. M., North, C. S., & Rourke, K. M. (2000). Diagnostic Interview Schedule for the DSM-IV (DIS-IV). St. Louis, MO: Washington University, School of Medicine.
Robles, N., & Day, N. L. (1990). Recall of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 51, 403407.
Romans, S. E., Walton, V. A., Herbison, G. P., & Mullen, P. E. (1992). Social networks and psychiatric morbidity in New Zealand women. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 26, 485492.
Sarkar, P., Bergman, K., Fisk, N. M., O'Connor, T. G., & Glover, V. (2007). Amniotic fluid testosterone: Relationship with cortisol and gestational age. Clinical Endocrinology, 67, 743747.
Sarkar, P., Bergman, K., O'Connor, T. G., & Glover, V. (2008). Maternal antenatal anxiety and amniotic fluid cortisol and testosterone: Possible implications for foetal programming. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 20, 489496.
Schindler, A., Thomasius, R., Sack, P. M., Gemeinhardt, B., & Kustner, U. (2007). Insecure family bases and adolescent drug abuse: A new approach to family patterns of attachment. Attachment & Human Development, 9, 111126.
Smith, M. V., Rosenheck, R. A., Cavaleri, M. A., Howell, H. B., Poschman, K., & Yonkers, K. A. (2004). Screening for and detection of depression, panic disorder, and PTSD in public-sector obstetric clinics. Psychiatric Services, 55, 407414.
Speilberger, C. D. (1979). Preliminary manual for the State–Trait Personality Inventory (STPI). Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.
Speilberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R., Lushene, R., Vagg, P., & Jacobs, G. (1983). Manual for the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory: STAI. San Diego, CA: Mindgarden.
SPSS. (2006). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows, version 15 [Computer software]. Chicago: SPSS Inc.
Stewart, A. L., Dean, M. L., Gregorich, S. E., Brawarsky, P., & Haas, J. S. (2007). Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and the health of pregnant women. Journal of Health Psychology, 12, 285300.
Stuart, S., Couser, G., Schilder, K., O'Hara, M. W., & Gorman, L. (1998). Postpartum anxiety and depression: Onset and comorbidity in a community sample. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 186, 420424.
Surkan, P. J., Peterson, K. E., Hughes, M. D., & Gottlieb, B. R. (2006). The role of social networks and support in postpartum women's depression: A multiethnic urban sample. Maternal Child Health Journal, 10, 375383.
Sutter-Dallay, A. L., Giaconne-Marcesche, V., Glatigny-Dallay, E., & Verdoux, H. (2004). Women with anxiety disorders during pregnancy are at increased risk of intense postnatal depressive symptoms: A prospective survey of the MATQUID cohort. European Psychiatry, 19, 459463.
Sutter-Dallay, A. L., Murray, L., Dequae-Merchadou, L., Glatigny-Dallay, E., Bourgeois, M. L., & Verdoux, H. (2010). A prospective longitudinal study of the impact of early postnatal vs. chronic maternal depressive symptoms on child development. European Psychiatry, 26, 484489.
Thomas, J. L., Jones, G. N., Scarinci, I. C., Mehan, D. J., & Brantley, P. J. (2001). The utility of the CES-D as a depression screening measure among low-income women attending primary care clinics: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 31, 2540.
Turner, P. J. (1991). Relations between attachment, gender, and behavior with peers in preschool. Child Development, 62, 14751488.
US Bureau of the Census. (1984). Money, income, and poverty status of families and persons in the United States: 1983 (advance data from the March 1984 Current Population Survey). Retrieved from http://www2.census.gov/prod2/popscan/p60-145.pdf
Van den Bergh, B. R., & Marcoen, A. (2004). High antenatal maternal anxiety is related to ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and anxiety in 8- and 9-year-olds. Child Development, 75, 10851097.
Verbeek, T., Bockting, C. L. H., van Pampus, M. G., Ormel, J., Meijer, J. L., Hartman, C. A., et al. (2011). Postpartum depression predicts offspring mental health problems in adolescence independently of parental lifetime psychopathology. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136, 948954.
Ward, A., Ramsay, R., Turnbull, S., Benedettini, M., & Treasure, J. (2000). Attachment patterns in eating disorders: Past in the present. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 28, 370376.
Ward, A., Ramsay, R., Turnbull, S., Steele, M., Steele, H., & Treasure, J. (2001). Attachment in anorexia nervosa: A transgenerational perspective. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 74, 497505.
Weissman, M. M., Gammon, G. D., John, K., Merikangas, K. R., Warner, V., Prusoff, B. A., et al. (1987). Children of depressed parents: Increased psychopathology and early onset of major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 847853.
Weissman, M. M., Leckman, J. F., Merikangas, K. R., Gammon, G. D., & Prusoff, B. A. (1984). Depression and anxiety disorders in parents and children: Results from the Yale Family Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 845.
West, M., & George, C. (2002). Attachment and dysthymia: The contributions of preoccupied attachment and agency of self to depression in women. Attachment & Human Development, 4, 278293.
Westen, D., Nakash, O., Thomas, C., & Bradley, R. (2006). Clinical assessment of attachment patterns and personality disorder in adolescents and adults. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 74, 10651085.
White, H. R., Nagin, D., Replogle, E., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2004). Racial differences in trajectories of cigarette use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 76, 219227.
Woolfenden, S. R., Williams, K., & Peat, J. (2001). Family and parenting interventions in children and adolescents with conduct disorder and delinquency aged 1017. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2, CD003015.
World Health Organization. (2001). World health report 2001. Mental health: New understanding, new hope. Geneva: Author.
Yoo, H. I., Kim, B. N., Shin, M. S., Cho, S. C., & Hong, K. E. (2006). Parental attachment and its impact on the development of psychiatric manifestations in school-aged children. Psychopathology, 39, 165174.
Zax, M., Sameroff, A. J., & Babigian, H. M. (1977). Birth outcomes in the offspring of mentally disordered women. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 47, 218230.

Exposure to maternal pre- and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms: Risk for major depression, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder in adolescent offspring

  • Cristie Glasheen (a1), Gale A. Richardson (a2), Kevin H. Kim (a3), Cynthia A. Larkby (a2), Holly A. Swartz (a2) and Nancy L. Day (a2)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed